Topical Collection "Feature Papers"

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A topical collection in Diagnostics (ISSN 2075-4418).

Editor

Collection Editor
Prof. Dr. Andreas Kjaer

Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine & PET National University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
E-Mail
Phone: +45 3545 4216
Fax: +45 3545 4015
Interests: molecular imaging; medical imaging; cancer; cardiovascular disease; PET; SPECT

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

This is a collection of top quality papers published free of charge in Open Access form by the editorial board members, or those invited by the editorial office and the Editor-in-Chief. The papers should be long research papers (or review papers) with full and detailed summary of the author's own work done so far.

Prof. Dr. Andreas Kjaer 
Collection Editor

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Manuscripts for the topical collection can be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on this website. The topical collection considers regular research articles, short communications and review articles. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections. For further details see here.

Keywords

  • advances in diagnostic methods/approaches
  • molecular diagnostics
  • biomarkers
  • diagnostic medical imaging
  • nuclear medicine
  • radiology
  • clinical decision support systems

Published Papers (16 papers)

2016

Jump to: 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012

Open AccessReview First- and Second-Line Targeted Systemic Therapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma—An Update on Patient Selection and Response Evaluation
Diagnostics 2016, 6(4), 44; doi:10.3390/diagnostics6040044
Received: 26 July 2016 / Revised: 22 November 2016 / Accepted: 23 November 2016 / Published: 28 November 2016
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Abstract
Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with vascular invasion and/or extrahepatic spread and preserved liver function, according to stage C of the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification, has a dismal prognosis. The multi-targeted tyrosine-kinase receptor inhibitor (TKI) sorafenib is the only proven active substance
[...] Read more.
Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with vascular invasion and/or extrahepatic spread and preserved liver function, according to stage C of the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification, has a dismal prognosis. The multi-targeted tyrosine-kinase receptor inhibitor (TKI) sorafenib is the only proven active substance in systemic HCC therapy for first-line treatment. In this review, we summarize current aspects in patient selection and management of side effects, and provide an update on response evaluation during first-line sorafenib therapy. Since second-line treatment options have been improved with the successful completion of the RESORCE trial, demonstrating a survival benefit for second-line treatment with the TKI regorafenib, response monitoring during first-line therapy will be critical to deliver optimal systemic therapy in HCC. To this regard, specific side effects, in particular worsening of arterial hypertension and diarrhea, might suggest treatment response during first-line sorafenib therapy; however, clear predictive clinical markers, as well as laboratory test or serum markers, are not established. Assessment of radiologic response according to the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST) is helpful to identify patients who do not benefit from sorafenib treatment. Full article
Open AccessArticle Interobserver and Intraobserver Reproducibility with Volume Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography (DCE-CT) in Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer
Diagnostics 2016, 6(1), 8; doi:10.3390/diagnostics6010008
Received: 10 December 2015 / Revised: 20 January 2016 / Accepted: 26 January 2016 / Published: 1 February 2016
PDF Full-text (1942 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to assess inter- and intra-observer reproducibility of three different analytic methods to evaluate quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) measures from gastroesophageal junctional cancer. Twenty-five DCE-CT studies with gastroesophageal junction cancer were selected from a previous longitudinal
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to assess inter- and intra-observer reproducibility of three different analytic methods to evaluate quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) measures from gastroesophageal junctional cancer. Twenty-five DCE-CT studies with gastroesophageal junction cancer were selected from a previous longitudinal study. Three radiologists independently reviewed all scans, and one repeated the analysis eight months later for intraobserver analysis. Review of the scans consisted of three analysis methods: (I) Four, fixed small sized regions of interest (2-dimensional (2D) fixed ROIs) placed in the tumor periphery, (II) 2-dimensional regions of interest (2D-ROI) along the tumor border in the tumor center, and (III) 3-dimensional volumes of interest (3D-VOI) containing the entire tumor volume. Arterial flow, blood volume and permeability (ktrans) were recorded for each observation. Inter- and intra-observer variability were assessed by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman statistics. Interobserver ICC was excellent for arterial flow (0.88), for blood volume (0.89) and for permeability (0.91) with 3D-VOI analysis. The 95% limits of agreement were narrower for 3D analysis compared to 2D analysis. Three-dimensional volume DCE-CT analysis of gastroesophageal junction cancer provides higher inter- and intra-observer reproducibility with narrower limits of agreement between readers compared to 2D analysis. Full article

2015

Jump to: 2016, 2014, 2013, 2012

Open AccessReview Ultrasonography of the Kidney: A Pictorial Review
Diagnostics 2016, 6(1), 2; doi:10.3390/diagnostics6010002
Received: 4 November 2015 / Revised: 12 December 2015 / Accepted: 17 December 2015 / Published: 23 December 2015
PDF Full-text (22792 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ultrasonography of the kidneys is essential in the diagnosis and management of kidney-related diseases. The kidneys are easily examined, and most pathological changes in the kidneys are distinguishable with ultrasound. In this pictorial review, the most common findings in renal ultrasound are highlighted.
[...] Read more.
Ultrasonography of the kidneys is essential in the diagnosis and management of kidney-related diseases. The kidneys are easily examined, and most pathological changes in the kidneys are distinguishable with ultrasound. In this pictorial review, the most common findings in renal ultrasound are highlighted. Full article
Figures

Open AccessCase Report Use of Molecular Imaging Markers of Glycolysis, Hypoxia and Proliferation (18F-FDG, 64Cu-ATSM and 18F-FLT) in a Dog with Fibrosarcoma: The Importance of Individualized Treatment Planning and Monitoring
Diagnostics 2015, 5(3), 372-382; doi:10.3390/diagnostics5030372
Received: 1 June 2015 / Revised: 27 August 2015 / Accepted: 3 September 2015 / Published: 11 September 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Glycolysis, hypoxia, and proliferation are important factors in the tumor microenvironment contributing to treatment-resistant aggressiveness. Imaging these factors using combined functional positron emission tomography and computed tomography can potentially guide diagnosis and management of cancer patients. A dog with fibrosarcoma was imaged using
[...] Read more.
Glycolysis, hypoxia, and proliferation are important factors in the tumor microenvironment contributing to treatment-resistant aggressiveness. Imaging these factors using combined functional positron emission tomography and computed tomography can potentially guide diagnosis and management of cancer patients. A dog with fibrosarcoma was imaged using 18F-FDG, 64Cu-ATSM, and 18F-FLT before, during, and after 10 fractions of 4.5 Gy radiotherapy. Uptake of all tracers decreased during treatment. Fluctuations in 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT PET uptakes and a heterogeneous spatial distribution of the three tracers were seen. Tracer distributions partially overlapped. It appears that each tracer provides distinct information about tumor heterogeneity and treatment response. Full article
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Open AccessReview Neuroendocrine Carcinomas of the Gastroenteropancreatic System: A Comprehensive Review
Diagnostics 2015, 5(2), 119-176; doi:10.3390/diagnostics5020119
Received: 24 February 2015 / Revised: 24 March 2015 / Accepted: 26 March 2015 / Published: 8 April 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (819 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
To date, empirical literature has generally been considered lacking in relation to neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs), the highly malignant subgroup of neuroendocrine neoplasms. NECs are often found in the lungs or the gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) system and can be of small or large cell type.
[...] Read more.
To date, empirical literature has generally been considered lacking in relation to neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs), the highly malignant subgroup of neuroendocrine neoplasms. NECs are often found in the lungs or the gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) system and can be of small or large cell type. Concentrating on GEP-NECs, we can conclude that survival times are poor, with a median of only 4–16 months depending on disease stage and primary site. Further, this aggressive disease appears to be on the rise, with incidence numbers increasing while survival times are stagnant. Treatment strategies concerning surgery are often undecided and second-line chemotherapy is not yet established. After an analysis of over 2600 articles, we can conclude that there is indeed more empirical literature concerning GEP-NECs available than previously assumed. This unique review is based on 333 selected articles and contains detailed information concerning all aspects of GEP-NECs. Namely, the classification, histology, genetic abnormalities, epidemiology, origin, biochemistry, imaging, treatment and survival of GEP-NECs are described. Also, organ-specific summaries with more detail in relation to disease presentation, diagnosis, treatment and survival are presented. Finally, key points are discussed with directions for future research priorities. Full article
Open AccessArticle Pharmacokinetic Analysis of 64Cu-ATSM Dynamic PET in Human Xenograft Tumors in Mice
Diagnostics 2015, 5(2), 96-112; doi:10.3390/diagnostics5020096
Received: 27 January 2015 / Revised: 5 March 2015 / Accepted: 9 March 2015 / Published: 27 March 2015
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility to perform voxel-wise kinetic modeling on datasets obtained from tumor-bearing mice that underwent dynamic PET scans with 64Cu-ATSM and extract useful physiological parameters. Methods: Tumor-bearing mice underwent 90-min dynamic PET scans with
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility to perform voxel-wise kinetic modeling on datasets obtained from tumor-bearing mice that underwent dynamic PET scans with 64Cu-ATSM and extract useful physiological parameters. Methods: Tumor-bearing mice underwent 90-min dynamic PET scans with 64Cu-ATSM and CT scans with contrast. Irreversible and reversible two-tissue compartment models were fitted to time activity curves (TACs) obtained from whole tumor volumes and compared using the Akaike information criterion (AIC). Based on voxel-wise pharmacokinetic analysis, parametric maps of model rate constants k1, k3 and Ki were generated and compared to 64Cu-ATSM uptake. Results: Based on the AIC, an irreversible two-tissue compartment model was selected for voxel-wise pharmacokinetic analysis. Of the extracted parameters, k1 (~perfusion) showed a strong correlation with early tracer uptake (mean spearman R = 0.88) 5 min post injection (pi). Moreover, positive relationships were found between late tracer uptake (90 min pi) and both k3 and the net influx rate constant, Ki (mean spearman R = 0.56 and R = 0.86; respectively). Conclusion: This study shows the feasibility to extract relevant parameters from voxel-wise pharmacokinetic analysis to be used for preclinical validation of 64Cu-ATSM as a hypoxia-specific PET tracer. Full article

2014

Jump to: 2016, 2015, 2013, 2012

Open AccessArticle An Improved Neutral a-Glucosidase Assay for Assessment of Epididymal Function—Validation and Comparison to the WHO Method
Diagnostics 2014, 4(1), 1-11; doi:10.3390/diagnostics4010001
Received: 6 November 2013 / Revised: 19 December 2013 / Accepted: 6 January 2014 / Published: 9 January 2014
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Abstract
Neutral a-glucosidase (NAG) activity in human seminal plasma is an important indicator for epididymis functionality. In the present study, the classic World Health Organization (WHO) method has been adapted to enhance assay robustness. Changes include modified enzyme reaction buffer composition and usage of
[...] Read more.
Neutral a-glucosidase (NAG) activity in human seminal plasma is an important indicator for epididymis functionality. In the present study, the classic World Health Organization (WHO) method has been adapted to enhance assay robustness. Changes include modified enzyme reaction buffer composition and usage of an alternative enzyme inhibitor for background correction (glucose instead of castanospermine). Both methods have been tested in parallel on 144 semen samples, obtained from 94 patients/donors and 50 vasectomized men (negative control), respectively. Passing-Bablok regression analysis demonstrated equal assay performance. In terms of assay validation, analytical specificity, detection limit, measuring range, precision, and cut-off values have been calculated. These data confirm that the adapted method is a reliable, improved tool for NAG analysis in human semen. Full article
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2013

Jump to: 2016, 2015, 2014, 2012

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Gene Expression of Glucose Transporter 1 (GLUT1), Hexokinase 1 and Hexokinase 2 in Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: Correlation with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography and Cellular Proliferation
Diagnostics 2013, 3(4), 372-384; doi:10.3390/diagnostics3040372
Received: 9 August 2013 / Revised: 25 September 2013 / Accepted: 27 September 2013 / Published: 29 October 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (162 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neoplastic tissue exhibits high glucose utilization and over-expression of glucose transporters (GLUTs) and hexokinases (HKs), which can be imaged by 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of glycolysis-associated genes and to compare this
[...] Read more.
Neoplastic tissue exhibits high glucose utilization and over-expression of glucose transporters (GLUTs) and hexokinases (HKs), which can be imaged by 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of glycolysis-associated genes and to compare this with FDG-PET imaging as well as with the cellular proliferation index in two cancer entities with different malignant potential. Using real-time PCR, gene expression of GLUT1, HK1 and HK2 were studied in 34 neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) in comparison with 14 colorectal adenocarcinomas (CRAs). The Ki67 proliferation index and, when available, FDG-PET imaging was compared with gene expression. Overexpression of GLUT1 gene expression was less frequent in NETs (38%) compared to CRAs (86%), P = 0.004. HK1 was overexpressed in 41% and 71% of NETs and CRAs, respectively (P = 0.111) and HK2 was overexpressed in 50% and 64% of NETs and CRAs, respectively (P = 0.53). There was a significant correlation between the Ki67 proliferation index and GLUT1 gene expression for the NETs (R = 0.34, P = 0.047), but no correlation with the hexokinases. FDG-PET identified foci in significantly fewer NETs (36%) than CRAs (86%), (P = 0.04). The gene expression results, with less frequent GLUT1 and HK1 upregulation in NETs, confirmed the lower metabolic activity of NETs compared to the more aggressive CRAs. In accordance with this, fewer NETs were FDG-PET positive compared to CRA tumors and FDG uptake correlated with GLUT1 gene expression. Full article
Open AccessArticle Induction of Anti-Tumor Immune Responses by Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy with 177Lu-DOTATATE in a Murine Model of a Human Neuroendocrine Tumor
Diagnostics 2013, 3(4), 344-355; doi:10.3390/diagnostics3040344
Received: 26 August 2013 / Revised: 11 September 2013 / Accepted: 13 September 2013 / Published: 2 October 2013
PDF Full-text (303 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a relatively new mode of internally targeted radiotherapy currently in clinical trials. In PRRT, ionizing radioisotopes conjugated to somatostatin analogues are targeted to neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) via somatostatin receptors. Despite promising clinical results, very little is known
[...] Read more.
Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a relatively new mode of internally targeted radiotherapy currently in clinical trials. In PRRT, ionizing radioisotopes conjugated to somatostatin analogues are targeted to neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) via somatostatin receptors. Despite promising clinical results, very little is known about the mechanism of tumor control. By using NCI-H727 cells in an in vivo murine xenograft model of human NETs, we showed that 177Lu-DOTATATE PRRT led to increased infiltration of CD86+ antigen presenting cells into tumor tissue. We also found that following treatment with PRRT, there was significantly increased tumor infiltration by CD49b+/FasL+ NK cells potentially capable of tumor killing. Further investigation into the immunomodulatory effects of PRRT will be essential in improving treatment efficacy. Full article
Open AccessArticle Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion in Abdominal Cancer: Technical Aspects
Diagnostics 2013, 3(2), 261-270; doi:10.3390/diagnostics3020261
Received: 18 February 2013 / Revised: 21 March 2013 / Accepted: 25 March 2013 / Published: 3 April 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (533 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion is an evolving method to visualize perfusion in organs and tissue. With the introduction of multidetector CT scanners, it is now possible to cover up to 16 cm in one rotation, and thereby making it possible to scan entire
[...] Read more.
Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion is an evolving method to visualize perfusion in organs and tissue. With the introduction of multidetector CT scanners, it is now possible to cover up to 16 cm in one rotation, and thereby making it possible to scan entire organs such as the liver with a fixed table position. Advances in reconstruction algorithms make it possible to reduce the radiation dose for each examination to acceptable levels. Regarding abdominal imaging, CT perfusion is still considered a research tool, but several studies have proven it as a reliable non-invasive technique for assessment of vascularity. CT perfusion has also been used for tumor characterization, staging of disease, response evaluation of newer drugs targeted towards angiogenesis and as a method for early detection of recurrence after radiation and embolization. There are several software solutions available on the market today based on different perfusion algorithms. However, there is no consensus on which protocol and algorithm to use for specific organs. In this article, the authors give an introduction to CT perfusion in abdominal imaging introducing technical aspects for calculation of perfusion parameters, and considerations on patient preparation. This article also contains clinical cases to illustrate the use of CT perfusion in abdominal imaging. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Rapid, Multiplexed, High-Throughput Flow-Through Membrane Immunoassay: A Convenient Alternative to ELISA
Diagnostics 2013, 3(2), 244-260; doi:10.3390/diagnostics3020244
Received: 1 February 2013 / Revised: 13 March 2013 / Accepted: 21 March 2013 / Published: 2 April 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (720 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes a rapid, high-throughput flow-through membrane immunoassay (FMIA) platform. A nitrocellulose membrane was spotted in an array format with multiple capture and control reagents for each sample detection area, and assay steps were carried out by sequential aspiration of sample and
[...] Read more.
This paper describes a rapid, high-throughput flow-through membrane immunoassay (FMIA) platform. A nitrocellulose membrane was spotted in an array format with multiple capture and control reagents for each sample detection area, and assay steps were carried out by sequential aspiration of sample and reagents through each detection area using a 96-well vacuum manifold. The FMIA provides an alternate assay format with several advantages over ELISA. The high surface area of the membrane permits high label concentration using gold labels, and the small pores and vacuum control provide rapid diffusion to reduce total assay time to ~30 min. All reagents used in the FMIA are compatible with dry storage without refrigeration. The results appear as colored spots on the membrane that can be quantified using a flatbed scanner. We demonstrate the platform for detection of IgM specific to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) derived from Salmonella Typhi. The FMIA format provides analytical results comparable to ELISA in less time, provides integrated assay controls, and allows compensation for specimen-to-specimen variability in background, which is a particular challenge for IgM assays. Full article
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Open AccessReview Catecholamines and Neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s Disease—From Diagnostic Marker to Aggregations of α-Synuclein
Diagnostics 2013, 3(2), 210-221; doi:10.3390/diagnostics3020210
Received: 4 January 2013 / Revised: 22 February 2013 / Accepted: 4 March 2013 / Published: 25 March 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (442 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease is the second most prevalent disease of the brain. It is characterized by midbrain dopaminergic neuronal degeneration accompanied by Lewy bodies, intra-cytoplasmic neuronal inclusions that consist mainly of alpha-synuclein. The cardinal motor features are muscular rigidity, bradykinesia, and resting tremor and,
[...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease is the second most prevalent disease of the brain. It is characterized by midbrain dopaminergic neuronal degeneration accompanied by Lewy bodies, intra-cytoplasmic neuronal inclusions that consist mainly of alpha-synuclein. The cardinal motor features are muscular rigidity, bradykinesia, and resting tremor and, in advanced cases, postural instability. Symptoms are relieved by dopamine replacement therapy, but progress slowly. Clinical diagnosis is made according to medical history, neurological examinations and the response to anti-Parkinsonian drugs. There are no laboratory tests for diagnosis of the disease; however, for development of disease-modifying treatment, early diagnosis by objective laboratory test is required. Recently, postsynaptic sympathetic norepinephrine nerve terminals were found to be degenerated as well as mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. Cardiac norepinephrine denervation can be seen by meta-iodine-benzyl guanidine scintigraphy, and may be a reliable diagnostic marker. Degeneration of norepinephrinergic and dopaminergic neurons suggests that catecholamines may play a central role in the neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease. Recently several studies showed that alpha-synuclein aggregates in cells exposed to dopamine. Here, we review findings relating to an early diagnostic marker for detecting degeneration of the peripheral sympathetic nerves, and propose the hypothesis that catecholamines cause alpha-synuclein to aggregate and play an important role in disease pathogenesis. Full article
Open AccessArticle Analysis of Predictive Values Based on Individual Risk Factors in Multi-Modality Trials
Diagnostics 2013, 3(1), 192-209; doi:10.3390/diagnostics3010192
Received: 23 January 2013 / Revised: 25 February 2013 / Accepted: 13 March 2013 / Published: 15 March 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The accuracy of diagnostic tests with binary end-points is most frequently measured by sensitivity and specificity. However, from the clinical perspective, the main purpose of a diagnostic agent is to assess the probability of a patient actually being diseased and hence predictive values
[...] Read more.
The accuracy of diagnostic tests with binary end-points is most frequently measured by sensitivity and specificity. However, from the clinical perspective, the main purpose of a diagnostic agent is to assess the probability of a patient actually being diseased and hence predictive values are more suitable here. As predictive values depend on the pre-test probability of disease, we provide a method to take risk factors influencing the patient’s prior probability of disease into account, when calculating predictive values. Furthermore, approaches to assess confidence intervals and a methodology to compare predictive values by statistical tests are presented. Hereby the methods can be used to analyze predictive values of factorial diagnostic trials, such as multi-modality, multi-reader-trials. We further performed a simulation study assessing length and coverage probability for different types of confidence intervals, and we present the R-Package facROC that can be used to analyze predictive values in factorial diagnostic trials in particular. The methods are applied to a study evaluating CT-angiography as a noninvasive alternative to coronary angiography for diagnosing coronary artery disease. Hereby the patients’ symptoms are considered as risk factors influencing the respective predictive values. Full article
Open AccessReview Strain Elastography Ultrasound: An Overview with Emphasis on Breast Cancer Diagnosis
Diagnostics 2013, 3(1), 117-125; doi:10.3390/diagnostics3010117
Received: 31 December 2012 / Revised: 11 February 2013 / Accepted: 20 February 2013 / Published: 25 February 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (248 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Strain elastography (SE), which estimates tissue strain, is an adjunct to the conventional ultrasound B-mode examination. We present a short introduction to SE and its clinical use. Furthermore, we present an overview of the 10 largest studies performed on the diagnostic accuracy of
[...] Read more.
Strain elastography (SE), which estimates tissue strain, is an adjunct to the conventional ultrasound B-mode examination. We present a short introduction to SE and its clinical use. Furthermore, we present an overview of the 10 largest studies performed on the diagnostic accuracy of SE in breast cancer diagnostics. Eight of 10 studies presented data for both SE and B-mode imaging. Seven studies showed better specificity and accuracy for SE than for B-mode imaging in breast cancer diagnosis. Four studies showed an increase in specificity and accuracy when combining B-mode imaging with SE. The ways of combining B-mode imaging with SE in the diagnosis of breast cancer differed between the five studies. We believe that further studies are needed to establish an optimal algorithm for the combination of B-mode ultrasound and SE in breast cancer. Full article
Open AccessReview Natriuretic Peptides in Kawasaki Disease: the Myocardial Perspective
Diagnostics 2013, 3(1), 1-12; doi:10.3390/diagnostics3010001
Received: 5 December 2012 / Revised: 20 December 2012 / Accepted: 31 December 2012 / Published: 10 January 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (240 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Making a diagnosis of Kawasaki disease with certainty may be challenging, especially since the recognition of cases with incomplete diagnostic criteria and its consequences. In order to build the diagnostic case in daily practice, clinicians rely on clinical criteria established over four decades
[...] Read more.
Making a diagnosis of Kawasaki disease with certainty may be challenging, especially since the recognition of cases with incomplete diagnostic criteria and its consequences. In order to build the diagnostic case in daily practice, clinicians rely on clinical criteria established over four decades ago, aided by non specific laboratory tests, and above all inspired by experience. We have recently studied the diagnostic value of N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide to improve the diagnostic certainty of cases with complete or incomplete clinical criteria. Our working hypothesis was based on the fact that myocarditis is present in nearly all Kawasaki disease patients supported by histology data. In this paper, we review these facts and the myocardial perspective from the diagnostic and the mechanistic standpoints. Full article

2012

Jump to: 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013

Open AccessArticle Importance of Attenuation Correction (AC) for Small Animal PET Imaging
Diagnostics 2012, 2(4), 42-51; doi:10.3390/diagnostics2040042
Received: 17 August 2012 / Revised: 13 September 2012 / Accepted: 8 October 2012 / Published: 9 October 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (471 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a correction for annihilation photon attenuation in small objects such as mice is necessary. The attenuation recovery for specific organs and subcutaneous tumors was investigated. A comparison between different attenuation correction methods was performed.
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a correction for annihilation photon attenuation in small objects such as mice is necessary. The attenuation recovery for specific organs and subcutaneous tumors was investigated. A comparison between different attenuation correction methods was performed. Methods: Ten NMRI nude mice with subcutaneous implantation of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were scanned consecutively in small animal PET and CT scanners (MicroPETTM Focus 120 and ImTek’s MicroCATTM II). CT-based AC, PET-based AC and uniform AC methods were compared. Results: The activity concentration in the same organ with and without AC revealed an overall attenuation recovery of 9–21% for MAP reconstructed images, i.e., SUV without AC could underestimate the true activity at this level. For subcutaneous tumors, the attenuation was 13 ± 4% (9–17%), for kidneys 20 ± 1% (19–21%), and for bladder 18 ± 3% (15–21%). The FBP reconstructed images showed almost the same attenuation levels as the MAP reconstructed images for all organs. Conclusions: The annihilation photons are suffering attenuation even in small subjects. Both PET-based and CT-based are adequate as AC methods. The amplitude of the AC recovery could be overestimated using the uniform map. Therefore, application of a global attenuation factor on PET data might not be accurate for attenuation correction. Full article

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