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Catalysts 2015, 5(1), 145-269; doi:10.3390/catal5010145

Heterogeneous Catalyst Deactivation and Regeneration: A Review

Chemical Engineering Department, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Keith Hohn
Received: 30 December 2013 / Revised: 26 February 2014 / Accepted: 12 September 2014 / Published: 26 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Catalyst Deactivation)

Abstract

Deactivation of heterogeneous catalysts is a ubiquitous problem that causes loss of catalytic rate with time. This review on deactivation and regeneration of heterogeneous catalysts classifies deactivation by type (chemical, thermal, and mechanical) and by mechanism (poisoning, fouling, thermal degradation, vapor formation, vapor-solid and solid-solid reactions, and attrition/crushing). The key features and considerations for each of these deactivation types is reviewed in detail with reference to the latest literature reports in these areas. Two case studies on the deactivation mechanisms of catalysts used for cobalt Fischer-Tropsch and selective catalytic reduction are considered to provide additional depth in the topics of sintering, coking, poisoning, and fouling. Regeneration considerations and options are also briefly discussed for each deactivation mechanism. View Full-Text
Keywords: heterogeneous catalysis; deactivation; regeneration heterogeneous catalysis; deactivation; regeneration
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Argyle, M.D.; Bartholomew, C.H. Heterogeneous Catalyst Deactivation and Regeneration: A Review. Catalysts 2015, 5, 145-269.

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