Diagnostics 2013, 3(4), 372-384; doi:10.3390/diagnostics3040372
Article

Gene Expression of Glucose Transporter 1 (GLUT1), Hexokinase 1 and Hexokinase 2 in Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: Correlation with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography and Cellular Proliferation

1 Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet & Cluster for Molecular Imaging, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark 2 Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark 3 Department of Pathology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark 4 Department of Urology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 August 2013; in revised form: 25 September 2013 / Accepted: 27 September 2013 / Published: 29 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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Abstract: Neoplastic tissue exhibits high glucose utilization and over-expression of glucose transporters (GLUTs) and hexokinases (HKs), which can be imaged by 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of glycolysis-associated genes and to compare this with FDG-PET imaging as well as with the cellular proliferation index in two cancer entities with different malignant potential. Using real-time PCR, gene expression of GLUT1, HK1 and HK2 were studied in 34 neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) in comparison with 14 colorectal adenocarcinomas (CRAs). The Ki67 proliferation index and, when available, FDG-PET imaging was compared with gene expression. Overexpression of GLUT1 gene expression was less frequent in NETs (38%) compared to CRAs (86%), P = 0.004. HK1 was overexpressed in 41% and 71% of NETs and CRAs, respectively (P = 0.111) and HK2 was overexpressed in 50% and 64% of NETs and CRAs, respectively (P = 0.53). There was a significant correlation between the Ki67 proliferation index and GLUT1 gene expression for the NETs (R = 0.34, P = 0.047), but no correlation with the hexokinases. FDG-PET identified foci in significantly fewer NETs (36%) than CRAs (86%), (P = 0.04). The gene expression results, with less frequent GLUT1 and HK1 upregulation in NETs, confirmed the lower metabolic activity of NETs compared to the more aggressive CRAs. In accordance with this, fewer NETs were FDG-PET positive compared to CRA tumors and FDG uptake correlated with GLUT1 gene expression.
Keywords: neuroendocrine tumors; glucose; gene expression; imaging; FDG-PET; proliferation index

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MDPI and ACS Style

Binderup, T.; Knigge, U.P.; Federspiel, B.; Sommer, P.; Hasselby, J.P.; Loft, A.; Kjaer, A. Gene Expression of Glucose Transporter 1 (GLUT1), Hexokinase 1 and Hexokinase 2 in Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: Correlation with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography and Cellular Proliferation. Diagnostics 2013, 3, 372-384.

AMA Style

Binderup T, Knigge UP, Federspiel B, Sommer P, Hasselby JP, Loft A, Kjaer A. Gene Expression of Glucose Transporter 1 (GLUT1), Hexokinase 1 and Hexokinase 2 in Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: Correlation with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography and Cellular Proliferation. Diagnostics. 2013; 3(4):372-384.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Binderup, Tina; Knigge, Ulrich P.; Federspiel, Birgitte; Sommer, Peter; Hasselby, Jane P.; Loft, Annika; Kjaer, Andreas. 2013. "Gene Expression of Glucose Transporter 1 (GLUT1), Hexokinase 1 and Hexokinase 2 in Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: Correlation with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography and Cellular Proliferation." Diagnostics 3, no. 4: 372-384.

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