Special Issue "Bacteriophages: Alternatives to Antibiotics and Beyond"
A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382).
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2019
The quick rise in multi-drug resistance detected among bacterial pathogens is compromising the control of these microorganisms in several areas related to human health. For some years now, we have been witnessing with concern the arrival of the post-antibiotic era and looking for alternatives to fight against resistant bacteria. The use of bacteriophages (phage therapy) arises as a feasible alternative, which had already been partially explored a century ago. Currently, many studies confirm the efficacy of this therapy but there are still some controversies mainly regarding its safety. Therefore, the main subject of this Special Issue includes any bacteriophage-based approach to control bacteria in areas such as human and veterinary medicine, food industry, agriculture, natural environments, etc. In addition, manuscripts concerning other phage-related areas of interest are welcome:
- New phage lytic proteins and engineered derivatives.
- Phage genome mining and study of unknown genes.
- Bacterial host resistance, virulence transmission and/or induction, phage-host interaction and evolution.
- Specific bacteria detection methods using phage-based tools.
- Phage and phage protein delivery in animal models of infection.
- Pharmacodynamics of phages and phage proteins.
- Large scale production of bacteriophages and phage proteins.
- Regulatory framework for the use of phages and phage proteins in human and animal medicine.
- Phages as biocontrol agents in natural and man-made environments.
Dr. Pilar García Suárez
Manuscript Submission Information
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.
Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.
- virion-associate peptidoglycan hydrolases
- phage therapy
- phage biocontrol
- bacteriophage resistance
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Type of Paper: Review
Title: Bacteriophages in the Dairy Environment: From Enemies to Allies
Authors: Lucía Fernández, Susana Escobedo, Diana Gutiérrez, Silvia Portilla, Beatriz Martínez, Pilar García and Ana Rodríguez
Abstract: The history of dairy farming goes back thousands of years, evolving from a traditional small-scale production to the industrialized manufacturing of fermented dairy products. Commercialization of milk and its derived products has been very important not only as a source of nourishment but also as an economic resource. However, the dairy industry has encountered several problems that have to be overcome to ensure the quality and safety of the final products, as well as to avoid economic losses. Within this context, it is interesting to highlight the role played by bacteriophages, or phages, viruses that infect bacteria. Indeed, bacteriophages were originally regarded as a nuisance, being responsible for fermentation failure and economic losses when infecting lactic acid bacteria, but are now considered promising antimicrobials to fight milk-borne pathogens without contributing to the increase in antibiotic resistance.
Keywords: bacteriophages; dairy industry; pathogens; lactic acid bacteria; fermentation failure; biofilms; antimicrobial resistance
Authors: Paul E. Turner and Benjamin Chan
Affiliation: Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
Title: Phage and antibiotics synergistically break down Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms on prosthetic materials
Summary: In this study, we present data that lytic phage OMKO1 plus either of two antibiotics (ceftazadime, ciprofloxacin) act synergistically to break down biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on four prosthetic materials (Dacron, felt, Gore-tex, polypropylene), relative to use of antibiotic or phage alone. These results relate to our use of the phage in experimental treatment of a volunteer patient (case-study manuscript currently under review), and in development of the phage for clinical trials under consideration by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration.
Title: Detection of Escherichia coli in ready-to-eat fresh vegetables using broad-host-range recombinant phages
Authors: Hoang A. Hoang1,*, and Kiyohiko Nakasaki2
1Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, 268 Ly Thuong Kiet, District 10, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam
2Department of International Development Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan
Hoang A. Hoang, Ph.D.
Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, 268 Ly Thuong Kiet, District 10, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam
Tel.: +84-8-38639341; Email: email@example.com
Keywords: Escherichia coli; bacteriophage; vegetables; fecal contamination indicator; detection.
Abstract: Escherichia coli has been used as an indicator of fecal contamination in food samples in many countries. In this study, a method for the colorimetric detection of E. coli in ready-to-eat fresh vegetables using broad-host-range recombinant phages was investigated. Firstly, a gene encoding Cytochrome c Peroxidase (CCP) chromogenic enzyme was inserted into genomes of wild-type phages IP008 and IP052 resulting in the recombinant phages IP008BK and IP052BK. They were used in the production of the chromogenic enzyme through infection into E. coli. The method was then examined in the colorimetric detection of E. coli K12 in broth, and the appearance of E. coli K12 in broth was confirmed by a significant absorbance change after a few minutes of the enzyme assay. Secondly, the protocol using the recombinant phages for detection of E. coli in vegetables, i.e. lettuce and mustard greens was investigated. A low E. coli concentration as 4 CFU g-1 vegetable was detected within 16.5 hours that was in a shorter time than agar-plate methods and some previous phage-based methods. Moreover, the method is simple and convenient since it enables detection without the need for expensive apparatus.
Title: Potential for bacteriophage endolysins to replace antibiotics in food production and clinical care
Authors: Michael Love1, Renwick Dobson2 and Craig Billington1,2*
1 Biomolecular Interaction Centre, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand;
2 Institute of Environmental Science and Research, Christchurch, New Zealand;
Abstract: There is growing concern about the emergence of bacteria resistant to antibiotics used for treatment of human diseases. There are currently no antibiotics used for human medicine for which resistant bacteria have not been isolated. Of concern is the increased prevalence of bacteria which are resistant to multiple antibiotics, which means some patients are unable to be treated with any antibiotic. So there is an urgent need to develop alternatives to conventional antibiotics which can be used for the treatment of humans and animals used for food production. Bacteriophage encoded lytic enzymes (endolysins), which degrade the cell wall of bacteria from within at the end of the bacteriophage life cycle, could be used for this purpose. This is made possible by the observation that endolysins can disrupt the cell wall when applied exogenously, though this has so far proven more effective for gram-positive than gram-negative microorganisms. Endolysins can degrade the cell wall by cleaving a variety of bonds in the glycan backbone or peptide crosslinks and generally have a modular or globular domain structure. There is evidence that resistance to these enzymes may be more difficult to develop compared to conventional antibiotics due to the targeting of highly conserved bonds.
Title: Potential of Phage Therapy in Preventing Vibrio anguillarum Infections in Cod and Turbot Larvae
Authors: Nanna Rørbo 1, Anita Rønneseth 2, Panos G. Kalatzis 1, Bastian Barker Rasmussen 3, Kirsten Engell-Sørensen 4, Hans Petter Kleppen 5, Heidrun Inger Wergeland 2, Lone Gram 3 and Mathias Middelboe 1
Affiliation:1 Marine Biological Section, University of Copenhagen, Helsingør, Denmark
2 Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
3 Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
4 Fishlab, Højbjerg, Denmark
5 ACD Pharmaceuticals AS, Oslo, Norway
Abstract: The aquaculture industry is suffering fromlosses associated with bacterial infections by opportunistic pathogens. Vibrio anguillarum is one of the most important of the pathogens, causing vibrios is fish and shellfish cultures leading to high mortalities and economic losses. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics inefficient vaccination at the larval stage of fish, emphasizes the need for novel approaches, and phage therapy for controlling Vibrio pathogens has gained interest the past few years.In this study, we examined the potential of the broad-host-range phage, KVP40, to control four different V. anguillarum strains during exposure to cod and turbot larvae by examination of larval mortality and abundance of bacteria and phages. Phage KVP40 was able to reduce and/or delay the mortality of the cod and turbot larvae challenged with V. anguillarum, emphasizing the potential of phage KVP40 to control the added V. anguillarum pathogens. During incubation, however, growth of other pathogenic bacteria associated with the fish eggs prior to incubations caused mortality of the larvae. Interestingly, the addition of phages reduced larval mortality relative to the non-challenged controls (without addition of phage or V. anguillarum), demonstrating that the phage could also reduce mortality imposed by the background population of pathogens. Overall, phage-mediated reduction in mortality of cod and turbot larvae in experimental challenges assays with Vibrio anguillarum pathogens suggested that application of broad host range phages can reduce Vibrio-induced mortality in turbot and cod larvae, emphasizing that phage therapy is a promising alternative to traditional treatment of vibriosis in marine aquaculture.
Title: Engineering of Phage-Derived Lytic Enzymes: Improving Their Potential as Antimicrobials
Author: Carlos São-José
Affiliation: Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa), Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 1649-003 Lisboa, Portugal
Abstract: Lytic enzymes encoded by bacteriophages have been intensively explored as alternative agents for the combat of bacterial pathogens in different contexts. The antibacterial character of these enzymes results from their degrading activity towards peptidoglycan, an essential component of the bacterial cell wall. Very often however, the native lytic proteins exhibit features that restrict their applicability as effective antibacterials, such as poor solubility or reduced lytic efficacy. Here I briefly present an overview of the engineering approaches that have been followed not only to overcome these and other restrictions, but also to generate completely new antibacterial agents with significantly improved properties.
Keywords: Endolysin; lysin; lytic enzyme; peptidoglycan hydrolase; antimicrobial; antibacterial; antibiotic resistance; antimicrobial resistance; bacteriophage