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Chemosensors 2017, 5(1), 7; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5010007

Gravimetric Viral Diagnostics: QCM Based Biosensors for Early Detection of Viruses

1
Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Hafr Al Batin, P.O. Box 1803, Hafr Al Batin 31991, Saudi Arabia
2
Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, 1.5 KM Defence Road, Off. Raiwind Road, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
3
Institute of Chemistry, University of Punjab, Quaid-i-Azam Campus, Lahore 54590, Pakistan
4
Groningen University, University Medical Center Groningen, Antonius Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
5
National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
6
Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, Islamabad 45550, Pakistan
7
Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Hafr Al Batin, Female Campus, Hafr Al Batin 31991, Saudi Arabia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter Lieberzeit
Received: 18 December 2016 / Revised: 5 February 2017 / Accepted: 9 February 2017 / Published: 13 February 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3277 KB, uploaded 13 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

Viruses are pathogenic microorganisms that can inhabit and replicate in human bodies causing a number of widespread infectious diseases such as influenza, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, meningitis, pneumonia, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) etc. A majority of these viral diseases are contagious and can spread from infected to healthy human beings. The most important step in the treatment of these contagious diseases and to prevent their unwanted spread is to timely detect the disease-causing viruses. Gravimetric viral diagnostics based on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) transducers and natural or synthetic receptors are miniaturized sensing platforms that can selectively recognize and quantify harmful virus species. Herein, a review of the label-free QCM virus sensors for clinical diagnostics and point of care (POC) applications is presented with major emphasis on the nature and performance of different receptors ranging from the natural or synthetic antibodies to selective macromolecular materials such as DNA and aptamers. A performance comparison of different receptors is provided and their limitations are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibodies; aptamer; epitope imprinting; molecularly imprinted polymers; quartz crystal microbalance; virus sensor antibodies; aptamer; epitope imprinting; molecularly imprinted polymers; quartz crystal microbalance; virus sensor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Afzal, A.; Mujahid, A.; Schirhagl, R.; Bajwa, S.Z.; Latif, U.; Feroz, S. Gravimetric Viral Diagnostics: QCM Based Biosensors for Early Detection of Viruses. Chemosensors 2017, 5, 7.

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