Special Issue "Food Safety Management and Poultry Production"

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A special issue of Agriculture (ISSN 2077-0472).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 July 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Lawrence Goodridge (Website)

Department of Food Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Macdonald Campus, McGill University, 21,111 Lakeshore, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, H9X 3V9, Canada

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

New and improved food safety practices during poultry processing remains an acute necessity due to ongoing outbreaks of foodborne illness associated with consumption of contaminated poultry. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently announced that poultry causes the 4th most foodborne illnesses and the most deaths among major food commodities. As such, there remains a need for research to identify and control hazards at all stages of the poultry supply chain. Control of foodborne contamination occurs at different stages of poultry production beginning at the farm through slaughter, and also includes safe poultry handling practices by consumers. Newer methods to control foodborne contamination have emerged, including the use of bio-control strategies. Such decontamination interventions and strategies must be validated as part of a hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP)-based food safety system.

Dr. Lawrence Goodridge
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Keywords

  • poultry
  • contamination
  • Salmonella
  • Campylobacter
  • HACCP
  • decontamination interventions
  • rapid detection

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Effect of Different Feed Structures and Bedding on the Horizontal Spread of Campylobacter jejuni within Broiler Flocks
Agriculture 2013, 3(4), 741-760; doi:10.3390/agriculture3040741
Received: 15 July 2013 / Revised: 10 October 2013 / Accepted: 20 October 2013 / Published: 30 October 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (767 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we investigated the effects of different feed structures and beddings on the spread of C. jejuni in broiler flocks, and the effect on the cecal microbiota. Broiler chickens raised in 24 eight-bird group cages on either rubber mat or [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigated the effects of different feed structures and beddings on the spread of C. jejuni in broiler flocks, and the effect on the cecal microbiota. Broiler chickens raised in 24 eight-bird group cages on either rubber mat or wood shavings were fed either a wheat-based control diet (Control), a diet where 50% of the ground wheat was replaced by whole wheat prior to pelleting (Wheat), or a wheat-based diet, such as the control diet diluted with 12% oat hulls (Oat). Samples from the cloacal mucosa of all birds were taken daily for C. jejuni quantification and cecum samples were collected at the end of the experiment for C. jejuni quantification and microbiota analyses. We have shown a statistically significant effect of increased feed structure on the reduced spread of C. jejuni in chicken flocks, but no significant differences were detected between types of structure included in the feed. No significant changes in the dominating microbiota in the lower lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract were observed, which indicates that feed structure only has an effect on the upper GI tract. Delaying the spread of C. jejuni in broiler flocks could, at time of slaughter, result in fewer C. jejuni-positive broilers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety Management and Poultry Production)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Risk Priority Number: A Measuring Instrument for Hygienic Management on Broiler Farms, Reflecting Their Campylobacter Status
Agriculture 2013, 3(4), 700-714; doi:10.3390/agriculture3040700
Received: 28 June 2013 / Revised: 2 September 2013 / Accepted: 8 September 2013 / Published: 17 October 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (792 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hygiene management is essential for rearing Campylobacter free broiler flocks. In this study, several hygiene factors (e.g., thinning, water supply, stable cloths, stable condition, stable environment, etc.) are categorized and aggregated in a developed risk priority number (RPN). This number is [...] Read more.
Hygiene management is essential for rearing Campylobacter free broiler flocks. In this study, several hygiene factors (e.g., thinning, water supply, stable cloths, stable condition, stable environment, etc.) are categorized and aggregated in a developed risk priority number (RPN). This number is measuring the quality of hygiene management of a broiler farm with one single value (range: 801–4005 points), the higher the RPN, the better is the hygiene status. The distribution of the values is left skewed and none of the 53 examined Austrian broiler farms reached the maximum. Cecal samples (n = 610) from broilers at the point of slaughter determined the Campylobacter status of the farms. Farms with a high RPN consistently produced more Campylobacter free batches than farms with a low RPN. Ranking of the broiler farms based on their RPN was significantly correlated with their microbiological results for Campylobacter detection (Spearman’s correlation coefficient = 0.646). The risk priority number is an easy tool for the assessment and measurement of the hygiene management system at a broiler farm. Besides the educational benefits of the RPN, benchmarking against the mean value or the maximum is possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety Management and Poultry Production)
Open AccessArticle Identification of Multiple Subtypes of Campylobacter jejuni in Chicken Meat and the Impact on Source Attribution
Agriculture 2013, 3(3), 579-595; doi:10.3390/agriculture3030579
Received: 17 June 2013 / Revised: 15 August 2013 / Accepted: 29 August 2013 / Published: 18 September 2013
PDF Full-text (692 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Most source attribution studies for Campylobacter use subtyping data based on single isolates from foods and environmental sources in an attempt to draw epidemiological inferences. It has been suggested that subtyping only one Campylobacter isolate per chicken carcass incurs a risk of [...] Read more.
Most source attribution studies for Campylobacter use subtyping data based on single isolates from foods and environmental sources in an attempt to draw epidemiological inferences. It has been suggested that subtyping only one Campylobacter isolate per chicken carcass incurs a risk of failing to recognise the presence of clinically relevant, but numerically infrequent, subtypes. To investigate this, between 21 and 25 Campylobacter jejuni isolates from each of ten retail chicken carcasses were subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using the two restriction enzymes SmaI and KpnI. Among the 227 isolates, thirteen subtypes were identified, the most frequently occurring subtype being isolated from three carcasses. Six carcasses carried a single subtype, three carcasses carried two subtypes each and one carcass carried three subtypes. Some subtypes carried by an individual carcass were shown to be potentially clonally related. Comparison of C. jejuni subtypes from chickens with isolate subtypes from human clinical cases (n = 1248) revealed seven of the thirteen chicken subtypes were indistinguishable from human cases. None of the numerically minor chicken subtypes were identified in the human data. Therefore, typing only one Campylobacter isolate from individual chicken carcasses may be adequate to inform Campylobacter source attribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety Management and Poultry Production)
Open AccessArticle Integration of Epidemiological Evidence in a Decision Support Model for the Control of Campylobacter in Poultry Production
Agriculture 2013, 3(3), 516-535; doi:10.3390/agriculture3030516
Received: 1 July 2013 / Revised: 7 August 2013 / Accepted: 28 August 2013 / Published: 3 September 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (664 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The control of human Campylobacteriosis is a priority in public health agendas all over the world. Poultry is considered a significant risk factor for human infections with Campylobacter and risk assessment models indicate that the successful implementation of Campylobacter control strategies in [...] Read more.
The control of human Campylobacteriosis is a priority in public health agendas all over the world. Poultry is considered a significant risk factor for human infections with Campylobacter and risk assessment models indicate that the successful implementation of Campylobacter control strategies in poultry will translate on a reduction of human Campylobacteriosis cases. Efficient control strategies implemented during primary production will reduce the risk of Campylobacter introduction in chicken houses and/or decrease Campylobacter concentration in infected chickens and their products. Consequently, poultry producers need to make difficult decisions under conditions of uncertainty regarding the implementation of Campylobacter control strategies. This manuscript presents the development of probabilistic graphical models to support decision making in order to control Campylobacter in poultry. The decision support systems are constructed as probabilistic graphical models (PGMs) which integrate knowledge and use Bayesian methods to deal with uncertainty. This paper presents a specific model designed to integrate epidemiological knowledge from the United Kingdom (UK model) in order to assist poultry managers in specific decisions related to vaccination of commercial broilers for the control of Campylobacter. Epidemiological considerations and other crucial aspects including challenges associated with the quantitative part of the models are discussed in this manuscript. The outcome of the PGMs will depend on the qualitative and quantitative data included in the models. Results from the UK model and sensitivity analyses indicated that the financial variables (cost/reward functions) and the effectiveness of the control strategies considered in the UK model were driving the results. In fact, there were no or only small financial gains when using a hypothetical vaccine B (able to decrease Campylobacter numbers from two to six logs in 20% of the chickens with a cost of 0.025 £/chicken) and reward system 1 (based on similar gross profits in relation to Campylobacter levels) under the specific assumptions considered in the UK model. In contrast, significant reductions in expected Campylobacter numbers and substantial associated expected financial gains were obtained from this model when considering the reward system 2 (based on quite different gross profits in relation to Campylobacter levels) and the use of a hypothetical cost-effective vaccine C (able to reduce the level of Campylobacter from two to six logs in 90% of the chickens with a cost of 0.03 £/chicken). The flexibility of probabilistic graphical models allows for the inclusion of more than one Campylobacter vaccination strategy and more than one reward system and consequently, diverse potential solutions for the control of Campylobacter may be considered. Cost-effective Campylobacter control strategies that can significantly reduce the probability of Campylobacter introduction into a flock and/or the numbers of Campylobacter in already infected chickens, and translate to an attractive cost-reward balance will be preferred by poultry producers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety Management and Poultry Production)
Open AccessArticle Development of Recombinant Flagellar Antigens for Serological Detection of Salmonella enterica Serotypes Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, and Typhimurium in Poultry
Agriculture 2013, 3(3), 381-397; doi:10.3390/agriculture3030381
Received: 10 May 2013 / Revised: 18 June 2013 / Accepted: 27 June 2013 / Published: 5 July 2013
PDF Full-text (667 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accurate and fast detection of harmful Salmonella is a major concern of food safety. Common Salmonella serotypes responsible for human associated foodborne outbreaks are S. Enteritidis, S. Hadar, S. Heidelberg, and S. Typhimurium are also commonly isolated from poultry. Serology is commonly [...] Read more.
Accurate and fast detection of harmful Salmonella is a major concern of food safety. Common Salmonella serotypes responsible for human associated foodborne outbreaks are S. Enteritidis, S. Hadar, S. Heidelberg, and S. Typhimurium are also commonly isolated from poultry. Serology is commonly used to monitor disease in poultry, therefore application of Salmonella serotype-specific test will have added value in Salmonella surveillance or monitoring vaccine efficacy. Recombinant flagellins were purified to be used as antigens in an ELISA. In this study, an ELISA was developed for the serological detection of S. Enteritidis. Once optimized, 500 ng of purified recombinant S. Enteritidis flagellin and a 1:64 dilution were determined to be optimal for testing sera. A negative baseline cutoff was calculated to be an optical density (OD) of 0.35. All sera from birds with history of S. Enteritidis exposure tested positive and all sera from chickens with no exposure tested negative to this Salmonella serotype. Current ELISA for serological detection of Salmonella suffers from cross reactivity inherent in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or whole cell antigen based serological tests. This new ELISA eliminates common cross reactivity by focusing specifically on the flagellins of the Salmonella serotypes common in poultry and associated with foodborne outbreaks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety Management and Poultry Production)
Open AccessArticle Salmonella Prevalence in Turkey Flocks before and after Implementation of the Control Program in Germany
Agriculture 2013, 3(3), 342-361; doi:10.3390/agriculture3030342
Received: 15 April 2013 / Revised: 17 June 2013 / Accepted: 24 June 2013 / Published: 4 July 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (782 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of the study was to describe the Salmonella prevalence in turkey flocks before and after the implementation of the Salmonella control program in Germany and to identify factors that are potentially associated with the presence of Salmonella in the flocks. [...] Read more.
The objective of the study was to describe the Salmonella prevalence in turkey flocks before and after the implementation of the Salmonella control program in Germany and to identify factors that are potentially associated with the presence of Salmonella in the flocks. To achieve this, all breeding flocks and a representative sample of the fattening flocks were tested for Salmonella. None of the 98 turkey breeding flocks but 31 (10.3%) of 300 turkey fattening flocks were positive for Salmonella spp. in the baseline study during 2006/2007. In 11 (3.7%) fattening flocks S. Enteritidis (1 flock; 0.3%) or S. Typhimurium (8 flocks; 2.7%) or monophasic S. Typhimurium (2 flocks; 0.3%), which are of special public health relevance in Germany, were detected. Logistic regression analysis confirmed that production type and season were significant risk factors for the presence of Salmonella spp. in fattening turkey flocks in Germany. Data from mandatory official testing within the Salmonella control program in 2010 and 2011 revealed that Salmonella prevalence in turkey fattening flocks has decreased significantly to 3.3% and 2.6%. In line with this result, prevalence of S. Enteritidis or S. Typhimurium had decreased to 2.6% and 1.5%. Results indicate that the prevalence of Salmonella in turkey fattening flocks has decreased significantly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety Management and Poultry Production)

Review

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Open AccessReview Microbiological Safety of Chicken Litter or Chicken Litter-Based Organic Fertilizers: A Review
Agriculture 2014, 4(1), 1-29; doi:10.3390/agriculture4010001
Received: 25 November 2013 / Revised: 10 January 2014 / Accepted: 20 January 2014 / Published: 28 January 2014
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (819 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that [...] Read more.
Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans who consume the contaminated food or water. Composting can inactivate pathogens while creating a soil amendment beneficial for application to arable agricultural land. Some foodborne pathogens may have the potential to survive for long periods of time in raw chicken litter or its composted products after land application, and a small population of pathogenic cells may even regrow to high levels when the conditions are favorable for growth. Thermal processing is a good choice for inactivating pathogens in chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers prior to land application. However, some populations may become acclimatized to a hostile environment during build-up or composting and develop heat resistance through cross-protection during subsequent high temperature treatment. Therefore, this paper reviews currently available information on the microbiological safety of chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers, and discusses about further research on developing novel and effective disinfection techniques, including physical, chemical, and biological treatments, as an alternative to current methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety Management and Poultry Production)

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Type of Paper: Article
Title: Effect of Different Feed Structures and Bedding on the Horizontal Spread of Campylobacter jejuni within Broiler Flocks
Author: Birgitte Moen
Affiliation: The Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries and Aquaculture, Nofima, Osloveien 1, Norway
Abstract: The effect of feed structure and litter on spread of C. jejuni in broiler flocks was studied. Broiler chickens raised in 24 eight-bird group cages on either rubber mat or wood shavings were fed either a wheat-based control diet, a diet where 50% of the ground wheat was replaced by whole wheat prior to pelleting, or the control diet diluted with 12% oat hulls. Samples from the cloacal mucosa of all birds were taken daily for C. jejuni quantification and cecum samples were collected at the end of the experiment for C. jejuni quantification and microbiota analysis. Inclusion of whole wheat or oat hulls delayed the spread of C. jejuni in broiler flocks, but no significant differences were detected between types of structure included in the feed. No significant changes in the dominating microbiota in the lower GI tract were observed, which indicates that only the upper GI tract has an effect on feed structure. Delaying the spread of C. jejuni in broiler flocks, could at time of slaughter, result in fewer C. jejuni-positive broilers.

Type of Manuscript: Review
Title:
Systemic Salmonella in Poultry: Identifying Research Needs to Improve Food Safety
Authors:
Jennifer McEntire 1, Scott J. Eilert 2, Barbara J. Masters 3, Rafael E. Rivera 4
Affiliations:
1 Food and Import Safety, Leavitt Partners Global Food Safety Solutions; 2 Food Safety, Quality and Regulatory, Cargill Value Added Meats-Retail, 151 N. Main, Wichita, KS 67201, USA; 3 OFW Law Washington, District of Columbia; 4 Manager Food Safety & Production Programs, US Poultry & Egg Association
Abstract:
Despite the application of on-farm controls and in-plant interventions, outbreaks of salmonellosis have been associated with ground poultry products. It has conventionally been assumed that contamination occurs at the tissue surface, and therefore can best be addressed through good sanitary dressing practices accompanied with surface treatments such as dips and sprays. However, if Salmonella can become systemic in poultry, this may warrant additional research determine if these Salmonella are introduced into the ground product. This paper reviews the existing research studying the ability of Salmonella to systemically infect poultry, and discusses future research needs and the implication for the ground poultry industry if Salmonella is not limited to surface contamination, as previously assumed.

Type of Paper: Article
Title:
Buffering Capacity of Chicken Protects Salmonella against Hydrochloric Acid but not Organic Acid Treatment
Authors: Gary Dykes
Affiliations: School of Science, Monash University, Sunway Campus, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia
Abstract: Acidic marinades have been suggested to improve chicken meat safety by eliminating pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella. Chicken skin and meat are likely to have a buffering capacity which may help reduce the acidic pH of marinades. We investigated (1) the buffering capacity of chicken skin and meat and (2) the effects of organic acids and hydrochloric acid on the survival of Salmonella on chicken skin and meat. The buffering capacity of chicken meat and skin was investigated by measuring changes in the pH of phosphate buffered saline at pH 2, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 both before and after incubation at refrigeration temperature for 24 hours. In a separate experiment, two strains each of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis were inoculated separately onto chicken skin and meat. The inoculated samples were treated with acetic acid, citric acid, lactic acid and hydrochloric acid (HCl) solutions ranging from 0.05M to 0.5M and incubated at refrigeration temperatures for 24 hours. The pH of the acid solutions was measured before and after incubation. Salmonella was enumerated before and after exposure to the acid solutions and compared to a control without the presence of chicken skin and meat. Chicken skin and meat showed buffering capacity and changed both acidic and alkaline solution pH towards neutrality. Chicken meat was shown to exert the best buffering effect by, for example, increasing pH 2 PBS to pH 4.8 (p<0.001). Numbers of Salmonella surviving on chicken decreased as the pH descreased. Among the four acids acetic acid resulted in the fastest (p<0.001) rate of reduction of Salmonella on chicken (slope of 8.8), followed by citric acid (slope of 5.69), lactic acid (slope of 5.26) and HCl (slope of 3.65). Acetic acid effectively eliminated Salmonella on chicken at ~pH 3.8 (p<0.001) while lactic acid and citric acid eliminated Salmonella at ~pH 2.5 and ~pH 2.9 (p>0.05), respectively. Elimination of Salmonella of HCl occurred at pH 1.2 (p<0.05). The buffering effect of chicken meat and skin protected Salmonella against extreme acidic conditions (pH 2) created by HCl, but did not protect Salmonella on chicken treated by organic acids at the same pH. This suggests that the antimicrobial mode of action of organic acid is due to other factors than its acidic pH. In addition, the ability of acetic acid to eliminate Salmonella on chicken meat at approximately pH 4 suggests it has potential for practical application in commercial marination.

 

Title: A Review on Microbiological Safety of Chicken Litter or Chicken Litter-Based Organic Fertilizer and Soil Amendment
Authors:
Zhao Chen 1 and Xiuping Jiang 2
Affiliations:
1 Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, SC, USA; 2 Department of Food, Nutrition, and Packaging Sciences, Clemson University, SC, USA
Abstract
: Chicken litter or chicken litter- based organic fertilizer and soil amendment is usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans who consume the contaminated food or water. Some foodborne pathogens have the great potential to survive for long periods of time in chicken litter or after land application, and a small population of pathogenic cells may regrow to high levels when the conditions are favorable for growth. Thermal processing is often a good choice for inactivating pathogens in chicken litter prior to land application. However, some populations may become acclimatized to desiccation environment during stockpiling and develop heat resistance through cross-protection during subsequent high temperature treatment. Therefore, this paper reviews available information on the microbiological safety of chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizer and soil amendment, and discusses  about further research on developing novel and effective disinfection techniques as an attractive alternative to current methods.

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