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Foods 2016, 5(2), 40; doi:10.3390/foods5020040

Changes in Food Intake in Australia: Comparing the 1995 and 2011 National Nutrition Survey Results Disaggregated into Basic Foods

1
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Agriculture, Private Bag 10, Clayton South, Victoria 3169, Australia
2
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa
3
CSIRO Food and Nutrition, PO Box 10041, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia
4
CSIRO Food and Nutrition, Private Bag 16, Werribee, Victoria 3030, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anthony Fardet
Received: 26 April 2016 / Revised: 20 May 2016 / Accepted: 23 May 2016 / Published: 25 May 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [213 KB, uploaded 25 May 2016]

Abstract

As nations seek to address obesity and diet-related chronic disease, understanding shifts in food intake over time is an imperative. However, quantifying intake of basic foods is not straightforward because of the diversity of raw and cooked wholefoods, processed foods and mixed dishes actually consumed. In this study, data from the Australian national nutrition surveys of 1995 and 2011, each involving more than 12,000 individuals and covering more than 4500 separate foods, were coherently disaggregated into basic foods, with cooking and processing factors applied where necessary. Although Australians are generally not eating in a manner consistent with national dietary guidelines, there have been several positive changes. Australians are eating more whole fruit, a greater diversity of vegetables, more beans, peas and pulses, less refined sugar, and they have increased their preference for brown and wholegrain cereals. Adult Australians have also increased their intake of nuts and seeds. Fruit juice consumption markedly declined, especially for younger Australians. Cocoa consumption increased and shifts in dairy product intake were mixed, reflecting one of several important differences between age and gender cohorts. This study sets the context for more detailed research at the level of specific foods to understand individual and household differences. View Full-Text
Keywords: Australian Guide to Healthy Eating; Australian Health Survey; dietary transition; eating habits; food consumption pattern; food choices; food intake; National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey Australian Guide to Healthy Eating; Australian Health Survey; dietary transition; eating habits; food consumption pattern; food choices; food intake; National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ridoutt, B.; Baird, D.; Bastiaans, K.; Hendrie, G.; Riley, M.; Sanguansri, P.; Syrette, J.; Noakes, M. Changes in Food Intake in Australia: Comparing the 1995 and 2011 National Nutrition Survey Results Disaggregated into Basic Foods. Foods 2016, 5, 40.

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