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Foods, Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2016)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review, Other

Open AccessEditorial Food Contamination: Major Challenges of the Future
Foods 2016, 5(2), 21; doi:10.3390/foods5020021
Received: 11 March 2016 / Accepted: 22 March 2016 / Published: 23 March 2016
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Abstract
This issue of Foods is dedicated to discuss the microbial, chemical and physical contamination challenges of food products.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial, Chemical and Physical Contamination of Food Products)
Open AccessEditorial Coarse Food Grains Are Important Actors of Healthy and Sustainable Diets
Foods 2016, 5(2), 25; doi:10.3390/foods5020025
Received: 25 March 2016 / Accepted: 28 March 2016 / Published: 30 March 2016
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Abstract
Food health potential is not only due to the sum of its nutrients, but also to its food structure [1]. [...]
Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coarse Food Grain)
Open AccessEditorial Seafood Processing and Safety
Foods 2016, 5(2), 34; doi:10.3390/foods5020034
Received: 6 May 2016 / Accepted: 10 May 2016 / Published: 13 May 2016
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Abstract
Food microorganisms are found on all surfaces (skin and gills) and in the intestines of fishery products.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood Processing and Safety)
Open AccessEditorial Essential Oils in Foods: From Ancient Times to the 21st Century
Foods 2016, 5(2), 43; doi:10.3390/foods5020043
Received: 7 June 2016 / Accepted: 8 June 2016 / Published: 14 June 2016
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Abstract
Medicinal plants and culinary herbs have been used since ancient times. Essential oils (EO) are a mixture of numerous compounds, mainly terpenes, alcohols, acids, esters, epoxides, aldehydes, ketones,aminesandsulfides,thatareprobablyproducedbyplantsasaresponsetostress[1].[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Consumer Choice between Food Safety and Food Quality: The Case of Farm-Raised Atlantic Salmon
Foods 2016, 5(2), 22; doi:10.3390/foods5020022
Received: 5 February 2016 / Revised: 7 March 2016 / Accepted: 15 March 2016 / Published: 25 March 2016
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Abstract
Since the food incidence of polychlorinated biphenyls in farm-raised Atlantic salmon, its market demand has drastically changed as a result of consumers mistrust in both the quality and safety of the product. Policymakers have been trying to find ways to ensure consumers that
[...] Read more.
Since the food incidence of polychlorinated biphenyls in farm-raised Atlantic salmon, its market demand has drastically changed as a result of consumers mistrust in both the quality and safety of the product. Policymakers have been trying to find ways to ensure consumers that farm-raised Atlantic salmon is safe. One of the suggested policies is the implementation of integrated traceability methods and quality control systems. This article examines consumer choice between food safety and food quality to purchase certified farm-raised Atlantic salmon, defined as a product that has passed through various stages of traceability systems in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood Processing and Safety)
Open AccessArticle Compositional Analysis of Whole Grains, Processed Grains, Grain Co-Products, and Other Carbohydrate Sources with Applicability to Pet Animal Nutrition
Foods 2016, 5(2), 23; doi:10.3390/foods5020023
Received: 20 December 2015 / Revised: 16 March 2016 / Accepted: 18 March 2016 / Published: 25 March 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (975 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Our objective was to measure the proximate, starch, amino acid, and mineral compositions of grains, grain co-products, and other carbohydrate sources with potential use in pet foods. Thirty-two samples from barley (barley flake, cut barley, ground pearled barley, malted barley, whole pearled barley,
[...] Read more.
Our objective was to measure the proximate, starch, amino acid, and mineral compositions of grains, grain co-products, and other carbohydrate sources with potential use in pet foods. Thirty-two samples from barley (barley flake, cut barley, ground pearled barley, malted barley, whole pearled barley, pearled barley flakes, and steamed rolled barley); oats (groats, ground oatmeal, ground steamed groats, instant oats, oat bran, oat fiber, oat flour, quick oats, regular rolled oats, steamed rolled oat groats, and steel cut groats); rice (brown rice, polished rice, defatted rice bran, and rice flour); and miscellaneous carbohydrate sources (canary grass seed, hulled millet, whole millet, quinoa, organic spelt hull pellets, potato flake, sorghum, whole wheat, and whole yellow corn) were analyzed. Crude protein, amino acid, fat, dietary fiber, resistant starch, and mineral concentrations were highly variable among the respective fractions (i.e., barley flake vs. malted barley vs. steamed rolled barley) as well as among the various grains (i.e., barley flake vs. brown rice vs. canary grass seed). These ingredients not only provide a readily available energy source, but also a source of dietary fiber, resistant starch, essential amino acids, and macrominerals for pet diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coarse Food Grain)
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Open AccessArticle Distinct Characteristics of Rye and Wheat Breads Impact on Their in Vitro Gastric Disintegration and in Vivo Glucose and Insulin Responses
Foods 2016, 5(2), 24; doi:10.3390/foods5020024
Received: 2 December 2015 / Revised: 20 March 2016 / Accepted: 22 March 2016 / Published: 25 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1412 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Disintegration of rye and wheat breads during in vitro gastric digestion and its relation to the postprandial glucose and insulin responses of the breads was studied. Breads with distinct composition and texture characteristics were prepared with refined or wholegrain wheat and rye flour
[...] Read more.
Disintegration of rye and wheat breads during in vitro gastric digestion and its relation to the postprandial glucose and insulin responses of the breads was studied. Breads with distinct composition and texture characteristics were prepared with refined or wholegrain wheat and rye flour by using either straight dough or sourdough process. After chewing and gastric digestion in vitro, 100% wholemeal and refined rye breads prepared by sourdough method were disintegrated to a much lower extent than the wheat breads, having more bread digesta particles with size over 2 or 3 mm. Microstructure of the digesta particles of rye sourdough bread revealed more aggregated and less degraded starch granules when compared to refined wheat bread. The postprandial insulin responses, but not those of glucose, to the 100% rye breads made with sourdough method were lower than the responses to the refined wheat bread. Addition of gluten or bran in rye sourdough bread increased insulin response. PCA (Principal Component Analysis) analysis confirmed that the insulin response had a negative correlation with the number of larger particles after in vitro digestion as well as amount of soluble fiber and sourdough process. Since the high relative proportion of large sized particles after chewing and in vitro gastric digestion was associated with low postprandial insulin responses, the analysis of structural disintegration in vitro is proposed as a complementary tool in predicting postprandial physiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coarse Food Grain)
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Open AccessArticle Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Germinated Legumes
Foods 2016, 5(2), 27; doi:10.3390/foods5020027
Received: 31 January 2016 / Revised: 31 January 2016 / Accepted: 1 April 2016 / Published: 9 April 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1219 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bioactive compounds, which are naturally produced in plants, have been concerned with the food and pharmaceutical industries because of the pharmacological effects on humans. In this study, the individual phenolics of six legumes during germination and antioxidant capacity from sprout extracts were determined.
[...] Read more.
Bioactive compounds, which are naturally produced in plants, have been concerned with the food and pharmaceutical industries because of the pharmacological effects on humans. In this study, the individual phenolics of six legumes during germination and antioxidant capacity from sprout extracts were determined. It was found that the phenolic content significantly increased during germination in all legumes. Peanuts showed the strongest antioxidant capacity in both the DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) method and the reducing power assay (32.51% and 84.48%, respectively). A total of 13 phenolic acids were detected and quantified. There were 11 phenolic constituents identified in adzuki beans; 10 in soybeans; 9 in black beans, mung beans, and white cowpeas; and 7 compounds in peanuts. Sinapic acid and cinnamic acid were detected in all six legume sprouts, and their quantities in germinated peanuts were the highest (247.9 µg·g−1 and 62.9 µg·g−1, respectively). The study reveals that, among the investigated legumes, germinated peanuts and soybeans obtained maximum phenolics and antioxidant capacity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils from Artemisia herba-alba Asso., Pelargonium capitatum × radens and Laurus nobilis L.
Foods 2016, 5(2), 28; doi:10.3390/foods5020028
Received: 3 March 2016 / Revised: 1 April 2016 / Accepted: 4 April 2016 / Published: 11 April 2016
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Abstract
Essential oils are natural antimicrobials that have the potential to provide a safer alternative to synthetic antimicrobials currently used in the food industry. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils from white wormwood,
[...] Read more.
Essential oils are natural antimicrobials that have the potential to provide a safer alternative to synthetic antimicrobials currently used in the food industry. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils from white wormwood, rose-scented geranium and bay laurel against Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on fresh produce and to examine consumer acceptability of fresh produce treated with these essential oils. Our results showed that essential oil derived from rose-scented geranium exhibited the most effective antimicrobial activity at the same and similar minimum inhibition concentration levels (0.4%, v/v and 0.4% and 0.5%, v/v) respectively against Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7. All three essential oils showed antioxidant properties, with the highest activity occurring in bay laurel essential oil. In a sensory test, tomatoes, cantaloupe and spinach sprayed with 0.4% rose-scented geranium essential oil received higher scores by panelists. In conclusion, rose-scented geranium essential oil could be developed into a natural antimicrobial to prevent contamination of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fresh produce, plus this oil would provide additional health benefits due to the antioxidant properties of its residue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils)
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Open AccessArticle Fundamental Study on the Impact of Gluten-Free Starches on the Quality of Gluten-Free Model Breads
Foods 2016, 5(2), 30; doi:10.3390/foods5020030
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 13 April 2016 / Accepted: 15 April 2016 / Published: 21 April 2016
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Abstract
Starch is widely used as an ingredient and significantly contributes to texture, appearance, and overall acceptability of cereal based foods, playing an important role due to its ability to form a matrix, entrapping air bubbles. A detailed characterisation of five gluten-free starches (corn,
[...] Read more.
Starch is widely used as an ingredient and significantly contributes to texture, appearance, and overall acceptability of cereal based foods, playing an important role due to its ability to form a matrix, entrapping air bubbles. A detailed characterisation of five gluten-free starches (corn, wheat, rice, tapioca, potato) was performed in this study. In addition, the influence of these starches, with different compositional and morphological properties, was evaluated on a simple gluten-free model bread system. The morphological characterisation, evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, revealed some similarities among the starches, which could be linked to the baking performance of the breads. Moreover, the lipid content, though representing one of the minor components in starch, was found to have an influence on pasting, bread making, and staling. Quality differences in cereal root and tuber starch based breads were observed. However, under the baking conditions used, gluten-free rendered wheat starch performed best, followed by potato starch, in terms of loaf volume and cell structure. Tapioca starch and rice starch based breads were not further analysed, due to an inferior baking performance. This is the first study to evaluate gluten-free starch on a simple model bread system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten-Free Foods)
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Open AccessArticle Macular Pigment Optical Density and Measures of Macular Function: Test-Retest Variability, Cross-Sectional Correlations, and Findings from the Zeaxanthin Pilot Study of Response to Supplementation (ZEASTRESS-Pilot)
Foods 2016, 5(2), 32; doi:10.3390/foods5020032
Received: 26 February 2016 / Revised: 24 April 2016 / Accepted: 26 April 2016 / Published: 29 April 2016
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Abstract
We report on the short-term test-retest baseline variability in macular function tests in ZEASTRESS-Pilot participants (n = 18), on their cross-sectional correlation with macular pigment optical density (MPOD), and on the effects of four months (FUV4) of 20 mg/day zeaxanthin (ZX), followed
[...] Read more.
We report on the short-term test-retest baseline variability in macular function tests in ZEASTRESS-Pilot participants (n = 18), on their cross-sectional correlation with macular pigment optical density (MPOD), and on the effects of four months (FUV4) of 20 mg/day zeaxanthin (ZX), followed by a four-month washout (FUV8; n = 24, age 50–81 years old). Outcomes included: MPOD at 0.5 and 2.0 deg eccentricity (MPOD-0.5 and -2.0); contrast sensitivity (CS); pattern-reversal electroretinogram (PERG) amplitude; dark-adapted 650 nm foveal cone sensitivity (DA650-FCS); and 500 mn parafoveal rod sensitivity (DA500-PFRS). All measures of macular function showed close test-retest correlation (Pearson’s r range: 0.744–0.946) and low coefficients of variation (CV range: 1.13%–4.00%). MPOD correlated in a complex fashion with macular function. Following supplementation, MPOD-0.5 and MPOD-2.0 increased at both FUV4 and FUV8 (p ≤ 0.0001 for all measures). Continued, delayed MPOD increase and a small, but significant (p = 0.012), CS increase was seen at FUV8 only in females. PERGs increased significantly at FUV4 (p = 0.0006), followed by a partial decline at FUV8. In conclusion, following ZX supplementation, MPOD increased significantly. There was no effect on DA-650 FCS or DA-500 PFRS. Both CS and PERG amplitudes increased following supplementation, but the effect varied between males and females. Additional studies appear warranted to confirm and characterize further these inter-gender differences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Carotenoids and The Nervous System)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Processing Temperature on Color Properties of Dry-Cured Hams Made without Nitrite
Foods 2016, 5(2), 33; doi:10.3390/foods5020033
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 29 March 2016 / Accepted: 27 April 2016 / Published: 29 April 2016
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Abstract
Dry cured hams were investigated for their ability to develop red color even at low temperature (3–4 °C) and in the absence of added nitrites; results were compared with those obtained from nitrite-free hams made at conventional warm maturing temperatures. Colorimetric parameters (L*,
[...] Read more.
Dry cured hams were investigated for their ability to develop red color even at low temperature (3–4 °C) and in the absence of added nitrites; results were compared with those obtained from nitrite-free hams made at conventional warm maturing temperatures. Colorimetric parameters (L*, a*, b*, and hue) and concentration of the main pigments Zn protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) and heme were measured at three stages of preparation (six, nine, and 12 months), showing that red color was successfully formed at low temperatures, though at a slower rate and less intensively than under warm conditions. Major differences in the pattern of color development were found with the two processing temperatures. While the typical features of an enzyme-dependent mechanism, with a progressive drop in enzyme activity paralleling the synthesis of Zn protoporphyrin IX, were observed at warm temperatures, the same did not occur in cold-made hams, where the enzyme activity was almost unchanged throughout the process. These results, along with data from a descriptive sensory analysis, are supportive of a non-enzymatic mechanism leading to ZnPP (hence the red color) under cold conditions, with an estimated three-month delay compared with nitrite-free hams manufactured in a warm maturing regimen. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Matrix Composition on Detection Threshold Estimates for Methyl Anthranilate and 2-Aminoacetophenone
Foods 2016, 5(2), 35; doi:10.3390/foods5020035
Received: 17 February 2016 / Revised: 30 April 2016 / Accepted: 11 May 2016 / Published: 17 May 2016
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Abstract
Conceptually, a detection threshold represents the lowest concentration at which an individual or a group of individuals can reliably perceive a given stimulus, with a commonly used operational definition of 50% performance above chance. Estimated detection thresholds (DTs), however, are often reported in
[...] Read more.
Conceptually, a detection threshold represents the lowest concentration at which an individual or a group of individuals can reliably perceive a given stimulus, with a commonly used operational definition of 50% performance above chance. Estimated detection thresholds (DTs), however, are often reported in the literature with little attention given to the matrix in which the stimuli were evaluated. Here, we highlight the influence of matrix effects on DTs for two odor-active compounds commonly found in Vitis Labrusca wines. Differences in orthonasal DTs for methyl anthranilate (MA) and 2-aminoacetophenone (2AAP) in water, a model wine system, and wine were demonstrated using a within-subject design and forced choice (i.e., criterion free) psychophysical methods. Six sample triads, each containing two blanks and one spiked sample, were presented to participants with the instructions to choose the “different” sample, and this was repeated in different matrices (water, model wine, and wine). The estimated DTs for both compounds were significantly lower in water versus the model wine system and wine. This finding recapitulates the strong need to carefully consider the nature of the delivery matrix when determining and comparing threshold estimates across studies. Additionally, data from prior reports have suggested DTs for MA and 2AAP may differ by two orders of magnitude in spite of their structural similarity. We failed to confirm this difference here: although 2AAP thresholds were somewhat lower than MA thresholds, differences were much smaller than what had been suggested previously. This, again, emphasizes the need to make comparisons within the same individuals, using appropriate methods with sufficient numbers of participants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavour Volatiles of Foods)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Turmeric Powder Adulterated with Metanil Yellow Using FT-Raman and FT-IR Spectroscopy
Foods 2016, 5(2), 36; doi:10.3390/foods5020036
Received: 14 April 2016 / Revised: 6 May 2016 / Accepted: 11 May 2016 / Published: 17 May 2016
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Abstract
Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L.) is valued both for its medicinal properties and for its popular culinary use, such as being a component in curry powder. Due to its high demand in international trade, turmeric powder has been subject to economically driven,
[...] Read more.
Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L.) is valued both for its medicinal properties and for its popular culinary use, such as being a component in curry powder. Due to its high demand in international trade, turmeric powder has been subject to economically driven, hazardous chemical adulteration. This study utilized Fourier Transform-Raman (FT-Raman) and Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy as separate but complementary methods for detecting metanil yellow adulteration of turmeric powder. Sample mixtures of turmeric powder and metanil yellow were prepared at concentrations of 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 1%, and 0.01% (w/w). FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra were acquired for these mixture samples as well as for pure samples of turmeric powder and metanil yellow. Spectral analysis showed that the FT-IR method in this study could detect the metanil yellow at the 5% concentration, while the FT-Raman method appeared to be more sensitive and could detect the metanil yellow at the 1% concentration. Relationships between metanil yellow spectral peak intensities and metanil yellow concentration were established using representative peaks at FT-Raman 1406 cm−1 and FT-IR 1140 cm−1 with correlation coefficients of 0.93 and 0.95, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial, Chemical and Physical Contamination of Food Products)
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Open AccessCommunication Preparation of a Breadfruit Flour Bar
Foods 2016, 5(2), 37; doi:10.3390/foods5020037
Received: 21 March 2016 / Revised: 27 April 2016 / Accepted: 13 May 2016 / Published: 20 May 2016
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Abstract
Breadfruit is a nutritious, high energy food with a low quantity of protein but excellent protein quality. It has the potential to be developed into desired products which will help increase its utilization and add value to the crop. The overall purposes of
[...] Read more.
Breadfruit is a nutritious, high energy food with a low quantity of protein but excellent protein quality. It has the potential to be developed into desired products which will help increase its utilization and add value to the crop. The overall purposes of this investigation were to develop a portable, nutritious, ready-to-eat breadfruit product (bar), test the sensory qualities of the product, and evaluate the nutritional properties of the product. Flour made from the Micronesian variety, Meinpadahk (Artocarpus altilis × Artocarpus mariannensis), was utilized for the development of the breadfruit bar. Breadfruit is a rich source of fiber, vitamins such as vitamin C, minerals such as potassium, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Nutritional labeling indicates that the breadfruit bar is high in carbohydrates and low in fat, and sensory evaluation indicates that 81% of the panelists found the bar acceptable while 19% disliked the bar. The breadfruit bar can provide an appealing and inexpensive gluten-free food source based on locally available breadfruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten-Free Foods)
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Open AccessArticle Soybean-Enriched Snacks Based on African Rice
Foods 2016, 5(2), 38; doi:10.3390/foods5020038
Received: 13 April 2016 / Revised: 16 May 2016 / Accepted: 18 May 2016 / Published: 20 May 2016
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Abstract
Snacks were produced by extruding blends of partially-defatted soybean flour with flours from milled or parboiled African-grown rice. The interplay between composition and processing in producing snacks with a satisfactory sensory profile was addressed by e-sensing, and by molecular and rheological approaches. Soybean
[...] Read more.
Snacks were produced by extruding blends of partially-defatted soybean flour with flours from milled or parboiled African-grown rice. The interplay between composition and processing in producing snacks with a satisfactory sensory profile was addressed by e-sensing, and by molecular and rheological approaches. Soybean proteins play a main role in defining the properties of the protein network in the products. At the same content in soybean flour, use of parboiled rice flour increases the snack’s hardness. Electronic nose and electronic tongue discriminated samples containing a higher amount of soybean flour from those with a lower soybean flour content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten-Free Foods)
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Open AccessArticle Motivations for Food Consumption during Specific Eating Occasions in Turkey
Foods 2016, 5(2), 39; doi:10.3390/foods5020039
Received: 26 February 2016 / Revised: 13 April 2016 / Accepted: 18 May 2016 / Published: 24 May 2016
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Abstract
Several studies in different countries have been conducted to investigate factors affecting food choices. The objective of this study was to understand the motivations of specific food and beverage choices for different eating occasions in a typical diet of the Turkish people. A
[...] Read more.
Several studies in different countries have been conducted to investigate factors affecting food choices. The objective of this study was to understand the motivations of specific food and beverage choices for different eating occasions in a typical diet of the Turkish people. A convenience sample of 141 respondents from seven different geographical regions in Turkey completed an online survey questionnaire that included questions about demographic information and details about their latest eating occasion. Respondents reported all of their motivations for choosing each food/beverage item reported for that specific eating occasion. Results indicated that different motivations played different roles in food choices of people in Turkey. Liking was a key characteristic for all eating occasions, but key natural concerns were even more important at breakfast, and need and hunger were more important for a mid-afternoon snack. Lunch involved additional motivations such as Sociability, Variety Seeking, and Social Norms. In addition to Liking, choices of different food groups were also driven by other motivations such as Habits, Convenience, Need and Hunger, Natural Concerns, and Health. This study helped better understand the current dietary patterns of Turkish people as well as the motives underlying their choices of foods and beverages for different meals and snacks. These findings could be useful for dietary campaigns that aim to improve eating behaviors in Turkey. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Food Intake in Australia: Comparing the 1995 and 2011 National Nutrition Survey Results Disaggregated into Basic Foods
Foods 2016, 5(2), 40; doi:10.3390/foods5020040
Received: 26 April 2016 / Revised: 20 May 2016 / Accepted: 23 May 2016 / Published: 25 May 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (213 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
As nations seek to address obesity and diet-related chronic disease, understanding shifts in food intake over time is an imperative. However, quantifying intake of basic foods is not straightforward because of the diversity of raw and cooked wholefoods, processed foods and mixed dishes
[...] Read more.
As nations seek to address obesity and diet-related chronic disease, understanding shifts in food intake over time is an imperative. However, quantifying intake of basic foods is not straightforward because of the diversity of raw and cooked wholefoods, processed foods and mixed dishes actually consumed. In this study, data from the Australian national nutrition surveys of 1995 and 2011, each involving more than 12,000 individuals and covering more than 4500 separate foods, were coherently disaggregated into basic foods, with cooking and processing factors applied where necessary. Although Australians are generally not eating in a manner consistent with national dietary guidelines, there have been several positive changes. Australians are eating more whole fruit, a greater diversity of vegetables, more beans, peas and pulses, less refined sugar, and they have increased their preference for brown and wholegrain cereals. Adult Australians have also increased their intake of nuts and seeds. Fruit juice consumption markedly declined, especially for younger Australians. Cocoa consumption increased and shifts in dairy product intake were mixed, reflecting one of several important differences between age and gender cohorts. This study sets the context for more detailed research at the level of specific foods to understand individual and household differences. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Volatile Composition of Essential Oils from Different Aromatic Herbs Grown in Mediterranean Regions of Spain
Foods 2016, 5(2), 41; doi:10.3390/foods5020041
Received: 29 March 2016 / Revised: 10 May 2016 / Accepted: 23 May 2016 / Published: 25 May 2016
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Abstract
Volatile composition of essential oils from dill, parsley, coriander, and mint were investigated at different harvest dates to determine the most suitable harvest time for each these herbs. Hydrodistillation (HD), using a Deryng system, was used for isolating the essential oils. Isolation and
[...] Read more.
Volatile composition of essential oils from dill, parsley, coriander, and mint were investigated at different harvest dates to determine the most suitable harvest time for each these herbs. Hydrodistillation (HD), using a Deryng system, was used for isolating the essential oils. Isolation and identification of the volatile compounds were performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) instrument. The results of gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) analysis (quantification) showed that the main components in the essential oil of dill shoots were α-phellandrene, dill ether, and β-phellandrene, and the optimal harvest date was D2 (second harvest, fourth week of February 2015). For parsley shoots, the main compounds were 1,3,8-p-menthatriene, β-phellandrene, and P1 (first harvest, third week of November 2014) was the sample with the highest essential oil. For coriander, the main compounds were E-2-dodecenal, dodecanal, and octane and the highest contents were found at C2 (second harvest, 5 February 2015); while, the main two components of mint essential oil were carvone and limonene, and the highest contents were found at M1 (first harvest, second week of December 2014). The present study was the first one reporting data on descriptive sensory analysis of aromatic herbs at this optimal harvest date according to the content of volatile compounds of their essential oils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavour Volatiles of Foods)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Electrolytically-Generated Hypochlorous Acid (‘Electrolyzed Water’) for Sanitation of Meat and Meat-Contact Surfaces
Foods 2016, 5(2), 42; doi:10.3390/foods5020042
Received: 13 April 2016 / Revised: 22 May 2016 / Accepted: 7 June 2016 / Published: 13 June 2016
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Abstract
‘Electrolyzed water’ generators are readily available in the food industry as a renewable source of hypochlorous acid that eliminates the need for workers to handle hazardous hypochlorite concentrates. We applied electrolyzed water (EW) directly to multi-strain cocktails of Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7,
[...] Read more.
‘Electrolyzed water’ generators are readily available in the food industry as a renewable source of hypochlorous acid that eliminates the need for workers to handle hazardous hypochlorite concentrates. We applied electrolyzed water (EW) directly to multi-strain cocktails of Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and Salmonella sp. at 250 ppm free available chlorine (FAC) and achieved greater than 6-log reductions in 2 min. Lower EW values were examined as antimicrobial interventions for fresh meat (beef carcasses), processed meats (frankfurters), and food contact surfaces (slicing blades). Little or no reduction relative to controls was observed when generic E. coli-inoculated beef carcasses or L. monocytogenes-inoculated frankfurters were showered with EW. Spray application of EW (25 and 250-ppm FAC) onto L. monocytogenes-inoculated slicing blades showed that greater reductions were obtained with ‘clean’ (3.6 and 5.7-log reduction) vs. ‘dirty’ (0.6 and 3.3-log reduction) slicing blades, respectively. Trials with L. monocytogenes-inoculated protein-EW solutions demonstrated that protein content as low as 0.1% is capable of eliminating FAC, reducing antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes. EW appears better positioned as a surface sanitizer with minimal organic material that can otherwise act as an effective reducing agent to the oxidizing solution rendering it ineffective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial, Chemical and Physical Contamination of Food Products)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Bitterness-Masking Effect of Powdered Roasted Soybeans
Foods 2016, 5(2), 44; doi:10.3390/foods5020044
Received: 10 May 2016 / Revised: 12 June 2016 / Accepted: 14 June 2016 / Published: 18 June 2016
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Abstract
The masking of bitterness is considered important because many pharmaceutical compounds have a bitter taste. The bitterness-masking effect of powdered roasted soybeans (PRS) was investigated using a bitter taste sensor. PRS was revealed to significantly suppress the bitterness of quinine hydrochloride and denatonium
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The masking of bitterness is considered important because many pharmaceutical compounds have a bitter taste. The bitterness-masking effect of powdered roasted soybeans (PRS) was investigated using a bitter taste sensor. PRS was revealed to significantly suppress the bitterness of quinine hydrochloride and denatonium benzoate. Furthermore, the bitterness-masking mechanism of PRS extracts was evaluated using dynamic light scattering. These results showed that the extracted suspension consisted of particles that were several hundreds of nanometers in size. Analysis of the PRS extracts by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicated that denatonium benzoate was entrapped in the PRS extracts. Thus, PRS may be useful as a bitterness-masking agent in orally administered pharmaceuticals. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Food Safety Impacts from Post-Harvest Processing Procedures of Molluscan Shellfish
Foods 2016, 5(2), 29; doi:10.3390/foods5020029
Received: 4 March 2016 / Revised: 1 April 2016 / Accepted: 7 April 2016 / Published: 18 April 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (658 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Post-harvest Processing (PHP) methods are viable food processing methods employed to reduce human pathogens in molluscan shellfish that would normally be consumed raw, such as raw oysters on the half-shell. Efficacy of human pathogen reduction associated with PHP varies with respect to time,
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Post-harvest Processing (PHP) methods are viable food processing methods employed to reduce human pathogens in molluscan shellfish that would normally be consumed raw, such as raw oysters on the half-shell. Efficacy of human pathogen reduction associated with PHP varies with respect to time, temperature, salinity, pressure, and process exposure. Regulatory requirements and PHP molluscan shellfish quality implications are major considerations for PHP usage. Food safety impacts associated with PHP of molluscan shellfish vary in their efficacy and may have synergistic outcomes when combined. Further research for many PHP methods are necessary and emerging PHP methods that result in minimal quality loss and effective human pathogen reduction should be explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood Processing and Safety)
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Open AccessReview A Summary of the United States Food and Drug Administrations’ Food Safety Program for Imported Seafood; One Country’s Approach
Foods 2016, 5(2), 31; doi:10.3390/foods5020031
Received: 30 January 2016 / Revised: 6 April 2016 / Accepted: 22 April 2016 / Published: 29 April 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (660 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is well known that the vast majority of seafood is captured or farmed in emerging countries and exported to developed countries. This has resulted in seafood being the number one traded food commodity in the world. Food safety is essential to this
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It is well known that the vast majority of seafood is captured or farmed in emerging countries and exported to developed countries. This has resulted in seafood being the number one traded food commodity in the world. Food safety is essential to this trade. Exporting countries should understand the regulatory food safety programs of the countries they ship to in order to comply with their applicable laws and regulations to avoid violations and disruptions in trade. The United States (U.S.) imports more seafood than any individual country in the world but the European Union (E.U.) countries, as a block, import significantly more. Each importing country has its own programs and systems in place to ensure the safety of imported seafood. However, most countries that export seafood have regulatory programs in place that comply with the import requirements of the E.U. The purpose of this paper is to describe the United States Food and Drug Administration’s (USFDA) imported seafood safety program. The primary audience for the information is foreign government regulators, seafood exporters, and U.S. importers. It can also give consumers confidence that f U.S. seafood is safe no matter which country it originates from. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood Processing and Safety)
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Other

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Open AccessBrief Report The Effects of Fortification of Legumes and Extrusion on the Protein Digestibility of Wheat Based Snack
Foods 2016, 5(2), 26; doi:10.3390/foods5020026
Received: 26 February 2016 / Revised: 31 March 2016 / Accepted: 1 April 2016 / Published: 6 April 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cereal food products are an important part of the human diet with wheat being the most commonly consumed cereal in many parts of the world. Extruded snack products are increasing in consumer interest due to their texture and ease of use. However, wheat
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Cereal food products are an important part of the human diet with wheat being the most commonly consumed cereal in many parts of the world. Extruded snack products are increasing in consumer interest due to their texture and ease of use. However, wheat based foods are rich in starch and are associated with high glycaemic impact products. Although legume materials are generally rich in fibre and protein and may be of high nutritive value, there is a paucity of research regarding their use in extruded snack food products. The aim of this study was to prepare wheat-based extrudates using four different legume flours: lentil, chickpea, green pea, and yellow pea flour. The effects of adding legumes to wheat-based snacks at different levels (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%) during extrusion were investigated in terms of protein digestibility. It was observed that fortification of snacks with legumes caused a slight increase in the protein content by 1%–1.5% w/w, and the extrusion technique increased the protein digestibility by 37%–62% w/v. The product developed by extrusion was found to be low in fat and moisture content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coarse Food Grain)

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