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Catalysts 2014, 4(2), 89-115; doi:10.3390/catal4020089
Article

Inhibition of a Gold-Based Catalyst in Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation: Understanding and Remediation

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Received: 9 October 2013; in revised form: 26 January 2014 / Accepted: 26 March 2014 / Published: 15 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Catalyst Deactivation)
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Abstract: Benzyl alcohol oxidation was carried out in toluene as solvent, in the presence of the potentially inhibiting oxidation products benzaldehyde and benzoic acid. Benzoic acid, or a product of benzoic acid, is identified to be the inhibiting species. The presence of a basic potassium salt (K2CO3 or KF) suppresses this inhibition, but promotes the formation of benzyl benzoate from the alcohol and aldehyde. When a small amount of water is added together with the potassium salt, an even greater beneficial effect is observed, due to a synergistic effect with the base. A kinetic model, based on the three main reactions and four major reaction components, is presented to describe the concentration-time profiles and inhibition. The inhibition, as well as the effect of the base, was captured in the kinetic model, by combining strong benzoic acid adsorption and competitive adsorption with benzyl alcohol. The effect of the potassium salt is accounted for in terms of neutralization of benzoic acid.
Keywords: gold; catalysis; benzyl alcohol; oxidation; deactivation; inhibition; mechanism; kinetics; modeling gold; catalysis; benzyl alcohol; oxidation; deactivation; inhibition; mechanism; kinetics; modeling
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Skupien, E.; Berger, R.J.; Santos, V.P.; Gascon, J.; Makkee, M.; Kreutzer, M.T.; Kooyman, P.J.; Moulijn, J.A.; Kapteijn, F. Inhibition of a Gold-Based Catalyst in Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation: Understanding and Remediation. Catalysts 2014, 4, 89-115.

AMA Style

Skupien E, Berger RJ, Santos VP, Gascon J, Makkee M, Kreutzer MT, Kooyman PJ, Moulijn JA, Kapteijn F. Inhibition of a Gold-Based Catalyst in Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation: Understanding and Remediation. Catalysts. 2014; 4(2):89-115.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Skupien, Emmanuel; Berger, Rob J.; Santos, Vera P.; Gascon, Jorge; Makkee, Michiel; Kreutzer, Michiel T.; Kooyman, Patricia J.; Moulijn, Jacob A.; Kapteijn, Freek. 2014. "Inhibition of a Gold-Based Catalyst in Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation: Understanding and Remediation." Catalysts 4, no. 2: 89-115.


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