Special Issue "Molecularly Imprinted Polymers—Robust Artificial Receptor Materials for Chemical Sensing"

A special issue of Chemosensors (ISSN 2227-9040).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Peter Lieberzeit

University of Vienna, Department of Physical Chemistry, Waehringer Strasse 38, A-1090 Vienna, Austria
Website | E-Mail
Interests: molecular imprinting; artificial receptors; real-life measurements; QCM; capacitive measurements; low-cost sensing; bioanalyte sensing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) have generated substantial interest in the sensor community for more than two decades now: MIP-based chemo- and biosensors today are a thriving field generating large numbers of innovations and applications. The reasons for this are:

  • MIP are based on robust artificial matrices that are inherently long-term stable.
  • MIP are highly selective materials that can compete with biological receptors.
  • MIP are usually straightforward to synthesize.
  • MIP are available as thin films, (nano)particles and bulk materials to name but a few.

Whereas the beginning of imprinting saw addressing many different templates, by now other questions have come to focus, such as applicability of the respective sensors in real-life conditions or compatibility of the MIP with production processes. This Special Issue of Chemosensors is dedicated to the technique and aims a demonstrating novel analytical applications of MIP, as well as novel synthesis techniques and innovative polymerization approaches. Work based on any transducer—be it optical, electrical, electrochemical or acoustic—and any polymer morphology—thin film, bulk, particulate—is welcome. Furthermore, high international visibility of your work will be granted both by collecting papers on one topic at one place and by open access publishing.

Prof. Dr. Peter Lieberzeit
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Chemosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Molecular Imprinting
  • Sensor Applications
  • Chemical and Biological Analytes
  • MIP Thin Films
  • MIP Nanoparticles
  • MIP composites

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Selectivity and Efficiency of Conductive Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (c-MIP) Based on 5-Phenyl-Dipyrromethane and 5-Phenol-Dipyrromethane for Quorum Sensing Precursors Detection
Chemosensors 2017, 5(1), 5; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5010005
Received: 3 December 2016 / Revised: 25 January 2017 / Accepted: 27 January 2017 / Published: 4 February 2017
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Abstract
Functional polymers that selectively recognize target compounds are developed by imprinting polymerization. In the present paper, two different dipyrromethanes, 5-phenol-dipyrromethane (5-pOH-DP) and 5-phenyl-dipyrromethane (5-ph-DP), are synthetized and investigated to develop conductive molecularly imprinted polymer (cMIP) sensors. As target molecules, two homoserine lactone derivatives
[...] Read more.
Functional polymers that selectively recognize target compounds are developed by imprinting polymerization. In the present paper, two different dipyrromethanes, 5-phenol-dipyrromethane (5-pOH-DP) and 5-phenyl-dipyrromethane (5-ph-DP), are synthetized and investigated to develop conductive molecularly imprinted polymer (cMIP) sensors. As target molecules, two homoserine lactone derivatives were templated by an electrochemically driven polymerization process. Acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), also called homoserine lactones (HS), are a class of signaling molecules involved in bacterial quorum sensing (QS), which is a strategy of coordination among bacteria mediated by population density. The preparation of cMIP from 5-pOH-DP and 5-ph-DP in the presence of acetyl-homoserine lactone (Acetyl-HS) or carboxybenzyl-homoserine lactone (Cbz-HS) was performed by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The cMIP selectivity and sensitivity were assessed by microgravimetry (QCM). Both series of measurements were performed with the aid of an Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance (EQCM/QCM). The experimental evidences are discussed with respect to NMR measurements that were conducted to gain insight into the interactions established between monomers and templates. The NMR data interpretation offers preliminary information about the most probable positions involved in interaction development for both molecules and highlights the role of the hydration shell. The QCM-cMIP sensor was able to detect the analyte in the linear range from 10−8 mol·L−1 to 10−6 mol·L−1 and a limit of detection (LOD) of 22.3 ng (3σ of the blank signal) were evaluated. QCM rebinding tests demonstrated that cMIP selectivity was driven by the pendant group of dipyrromethane, which was also confirmed by the NMR data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nitrate Ion Selective Electrode Based on Ion Imprinted Poly(N-methylpyrrole)
Chemosensors 2017, 5(1), 2; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5010002
Received: 7 October 2016 / Revised: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 4 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2304 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A poly(N-methylpyrrole) based ion selective electrode (ISE) has been prepared by electro-polymerization of N-methylpyrrole using potassium nitrate as the supporting electrolyte. Electrochemical and chemical variables were used to optimize the potentiometric response of the electrodes and to maximize the selectivity
[...] Read more.
A poly(N-methylpyrrole) based ion selective electrode (ISE) has been prepared by electro-polymerization of N-methylpyrrole using potassium nitrate as the supporting electrolyte. Electrochemical and chemical variables were used to optimize the potentiometric response of the electrodes and to maximize the selectivity for nitrate over potential interferences. The selectivity, longevity and stability of the ion-imprinted polymer give this electrode advantages over traditional nitrate ISEs. The best prototype electrode exhibits a linear potential response to nitrate ion within the concentration range of 5.0 × 10−6 to 0.1 M nitrate with a near Nernstian slope of −56.3 mV per decade (R2 = 0.9998) and a strong preference for the nitrate ion over other anions. The selectivity coefficients of the electrode were evaluated by the fixed interference method. The use of N-methylpyrrole has advantages over pyrrole in terms of selectivity and pH insensitivity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development and Application of Electrochemical Sensor Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymer and Carbon Nanotubes for the Determination of Carvedilol
Chemosensors 2016, 4(4), 22; doi:10.3390/chemosensors4040022
Received: 5 August 2016 / Revised: 18 October 2016 / Accepted: 11 November 2016 / Published: 27 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2722 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work describes the preparation of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for determination of carvedilol (CAR). Electrochemical behavior of CAR on the modified electrode was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry. The best composition
[...] Read more.
This work describes the preparation of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for determination of carvedilol (CAR). Electrochemical behavior of CAR on the modified electrode was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry. The best composition was found to be 65% (m/m) of MIP. Under optimized conditions (pH 8.5 in 0.25 mol L−1 Britton–Robinson buffer and 0.1 mol L−1 KCl) the voltammetric method showed a linear response for CAR in the range of 50–325 µmol L−1 (R = 0.9755), with detection and quantification limits of 16.14 µmol L−1 and 53.8 µmol L−1, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for determination of CAR in real samples of pharmaceuticals. The sensor presented good sensitivity, rapid detection of CAR, and quick and easy preparation. Furthermore, the material used as modifier has a simple synthesis and its amount utilized is very small, thus illustrating the economic feasibility of this sensor. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Molecularly Imprinted Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensor (QCM) for Bilirubin Detection
Chemosensors 2016, 4(4), 21; doi:10.3390/chemosensors4040021
Received: 22 August 2016 / Revised: 24 October 2016 / Accepted: 31 October 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2626 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study aims the preparation of a QCM sensor for the detection of bilirubin in human plasma. Bilirubin-imprinted poly-(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-l-tryptophan methyl ester) (PHEMATrp) nanofilm (MIP) on the gold surface of a QCM chip was synthesized by the molecular imprinting technique. Meanwhile,
[...] Read more.
This study aims the preparation of a QCM sensor for the detection of bilirubin in human plasma. Bilirubin-imprinted poly-(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-l-tryptophan methyl ester) (PHEMATrp) nanofilm (MIP) on the gold surface of a QCM chip was synthesized by the molecular imprinting technique. Meanwhile, the non-imprinted PHEMATrp (NIP) nanofilm was synthesized by the same experimental technique to examine the imprinting effect. Characterization of MIP and NIP nanofilms on the QCM chip surface was achieved by atomic force microscopy (AFM), ellipsometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and contact angle measurements (CA). The observations indicated that the nanofilm was almost in a monolayer. Thereinafter, the imprinted and the non-imprinted QCM chips were connected to the QCM system to investigate kinetic and affinity properties. In order to examine the selectivity of the MIP-PHEMATrp nanofilm, competitive adsorption of bilirubin with cholesterol and estradiol was performed. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) values were calculated as 0.45 μg/mL and 0.9 μg/mL, respectively. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Enzymes as Tools in MIP-Sensors
Chemosensors 2017, 5(2), 11; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5020011
Received: 24 December 2016 / Revised: 17 March 2017 / Accepted: 20 March 2017 / Published: 26 March 2017
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Abstract
Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have the potential to complement antibodies in bioanalysis, are more stable under harsh conditions, and are potentially cheaper to produce. However, the affinity and especially the selectivity of MIPs are in general lower than those of their biological pendants.
[...] Read more.
Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have the potential to complement antibodies in bioanalysis, are more stable under harsh conditions, and are potentially cheaper to produce. However, the affinity and especially the selectivity of MIPs are in general lower than those of their biological pendants. Enzymes are useful tools for the preparation of MIPs for both low and high-molecular weight targets: As a green alternative to the well-established methods of chemical polymerization, enzyme-initiated polymerization has been introduced and the removal of protein templates by proteases has been successfully applied. Furthermore, MIPs have been coupled with enzymes in order to enhance the analytical performance of biomimetic sensors: Enzymes have been used in MIP-sensors as “tracers” for the generation and amplification of the measuring signal. In addition, enzymatic pretreatment of an analyte can extend the analyte spectrum and eliminate interferences. Full article
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Open AccessReview Gravimetric Viral Diagnostics: QCM Based Biosensors for Early Detection of Viruses
Chemosensors 2017, 5(1), 7; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5010007
Received: 18 December 2016 / Revised: 5 February 2017 / Accepted: 9 February 2017 / Published: 13 February 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3277 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Viruses are pathogenic microorganisms that can inhabit and replicate in human bodies causing a number of widespread infectious diseases such as influenza, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, meningitis, pneumonia, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) etc. A majority of these viral diseases are contagious and can spread
[...] Read more.
Viruses are pathogenic microorganisms that can inhabit and replicate in human bodies causing a number of widespread infectious diseases such as influenza, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, meningitis, pneumonia, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) etc. A majority of these viral diseases are contagious and can spread from infected to healthy human beings. The most important step in the treatment of these contagious diseases and to prevent their unwanted spread is to timely detect the disease-causing viruses. Gravimetric viral diagnostics based on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) transducers and natural or synthetic receptors are miniaturized sensing platforms that can selectively recognize and quantify harmful virus species. Herein, a review of the label-free QCM virus sensors for clinical diagnostics and point of care (POC) applications is presented with major emphasis on the nature and performance of different receptors ranging from the natural or synthetic antibodies to selective macromolecular materials such as DNA and aptamers. A performance comparison of different receptors is provided and their limitations are discussed. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Chemosensors Based on Molecularly Imprinted Acrylic Copolymers Prepared by Wet Phase Inversion
Authors: Ștefan-Ovidiu Dima et al.
Abstract: Three different acrylonitrile-acrylic acid (AN:AA) uncrosslinked copolymers were molecularly imprinted with diosgenin by wet phase inversion on the surface of three glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) in order to evaluate the detection performances of each molecularly imprinted polymer sensor (MIPS). Phase inversion, also known as alternative molecular imprinting method, consisted in this case in drop-casting a dimethylformamide solution of template (diosgenin) and polymer matrix (AN:AA copolymers) on the GCE surface, followed by the coagulation (phase inversion) of the MIP film on the GCE surface in the presence of water as non-solvent, reason for which the method is called “wet”, a dry phase inversion occurring in a gaseous environment. The last step of molecular imprinting method is represented by template extraction in order to generate the binding cavities with molecular recognition properties. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry were employed to characterize the obtained MIPS in phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBS), at pH 7.4, using Ag/AgCl as reference electrode and Pt wire as counter electrode. It was observed that the p(AN:AA)/GCE MIPS were stable in the buffered electrolyte and that these new MIP-based chemosensors have good properties that recommend them for the detection of bioactive species like diosgenin.

Title: Gravimetric viral diagnostics: QCM based biosensors for early detection of viruses
Authors: Adnan Mujahid1, Adeel Afzal2,3*, Romana Schirhagl4, Sadia Z. Bajwa5, Usman Latif3, Naseer Iqbal2
Affiliation: 1 Institute of Chemistry, University of Punjab, Quaid-i-Azam Campus, Lahore, 54000, Pakistan.
2Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Hafr Al Batin, PO Box 1803, Hafr Al Batin, 31991, Saudi Arabia.
3Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, 1.5 KM Defence Road, Off. Raiwind Road, Lahore, 54000, Pakistan.
4Groningen University, University Medical Center Groningen, Antonius Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV Groningen, Netherlands.
5National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad, Pakistan.
Abstract: The viruses are pathogenic microorganisms that can inhabit and replicate in human bodies causing a number of widespread infectious diseases such as influenza, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, meningitis, pneumonia, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) etc. A majority of these viral diseases are contagious and can spread from infected to healthy beings. The most important step in the treatment of these contagious diseases and to prevent their unwanted spread is to timely detect the disease-causing viruses. Gravimetric viral diagnostics based on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) transducers and natural or synthetic receptors are miniaturized sensing platforms that can selectively recognize and quantify harmful virus species. Herein, a review of the label-free QCM virus sensors for clinical diagnostics and point of care (POC) applications is presented with major emphasis on the nature and performance of different receptors ranging from the natural or synthetic antibodies to selective macromolecular materials such as DNA and aptamers. A performance comparison of different receptors is provided and their limitations are discussed.
Keywords: Aptamer; epitope imprinting; imprinted polymer; natural antibodies; quartz crystal microbalance; virus sensor.

 

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