Special Issue "Advances in Catalyst Deactivation"
A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344).
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 December 2013
Prof. Dr. Calvin H. Bartholomew
BYU Catalysis Lab, Department of Chemical Engineering, Brigham Young University, UT 84602, Provo, USA
Interests: heterogeneous catalysis (catalyst design; reaction kinetics; adsorption phenomena; catalyst deactivation; syngas conversion catalysis; fischer-tropsch synthesis; SCR; automotive emissions control)
Catalyst deactivation, the loss over time of catalytic activity and/or selectivity, is a problem of great and continuing concern in the practice of industrial catalytic processes. Costs to industry for catalyst replacement and process shutdown total tens of billions of dollars per year. While catalyst deactivation is inevitable for most processes, some of its immediate, drastic consequences may be avoided, postponed, or even reversed. Accordingly, there is considerable motivation to better understand catalyst decay and regeneration. Indeed, the science of catalyst deactivation and regeneration has been developing rapidly as evidenced by the considerable literature addressing this topic, including 21,000 journal articles, presentations, reports, reviews, and books; and more than 29,000 patents for the period of 1980 to 2012. This developing science provides the foundation for continuing, substantial improvements in the efficiency and economics of catalytic processes through development of catalyst deactivation models, more stable catalysts, and regeneration processes.
This special issue focuses on recent advances in catalyst deactivation and regeneration, including advances in (1) scientific understanding of mechanisms; (2) development of improved methods and tools for investigation; and (3) more robust models of deactivation and regeneration.
Prof. Calvin H. Bartholomew
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Catalysts is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.
Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.
- catalyst deactivation
- catalyst regeneration
- deactivation and regeneration
- catalyst deactivation and regeneration in
- methods of study
- mechanical degradation
- stability improvements
- Fischer-Tropsch synthesis
- Methanol synthesis
- Selective catalytic reduction of NOx
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Title: Catalyst Deactivation by Water During Low Temperature Methane Oxidation - a Review
Authors: Rahman Gholami, Mina Alyani and Kevin J. Smith
Affiliation: Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada; E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Natural gas (predominantly methane) is abundant and cleaner-burning compared to petroleum fuels such as diesel and gasoline. A significant impediment to the widespread implementation of natural gas in an internal combustion engine is that unburned methane expelled in the exhaust is a significant greenhouse gas (GHG) with a potency more than ~25 times that of carbon dioxide. Traditional catalytic converters, optimized for reducing oxides of nitrogen (NOx), unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide, are not efficient at methane oxidation, especially at the low to moderate exhaust gas temperatures (150 to 500 °C) of combined natural gas-diesel fuelled engines. Consequently there is significant current interest in low temperature (< 500 °C) methane oxidation catalysts that can be applied for emissions control of natural gas vehicles.
Several extensive reviews on methane oxidation catalysis are available, the most recent published in 2002. These reviews mostly concentrated on issues related to the activity of various catalysts in CH4 combustion at higher temperatures (above 873 K). The catalysts include noble metals such as Pd and Pt, transition metal oxides, perovskites and hexaaluminates. The mechanisms involved in the CH4-O2 reaction on the surface of supported Pd catalysts, nature of active sites, properties of Pd catalysts were also described. In some studies the influence of the water oxidation product on the performance of Pd catalysts was also reviewed. It is broadly reported that water has an inhibition effect on Pd catalysts applied for methane combustion. Some authors claimed a reversible inhibiting effect of water that decreased with increasing temperature. A competing mechanism between CH4 and H2O for occupying the active sites of PdO was suggested as the cause of inhibition. PdO in the presence of H2O can also be converted to inactive Pd(OH)2 but this reaction is reversible. Despite several reports on the effect of water as the oxidation product on Pd catalysts, a thorough review of the inhibition or deactivation effect of water is not to our knowledge available, especially with respect to low temperature methane oxidation.
Current commercial Pd catalysts applied in low temperature methane oxidation for natural gas vehicles are known to deactivate due to high concentrations of water and low to moderately high temperatures (423─873 K). In addition, increasing societal demands and recognition of health impacts have made environmental agencies set lower methane emission standards for natural gas engines in recent years. In Europe, starting from 2013, methane emissions from heavy duty vehicles must be less than 0.5 g/kWh (Euro VI). These factors have motivated new research and several papers (about 50) have been published on this topic recently. A study that collects, reviews and assesses the information relating to the effect of water on Pd catalysts at low temperature is the proposed focus of the present review.
Last update: 19 November 2013