Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Foods, Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2014), Pages 194-393

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-13
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Effect of Pre-Harvest Sprouting on Physicochemical Properties of Starch in Wheat
Foods 2014, 3(2), 194-207; doi:10.3390/foods3020194
Received: 12 February 2014 / Revised: 6 March 2014 / Accepted: 26 March 2014 / Published: 8 April 2014
PDF Full-text (442 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) occurs when physiologically mature kernels begin germinating in the spike. The objective of this study was to provide fundamental information on physicochemical changes of starch due to PHS in Hard Red Spring (HRS) [...] Read more.
Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) occurs when physiologically mature kernels begin germinating in the spike. The objective of this study was to provide fundamental information on physicochemical changes of starch due to PHS in Hard Red Spring (HRS) and Hard White Spring (HWS) wheat. The mean values of α-amylase activity of non-sprouted and sprouted wheat samples were 0.12 CU/g and 2.00 CU/g, respectively. Sprouted samples exhibited very low peak and final viscosities compared to non-sprouted wheat samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that starch granules in sprouted samples were partially hydrolyzed. Based on High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC) profiles, the starch from sprouted samples had relatively lower molecular weight than that of non-sprouted samples. Overall, high α-amylase activity caused changes to the physicochemical properties of the PHS damaged wheat. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle 1H NMR Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis of Monovarietal EVOOs as a Tool for Modulating Coratina-Based Blends
Foods 2014, 3(2), 238-249; doi:10.3390/foods3020238
Received: 31 January 2014 / Revised: 26 March 2014 / Accepted: 8 April 2014 / Published: 17 April 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (688 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Coratina cultivar-based olives are very common among 100% Italian extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs). Often, the very spicy character of this cultivar, mostly due to the high polyphenols concentration, requires blending with other “sweetener” oils. In this work, monovarietal EVOO samples from [...] Read more.
Coratina cultivar-based olives are very common among 100% Italian extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs). Often, the very spicy character of this cultivar, mostly due to the high polyphenols concentration, requires blending with other “sweetener” oils. In this work, monovarietal EVOO samples from the Coratina cultivar (Apulia, Italy) were investigated and compared with monovarietal EVOO from native or recently introduced Apulian (Italy) cultivars (Ogliarola Garganica, Ogliarola Barese, Cima di Mola, Peranzana, Picholine), from Calabria (Italy) (Carolea and Rossanese) and from other Mediterranean countries, such as Spain (Picual) and Greece (Kalamata and Koroneiki) by 1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis (principal component analysis (PCA)). In this regard, NMR signals could allow a first qualitative evaluation of the chemical composition of EVOO and, in particular, of its minor component content (phenols and aldehydes), an intrinsic behavior of EVOO taste, related to the cultivar and geographical origins. Moreover, this study offers an opportunity to address blended EVOOs tastes by using oils from a specific region or country of origin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2013)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Change in Color and Volatile Composition of Skim Milk Processed with Pulsed Electric Field and Microfiltration Treatments or Heat Pasteurization
Foods 2014, 3(2), 250-268; doi:10.3390/foods3020250
Received: 9 December 2013 / Revised: 28 March 2014 / Accepted: 10 April 2014 / Published: 23 April 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (372 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Non-thermal processing methods, such as pulsed electric field (PEF) and tangential-flow microfiltration (TFMF), are emerging processing technologies that can minimize the deleterious effects of high temperature short time (HTST) pasteurization on quality attributes of skim milk. The present study investigates the impact [...] Read more.
Non-thermal processing methods, such as pulsed electric field (PEF) and tangential-flow microfiltration (TFMF), are emerging processing technologies that can minimize the deleterious effects of high temperature short time (HTST) pasteurization on quality attributes of skim milk. The present study investigates the impact of PEF and TFMF, alone or in combination, on color and volatile compounds in skim milk. PEF was applied at 28 or 40 kV/cm for 1122 to 2805 µs, while microfiltration (MF) was conducted using membranes with three pore sizes (lab-scale 0.65 and 1.2 µm TFMF, and pilot-scale 1.4 µm MF). HTST control treatments were applied at 75 or 95 °C for 20 and 45 s, respectively. Noticeable color changes were observed with the 0.65 µm TFMF treatment. No significant color changes were observed in PEF-treated, 1.2 µm TFMF-treated, HTST-treated, and 1.4 µm MF-treated skim milk (p ≥ 0.05) but the total color difference indicated better color retention with non-thermal preservation. The latter did not affect raw skim milk volatiles significantly after single or combined processing (p ≥ 0.05), but HTST caused considerable changes in their composition, including ketones, free fatty acids, hydrocarbons, and sulfur compounds (p < 0.05). The findings indicate that for the particular thermal and non-thermal treatments selected for this study, better retention of skim milk color and flavor components were obtained for the non-thermal treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structure and Flavour of Dairy Products)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Kimchi Fermentation on Oxalate Levels in Silver Beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla)
Foods 2014, 3(2), 269-278; doi:10.3390/foods3020269
Received: 17 December 2013 / Revised: 14 April 2014 / Accepted: 14 April 2014 / Published: 23 April 2014
PDF Full-text (361 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Total, soluble and insoluble oxalates were extracted and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) following the preparation of kimchi using silver beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla) stems and leaves. As silver beet contains high oxalate concentrations and consumption of high [...] Read more.
Total, soluble and insoluble oxalates were extracted and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) following the preparation of kimchi using silver beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla) stems and leaves. As silver beet contains high oxalate concentrations and consumption of high levels can cause the development of kidney stones in some people, the reduction of oxalate during preparation and fermentation of kimchi was investigated. The silver beet stems and leaves were soaked in a 10% brine solution for 11 h and then washed in cold tap water. The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the silver beet leaves were reduced by soaking in brine, from 4275.81 ± 165.48 mg/100 g to 3709.49 ± 216.51 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). Fermenting the kimchi for 5 days at 19.3 ± 0.8 °C in 5 L ceramic jars with a water airtight seal resulted in a mean 38.50% reduction in total oxalate content and a mean 22.86% reduction in soluble oxalates. The total calcium content was essentially the same before and after the fermentation of the kimchi (mean 296.1 mg/100 g FW). The study showed that fermentation of kimchi significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the total oxalate concentration in the initial mix from 609.32 ± 15.69 to 374.71 ± 7.94 mg/100 g FW in the final mix which led to a 72.3% reduction in the amount of calcium bound to insoluble oxalate. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle A Novel Proteomic Analysis of the Modifications Induced by High Hydrostatic Pressure on Hazelnut Water-Soluble Proteins
Foods 2014, 3(2), 279-289; doi:10.3390/foods3020279
Received: 28 January 2014 / Revised: 17 April 2014 / Accepted: 17 April 2014 / Published: 5 May 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (616 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Food allergies to hazelnut represent an important health problem in industrialized countries because of their high prevalence and severity. Food allergenicity can be changed by several processing procedures since food proteins may undergo modifications which could alter immunoreactivity. High-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is [...] Read more.
Food allergies to hazelnut represent an important health problem in industrialized countries because of their high prevalence and severity. Food allergenicity can be changed by several processing procedures since food proteins may undergo modifications which could alter immunoreactivity. High-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is an emerging processing technology used to develop novel and high-quality foods. The effect of HHP on allergenicity is currently being investigated through changes in protein structure. Our aim is to evaluate the effect of HHP on the protein profile of hazelnut immunoreactive extracts by comparative proteomic analysis with ProteomeLab PF-2D liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. This protein fractionation method resolves proteins by isoelectric point and hydrophobicity in the first and second dimension, respectively. Second dimension chromatogram analyses show that some protein peaks present in unpressurized hazelnut must be unsolubilized and are not present in HHP-treated hazelnut extracts. Our results show that HHP treatment at low temperature induced marked changes on hazelnut water-soluble protein profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Pressure Processing of Foods)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Comparison of the Digestibility of the Major Peanut Allergens in Thermally Processed Peanuts and in Pure Form
Foods 2014, 3(2), 290-303; doi:10.3390/foods3020290
Received: 14 March 2014 / Revised: 8 April 2014 / Accepted: 25 April 2014 / Published: 7 May 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (671 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It has been suggested that the boiling or frying of peanuts leads to less allergenic products than roasting. Here, we have compared the digestibility of the major peanut allergens in the context of peanuts subjected to boiling, frying or roasting and in [...] Read more.
It has been suggested that the boiling or frying of peanuts leads to less allergenic products than roasting. Here, we have compared the digestibility of the major peanut allergens in the context of peanuts subjected to boiling, frying or roasting and in purified form. The soluble peanut extracts and the purified allergens were digested with either trypsin or pepsin and analyzed by gel electrophoresis and western blot. T-cell proliferation was measured for the purified allergens. In most cases, boiled and raw peanut proteins were similarly digestible, but the Ara h 1 protein in the boiled extracts was more resistant to digestion. Most proteins from fried and roasted peanuts were more resistant to digestion than in raw and boiled samples, and more IgE binding fragments survived digestion. High-molecular-weight fragments of Ara h1 were resistant to digestion in fried and roasted samples. Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 purified from roasted peanuts were the most resistant to digestion, but differed in their ability to stimulate T-cells. The differences in digestibility and IgE binding properties of the major allergens in roasted, fried and boiled peanuts may not explain the difference between the prevalence of peanut allergy in different countries that consume peanut following these varied processing methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Processing of Foods)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Particle Orientation during Thermal Processing of Canned Peach Halves: A CFD Simulation
Foods 2014, 3(2), 304-317; doi:10.3390/foods3020304
Received: 1 March 2014 / Revised: 23 April 2014 / Accepted: 30 April 2014 / Published: 8 May 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1257 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this work was to apply Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to study the effect of particle orientation on fluid flow, temperature evolution, as well as microbial destruction, during thermal processing of still cans filled with peach halves in sugar syrup. [...] Read more.
The objective of this work was to apply Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to study the effect of particle orientation on fluid flow, temperature evolution, as well as microbial destruction, during thermal processing of still cans filled with peach halves in sugar syrup. A still metal can with four peach halves in 20% sugar syrup was heated at 100 °C for 20 min and thereafter cooled at 20 °C. Infinite heat transfer coefficient between heating medium and external can wall was considered. Peach halves were orderly placed inside the can with the empty space originally occupied by the kernel facing, in all peaches, either towards the top or the bottom of the can. In a third situation, the can was placed horizontally. Simulations revealed differences on particle temperature profiles, as well as process F values and critical point location, based on their orientation. At their critical points, peach halves with the kernel space facing towards the top of the can heated considerably slower and cooled faster than the peaches having their kernel space facing towards the bottom of the can. The horizontal can case exhibited intermediate cooling but the fastest heating rates and the highest F process values among the three cases examined. The results of this study could be used in designing of thermal processes with optimal product quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Processing of Foods)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Effect of Radio Frequency Heating on Yoghurt, I: Technological Applicability, Shelf-Life and Sensorial Quality
Foods 2014, 3(2), 318-335; doi:10.3390/foods3020318
Received: 27 February 2014 / Revised: 14 April 2014 / Accepted: 4 May 2014 / Published: 15 May 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (835 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This first part of a two-part study focuses on the technical feasibility of applying radio frequency (RF) heating at different temperatures (58, 65 and 72 °C) to a stirred yoghurt gel after culturing. For comparison, a convectional (CV) heating process was also [...] Read more.
This first part of a two-part study focuses on the technical feasibility of applying radio frequency (RF) heating at different temperatures (58, 65 and 72 °C) to a stirred yoghurt gel after culturing. For comparison, a convectional (CV) heating process was also applied. The aim was to increase the yoghurt shelf-life, by preventing post-acidification and the growth of yeasts and molds. At the same time, the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was investigated in view of existing legal regulations for yoghurts. Additionally, the yoghurt color, aroma and taste profiles were evaluated. It was found that the application of RF heating was effective for the rapid attainment of homogenous temperatures of 58 and 65 °C, respectively. For RF heating at 72 °C, it was not possible to establish a stable heating regime, since in some cases, there was significant overheating followed by strong contraction of the yoghurt curd and whey separation. Hence, it was decided not to continue with the RF heating series at 72 °C. In the case of CV heating, heat transfer limitations were observed, and prolonged heating was required. Nevertheless, we showed that yeasts and molds survived neither the RF nor CV heat treatment. LAB were found not to survive the CV treatment, but these beneficial microorganisms were still present in reduced numbers after RF heating to 58 and 65 °C. This important observation is most likely related to the mildness of RF treatment. While post-acidification was not observed on yoghurt storage, slight color changes occurred after heat treatment. The flavor and taste profiles were shown to be similar to the reference product. Furthermore, a trained sensory panel was not able to distinguish between, for example, the reference yoghurt and the RF 65 °C sample by triangular testing (α = 5%), showing the potential of novel strategies for further improvements of heat-treated yoghurt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Processing of Foods)
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Oral Intake of Low-Temperature-Processed Whey Protein Concentrate on Colitis and Gene Expression Profiles in Mice
Foods 2014, 3(2), 351-368; doi:10.3390/foods3020351
Received: 30 April 2014 / Revised: 30 May 2014 / Accepted: 3 June 2014 / Published: 13 June 2014
PDF Full-text (1497 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology and can lead to inflammation and cancer. Whey proteins contain many bioactive peptides with potential health benefits against IBD. We investigated the effect of low-temperature-processed whey protein concentrate (LWPC) on the [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology and can lead to inflammation and cancer. Whey proteins contain many bioactive peptides with potential health benefits against IBD. We investigated the effect of low-temperature-processed whey protein concentrate (LWPC) on the suppression of IBD by using a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis model in BALB/c mice. Oral intake of LWPC resulted in improved recovery of body weight in mice. Histological analysis showed that the epithelium cells of LWPC-treated mice were healthier and that lymphocyte infiltration was reduced. The increase in mucin due to the LWPC also reflected reduced inflammation in the colon. Transcriptome analysis of the colon by DNA microarrays revealed marked downregulation of genes related to immune responses in LWPC-fed mice. In particular, the expression of interferon gamma receptor 2 (Ifngr2) and guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) was increased by DSS treatment and decreased in LWPC-fed mice. These findings suggest that LWPCs suppress DSS-induced inflammation in the colon by suppressing the signaling of these cytokines. Our findings suggest that LWPCs would be an effective food resource for suppressing IBD symptoms. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effect of Radio Frequency Heating on Yoghurt, II: Microstructure and Texture
Foods 2014, 3(2), 369-393; doi:10.3390/foods3020369
Received: 28 February 2014 / Revised: 17 April 2014 / Accepted: 9 June 2014 / Published: 20 June 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (917 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Radio frequency (RF) heating was applied to stirred yoghurt after culturing in order to enhance the shelf-life and thereby meet industrial demands in countries where the distribution cold chain cannot be implicitly guaranteed. In parallel, a convectional (CV) heating process was also [...] Read more.
Radio frequency (RF) heating was applied to stirred yoghurt after culturing in order to enhance the shelf-life and thereby meet industrial demands in countries where the distribution cold chain cannot be implicitly guaranteed. In parallel, a convectional (CV) heating process was also tested. In order to meet consumers’ expectations with regard to texture and sensory properties, the yoghurts were heated to different temperatures (58, 65 and 72 °C). This second part of our feasibility study focused on the changes in microstructure and texture caused by post-fermentative heat treatment. It was shown that there were always microstructural changes with additional heat treatment. Compared to the dense and compact casein network in the stirred reference yoghurt, network contractions and further protein aggregation were observed after heat treatment, while at the same time larger pore geometries were detected. The changes in microstructure as well as other physical and sensorial texture properties (syneresis, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, apparent viscosity, G’, G’’, homogeneity) were in good agreement with the temperature and time of the heat treatment (thermal stress). The RF heated products were found to be very similar to the stirred reference yoghurt, showing potential for further industrial development such as novel heating strategies to obtain products with prolonged shelf-life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Processing of Foods)
Figures

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview The “Dark Side” of Food Stuff Proteomics: The CPLL-Marshals Investigate
Foods 2014, 3(2), 217-237; doi:10.3390/foods3020217
Received: 4 February 2014 / Revised: 8 April 2014 / Accepted: 8 April 2014 / Published: 17 April 2014
PDF Full-text (1043 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present review deals with analysis of the proteome of animal and plant-derived food stuff, as well as of non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages. The survey is limited to those systems investigated with the help of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries, a most powerful [...] Read more.
The present review deals with analysis of the proteome of animal and plant-derived food stuff, as well as of non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages. The survey is limited to those systems investigated with the help of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries, a most powerful technique allowing access to low- to very-low-abundance proteins, i.e., to those proteins that might characterize univocally a given biological system and, in the case of commercial food preparations, attest their genuineness or adulteration. Among animal foods the analysis of cow’s and donkey’s milk is reported, together with the proteomic composition of egg white and yolk, as well as of honey, considered as a hybrid between floral and animal origin. In terms of plant and fruits, a survey is offered of spinach, artichoke, banana, avocado, mango and lemon proteomics, considered as recalcitrant tissues in that small amounts of proteins are dispersed into a large body of plant polymers and metabolites. As examples of non-alcoholic beverages, ginger ale, coconut milk, a cola drink, almond milk and orgeat syrup are analyzed. Finally, the trace proteome of white and red wines, beer and aperitifs is reported, with the aim of tracing the industrial manipulations and herbal usage prior to their commercialization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2013)
Open AccessReview High Pressure Processing of Bivalve Shellfish and HPP’s Use as a Virus Intervention
Foods 2014, 3(2), 336-350; doi:10.3390/foods3020336
Received: 8 April 2014 / Revised: 30 April 2014 / Accepted: 20 May 2014 / Published: 11 June 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (238 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bivalve shellfish readily bioconcentrate pathogenic microbes and substance, such as algal and dinoflagulate toxins, fecal viruses and bacteria, and naturally present vibrio bacteria. High pressure processing (HPP) is currently used as an intervention for Vibrio vulnificus bacteria within molluscan shellfish and its [...] Read more.
Bivalve shellfish readily bioconcentrate pathogenic microbes and substance, such as algal and dinoflagulate toxins, fecal viruses and bacteria, and naturally present vibrio bacteria. High pressure processing (HPP) is currently used as an intervention for Vibrio vulnificus bacteria within molluscan shellfish and its potential to inactivate food-borne viruses and bacteria are discussed. Mechanisms of action of high pressure against bacteria and viruses, as well as how time of pressure application, pressure levels, and pre-pressurization temperature influence inactivation are described. Matrix influences such as ionic strength are noted as important additional considerations. The potential of HPP to influence spoilage and enhance shelf-life of shucked shellfish is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Pressure Processing of Foods)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessBrief Report Food Craving and Its Relationship with Restriction and Liking in Japanese Females
Foods 2014, 3(2), 208-216; doi:10.3390/foods3020208
Received: 12 February 2014 / Revised: 8 April 2014 / Accepted: 10 April 2014 / Published: 16 April 2014
PDF Full-text (224 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Craved foods are thought to be those that are well liked but restricted. However, this claim has not been demonstrated empirically. Japanese female undergraduate students (n = 144) completed a questionnaire measuring their craving for, degree of liking, and frequency of [...] Read more.
Craved foods are thought to be those that are well liked but restricted. However, this claim has not been demonstrated empirically. Japanese female undergraduate students (n = 144) completed a questionnaire measuring their craving for, degree of liking, and frequency of restricting their eating of 47 widely consumed foods. The food with the highest mean craving score was rice. We plotted the craving scores as a function of restriction and liking scores for the 47 foods. The students’ craving scores were strongly correlated with their restriction scores and liking scores. Thus, craved foods are those that are restricted and liked. However, in both scatter plots, rice was an outlier. While it was the most craved food, neither the restriction nor liking score of rice was very high. These findings were consistent with the view that craved foods are generally liked, yet restricted, implying the generation of food related conflicts. Interestingly, the mechanism of craving rice, the main staple in Japan, may differ from other foods. Full article
Figures

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Foods Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
foods@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Foods
Back to Top