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Foods 2016, 5(2), 24; doi:10.3390/foods5020024

Distinct Characteristics of Rye and Wheat Breads Impact on Their in Vitro Gastric Disintegration and in Vivo Glucose and Insulin Responses

1
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, 02150 Espoo, Finland
2
Department of Food and Environmental sciences, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
3
Department of Clinical Nutrition, Food and Health Research Centre, School of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anthony Fardet
Received: 2 December 2015 / Revised: 20 March 2016 / Accepted: 22 March 2016 / Published: 25 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coarse Food Grain)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1412 KB, uploaded 25 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

Disintegration of rye and wheat breads during in vitro gastric digestion and its relation to the postprandial glucose and insulin responses of the breads was studied. Breads with distinct composition and texture characteristics were prepared with refined or wholegrain wheat and rye flour by using either straight dough or sourdough process. After chewing and gastric digestion in vitro, 100% wholemeal and refined rye breads prepared by sourdough method were disintegrated to a much lower extent than the wheat breads, having more bread digesta particles with size over 2 or 3 mm. Microstructure of the digesta particles of rye sourdough bread revealed more aggregated and less degraded starch granules when compared to refined wheat bread. The postprandial insulin responses, but not those of glucose, to the 100% rye breads made with sourdough method were lower than the responses to the refined wheat bread. Addition of gluten or bran in rye sourdough bread increased insulin response. PCA (Principal Component Analysis) analysis confirmed that the insulin response had a negative correlation with the number of larger particles after in vitro digestion as well as amount of soluble fiber and sourdough process. Since the high relative proportion of large sized particles after chewing and in vitro gastric digestion was associated with low postprandial insulin responses, the analysis of structural disintegration in vitro is proposed as a complementary tool in predicting postprandial physiology. View Full-Text
Keywords: rye; wheat; bread; sourdough; in vitro digestion; particle size; insulin response; glucose response rye; wheat; bread; sourdough; in vitro digestion; particle size; insulin response; glucose response
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nordlund, E.; Katina, K.; Mykkänen, H.; Poutanen, K. Distinct Characteristics of Rye and Wheat Breads Impact on Their in Vitro Gastric Disintegration and in Vivo Glucose and Insulin Responses. Foods 2016, 5, 24.

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