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Foods, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2014), Pages 1-193

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Foods in 2013
Foods 2014, 3(1), 160-161; doi:10.3390/foods3010160
Received: 27 February 2014 / Accepted: 27 February 2014 / Published: 27 February 2014
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Abstract The editors of Foods would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2013: [...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle Extraction and Characterization of Highly Gelling Low Methoxy Pectin from Cashew Apple Pomace
Foods 2014, 3(1), 1-12; doi:10.3390/foods3010001
Received: 19 August 2013 / Revised: 11 November 2013 / Accepted: 17 December 2013 / Published: 23 December 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Investigation on the pectic substances of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) apple under different acid-extraction conditions (pH 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) showed that more than 10%–25% of A. occidentale pectins (AOP) could be extracted, depending on the extractant strength. The extracted AOP contained
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Investigation on the pectic substances of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) apple under different acid-extraction conditions (pH 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) showed that more than 10%–25% of A. occidentale pectins (AOP) could be extracted, depending on the extractant strength. The extracted AOP contained high amounts of galacturonic acid (GalA: 69.9%–84.5%) with some neutral sugars of which rhamnose (Rha: 1.3%–2.5%), arabinose (Ara: 2.6%–5.4%), and galactose (Gal: 4.7%–8.6%) were the main constituents. The degree of methoxylation (DM) was in the range of 28%–46% and was only slightly affected by the extractant strength, thereby indicating isolation of naturally low methoxy pectins (LMP). In terms of gelling capability, AOP yielded firmer Ca2+-mediated LMP gels than commercial citrus LMP with comparable DM. Cashew apple pomace, therefore, appears to be a potentially viable source for possible production of “non-chemically or enzymatically-tailored” LMP. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Gluten Detection and Speciation by Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)
Foods 2014, 3(1), 13-29; doi:10.3390/foods3010013
Received: 12 October 2013 / Revised: 12 December 2013 / Accepted: 18 December 2013 / Published: 23 December 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (465 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been used historically in proteomics research for over 20 years. However, until recently LC-MS/MS has only been routinely used in food testing for small molecule contaminant detection, for example pesticide and veterinary residue detection, and not
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Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been used historically in proteomics research for over 20 years. However, until recently LC-MS/MS has only been routinely used in food testing for small molecule contaminant detection, for example pesticide and veterinary residue detection, and not as a replacement of microbiological food testing methods, specifically allergen analysis. Over the last couple of years, articles have started to be published which describe the detection of allergens by LC-MS/MS. In this article we will describe how LC-MS/MS can be applied in the area of gluten detection and how it can be used to specifically differentiate the species of gluten used in food, where specific markers for each variety of gluten can be simultaneously acquired and detected at the same time. The article will discuss the effect of variety on the peptide response observed from different wheat grain varieties and will describe the sample preparation protocol which is essential for generating the peptide markers used for speciation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Comparative Evaluation of Diagnostic Tools for Oxidative Deterioration of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-Enriched Infant Formulas during Storage
Foods 2014, 3(1), 30-65; doi:10.3390/foods3010030
Received: 31 October 2013 / Revised: 9 December 2013 / Accepted: 17 December 2013 / Published: 27 December 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1101 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The challenge in the development of infant formulas enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is to meet the consumers’ expectations with regard to high nutritional and sensory value. In particular, PUFAs may be prone to fatty acid oxidation that can generate potential rancid,
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The challenge in the development of infant formulas enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is to meet the consumers’ expectations with regard to high nutritional and sensory value. In particular, PUFAs may be prone to fatty acid oxidation that can generate potential rancid, metallic and/or fishy off-flavors. Although such off-flavors pose no health risk, they can nevertheless lead to rejection of products by consumers. Thus, monitoring autoxidation at its early stages is of great importance and finding a suitable analytical tool to perform these evaluations is therefore of high interest in quality monitoring. Two formulations of infant formulas were varied systematically in their mineral composition and their presence of antioxidants to produce 18 model formulas. All models were aged under controlled conditions and their oxidative deterioration was monitored. A quantitative study was performed on seven characteristic odor-active secondary oxidation products in the formulations via two-dimensional high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (2D-HRGC-MS/O). The sensitivity of the multi-dimensional GC-MS/O analysis was supported by two additional analytical tools for monitoring autoxidation, namely the analysis of lipid hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes. Furthermore, an aroma profile analysis (APA) was performed to reveal the presence and intensities of typical odor qualities generated in the course of fatty acid oxidation. The photometrical analyses of lipid hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes were found to be too insensitive for early indication of the development of sensory defects. By comparison, the 2D-HRGC-MS/O was capable of monitoring peroxidation of PUFAs at low ppb-level in its early stages. Thereby, it was possible to screen oxidative variances on the basis of such volatile markers already within eight weeks after production of the products, which is an earlier indication of oxidative deterioration than achievable via conventional methods. In detail, oxidative variances between the formulations revealed that lipid oxidation was low when copper was administered in an encapsulated form and when antioxidants (vitamin E, ascorbyl palmitate) were present. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structure and Flavour of Dairy Products)
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of Multistage Extraction of Olive Leaves for Recovery of Phenolic Compounds at Moderated Temperatures and Short Extraction Times
Foods 2014, 3(1), 66-81; doi:10.3390/foods3010066
Received: 6 December 2013 / Revised: 17 December 2013 / Accepted: 20 December 2013 / Published: 30 December 2013
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Abstract
The aim of the present study was to improve the recovery of polyphenols from olive leaves (OL) by optimizing a multistage extraction scheme; provided that the olive leaves have been previously steam blanched. The maximum total phenol content expressed in ppm caffeic acid
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The aim of the present study was to improve the recovery of polyphenols from olive leaves (OL) by optimizing a multistage extraction scheme; provided that the olive leaves have been previously steam blanched. The maximum total phenol content expressed in ppm caffeic acid equivalents was obtained at pH 2, particle size 0.315 mm, solid-liquid ratio 1:7 and aqueous ethanol concentration 70% (v/v). The optimum duration time of each extraction stage and the operation temperature, were chosen based on qualitative and quantitative analysis of oleuropein (OLE), verbascoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside and apigenin-7-O-glucoside performed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The optimum conditions for multistage extraction were 30 min total extraction time (10 min × 3 stages) at 85 °C. The 80% of the total yield of polyphenols was obtained at the 1st stage of the extraction. The total extraction yield of oleuropein was found 23 times higher (103.1 mg OLE/g dry weight (d.w.) OL) compared to the yield (4.6 mg OLE/g d.w. OL) obtained by the conventional extraction method (40 °C, 48 h). However, from an energetic and hence from an economical point of view it is preferable to work at 40 °C, since the total extraction yield of polyphenolic compounds was only 17% higher for a double increase in the operating temperature (i.e., 85 °C). Full article
Open AccessArticle Molecular Typing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolated from Various Retail Meats by MLST and PFGE
Foods 2014, 3(1), 82-93; doi:10.3390/foods3010082
Received: 2 December 2013 / Revised: 24 December 2013 / Accepted: 2 January 2014 / Published: 8 January 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (377 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Campylobacter species are one of the leading causes of foodborne disease in the United States. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the two main species of concern to human health and cause approximately 95% of human infections. Molecular typing methods, such as pulsed-field
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Campylobacter species are one of the leading causes of foodborne disease in the United States. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the two main species of concern to human health and cause approximately 95% of human infections. Molecular typing methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) are often used to source track foodborne bacterial pathogens. The aim of the present study was to compare PFGE and MLST in typing strains of C. jejuni and C. coli that were isolated from different Oklahoma retail meat sources. A total of 47 Campylobacter isolates (28 C. jejuni and 19 C. coli) isolated from various retail meat samples (beef, beef livers, pork, chicken, turkey, chicken livers, and chicken gizzards) were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). PFGE was able to group the 47 Campylobacter isolates into two major clusters (one for C. jejuni and one for C. coli) but failed to differentiate the isolates according to their source. MLST revealed 21 different sequence types (STs) that belonged to eight different clonal complexes. Twelve of the screened Campylobacter isolates (8 C. jejuni and 4 C. coli) did not show any defined STs. All the defined STs of C. coli isolates belonged to ST-828 complex. The majority of C. jejuni isolates belonged to ST-353, ST-607, ST-52, ST-61, and ST-21 complexes. It is worthy to mention that, while the majority of Campylobacter isolates in this study showed STs that are commonly associated with human infections along with other sources, most of the STs from chicken livers were solely reported in human cases. In conclusion, retail meat Campylobacter isolates tested in this study particularly those from chicken livers showed relatedness to STs commonly associated with humans. Molecular typing, particularly MLST, proved to be a helpful tool in suggesting this relatedness to Campylobacter human isolates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Microbiology and Safety)
Open AccessArticle Enrichment and Purification of Casein Glycomacropeptide from Whey Protein Isolate Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Processing and Membrane Ultrafiltration
Foods 2014, 3(1), 94-109; doi:10.3390/foods3010094
Received: 31 October 2013 / Revised: 18 December 2013 / Accepted: 2 January 2014 / Published: 9 January 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (335 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Whey protein concentrates (WPC) and isolates (WPI), comprised mainly of β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and casein glycomacropeptide (GMP), are added to foods to boost nutritional and functional properties. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2) has been shown to effectively fractionate WPC and WPI
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Whey protein concentrates (WPC) and isolates (WPI), comprised mainly of β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and casein glycomacropeptide (GMP), are added to foods to boost nutritional and functional properties. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2) has been shown to effectively fractionate WPC and WPI to obtain enriched fractions of α-LA and β-LG, thus creating new whey ingredients that exploit the properties of the individual component proteins. In this study, we used SCO2 to further fractionate WPI via acid precipitation of α-LA, β-LG and the minor whey proteins to obtain GMP-enriched solutions. The process was optimized and α-LA precipitation maximized at low pH and a temperature (T) ≥65 °C, where β-LG with 84% purity and GMP with 58% purity were obtained, after ultrafiltration and diafiltration to separate β-LG from the GMP solution. At 70 °C, β-LG also precipitated with α-LA, leaving a GMP-rich solution with up to 94% purity after ultrafiltration. The different protein fractions produced with the SCO2 process will permit the design of new foods and beverages to target specific nutritional needs. Full article
Open AccessArticle Eggs and Poultry Purchase, Storage, and Preparation Practices of Consumers in Selected Asian Countries
Foods 2014, 3(1), 110-127; doi:10.3390/foods3010110
Received: 30 October 2013 / Revised: 19 December 2013 / Accepted: 2 January 2014 / Published: 16 January 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (439 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to begin characterizing purchase, storage, handling, and preparation of poultry products and eggs by selected consumers in three Asian countries: India, Korea, and Thailand. Approximately 100 consumers in each location were recruited to participate in this study.
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The objective of this study was to begin characterizing purchase, storage, handling, and preparation of poultry products and eggs by selected consumers in three Asian countries: India, Korea, and Thailand. Approximately 100 consumers in each location were recruited to participate in this study. The consumers were surveyed about eggs and poultry purchase behavior characteristics, such as temperatures and locations, storage behavior, such as storage locations in the refrigerator or freezer, preparation behavior, such as washing eggs and poultry before cooking, and handling behavior, such as using cutting boards during cooking. The results indicated differences in purchase and storage practices of raw eggs. Most Korean consumers purchased refrigerated eggs and stored the eggs in the refrigerator, while Indian and Thai consumers bought eggs that were stored at room temperature, but would refrigerate the eggs at home. Approximately half of the consumers in each country froze raw meat, poultry, or seafood. Food preparation practices showed potential for cross-contamination during cooking, such as using the same cutting board for different kinds of foods or not washing hands with soap and water. The results presented in this pilot study may lead to development of educational messages and raising consumer awareness of food safety practices in Asian countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Microbiology and Safety)
Open AccessArticle Characterization of Botanical and Geographical Origin of Corsican “Spring” Honeys by Melissopalynological and Volatile Analysis
Foods 2014, 3(1), 128-148; doi:10.3390/foods3010128
Received: 30 September 2013 / Revised: 17 December 2013 / Accepted: 13 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (342 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Pollen spectrum, physicochemical parameters and volatile fraction of Corsican “spring” honeys were investigated with the aim of developing a multidisciplinary method for the qualification of honeys in which nectar resources are under-represented in the pollen spectrum. Forty-one Corsican “spring” honeys were certified by
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Pollen spectrum, physicochemical parameters and volatile fraction of Corsican “spring” honeys were investigated with the aim of developing a multidisciplinary method for the qualification of honeys in which nectar resources are under-represented in the pollen spectrum. Forty-one Corsican “spring” honeys were certified by melissopalynological analysis using directory and biogeographical origin of 50 representative taxa. Two groups of honeys were distinguished according to the botanical origin of samples: “clementine” honeys characterized by the association of cultivated species from oriental plain and other “spring” honeys dominated by wild herbaceous taxa from the ruderal and/or maquis area. The main compounds of the “spring” honey volatile fraction were phenylacetaldehyde, benzaldehyde and methyl-benzene. The volatile composition of “clementine” honeys was also characterized by three lilac aldehyde isomers. Statistical analysis of melissopalynological, physicochemical and volatile data showed that the presence of Citrus pollen in “clementine” honeys was positively correlated with the amount of linalool derivatives and methyl anthranilate. Otherwise, the other “spring” honeys were characterized by complex nectariferous species associations and the content of phenylacetaldehyde and methyl syringate. Full article
Open AccessArticle Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient
Foods 2014, 3(1), 149-159; doi:10.3390/foods3010149
Received: 12 November 2013 / Revised: 29 January 2014 / Accepted: 5 February 2014 / Published: 12 February 2014
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Abstract
As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour
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As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker’s yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Development of Next Generation Stevia Sweetener: Rebaudioside M
Foods 2014, 3(1), 162-175; doi:10.3390/foods3010162
Received: 21 January 2014 / Revised: 18 February 2014 / Accepted: 19 February 2014 / Published: 27 February 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (567 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work aims to review and showcase the unique properties of rebaudioside M as a natural non-caloric potential sweetener in food and beverage products. To determine the potential of rebaudioside M, isolated from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, as a high potency sweetener, we examined
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This work aims to review and showcase the unique properties of rebaudioside M as a natural non-caloric potential sweetener in food and beverage products. To determine the potential of rebaudioside M, isolated from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, as a high potency sweetener, we examined it with the Beidler Model. This model estimated that rebaudioside M is 200–350 times more potent than sucrose. Numerous sensory evaluations of rebaudioside M’s taste attributes illustrated that this steviol glycoside possesses a clean, sweet taste with a slightly bitter or licorice aftertaste. The major reaction pathways in aqueous solutions (pH 2–8) for rebaudioside M are similar to rebaudioside A. Herein we demonstrate that rebaudioside M could be of great interest to the global food industry because it is well-suited for blending and is functional in a wide variety of food and beverage products. Full article
Open AccessReview Conventional and Innovative Processing of Milk for Yogurt Manufacture; Development of Texture and Flavor: A Review
Foods 2014, 3(1), 176-193; doi:10.3390/foods3010176
Received: 5 November 2013 / Revised: 6 February 2014 / Accepted: 25 February 2014 / Published: 11 March 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (315 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Milk and yogurt are important elements of the human diet, due to their high nutritional value and their appealing sensory properties. During milk processing (homogenization, pasteurization) and further yogurt manufacture (fermentation) physicochemical changes occur that affect the flavor and texture of these products
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Milk and yogurt are important elements of the human diet, due to their high nutritional value and their appealing sensory properties. During milk processing (homogenization, pasteurization) and further yogurt manufacture (fermentation) physicochemical changes occur that affect the flavor and texture of these products while the development of standardized processes contributes to the development of desirable textural and flavor characteristics. The processes that take place during milk processing and yogurt manufacture with conventional industrial methods, as well as with innovative methods currently proposed (ultra-high pressure, ultrasound, microfluidization, pulsed electric fields), and their effect on the texture and flavor of the final conventional or probiotic/prebiotic products will be presented in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structure and Flavour of Dairy Products)

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