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Water, Volume 9, Issue 6 (June 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Deltas, such as the Mississippi River Delta, are innately dynamic systems and climate change adds a [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Dissipation of Micropollutants in a Rewetted Fen Peatland: A Field Study Using Treated Wastewater
Water 2017, 9(6), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060449
Received: 25 April 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
In the present study, a mixture of treated wastewater and surface water was used to rewet a degraded fen peatland site during a three-year rewetting experiment. We studied the behavior and effects of micropollutants by means of hydrological, physico-chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological monitoring.
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In the present study, a mixture of treated wastewater and surface water was used to rewet a degraded fen peatland site during a three-year rewetting experiment. We studied the behavior and effects of micropollutants by means of hydrological, physico-chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological monitoring. The highest concentrations of micropollutants in the treated wastewater were found for the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine and diclofenac, some metabolites, the sweetener acesulfame, tolyl- and benzotriazole and diatrizoate. In the underlying, shallow groundwater where treated wastewater application for rewetting had been expected to have the greatest impact due to seeping and evapotranspiration processes, only a sporadic occurrence of micropollutants was found. The influence of dilution by groundwater movements was examined by applying a geohydrological model. The sorption of micropollutants onto the peaty soil also played a role, as found for carbamazepine. Further processes such as photolysis, microbial decay under low redox conditions and plant uptake can be assumed to be relevant for the removal of many substances. Ecotoxicity tests with the soil before and after rewetting did not indicate any negative impact on the soil habitat quality by wastewater application, but clearly pointed at ecotoxicologically relevant geogenic arsenic concentrations at the study site. Although a positive effect on receiving surface water systems is expected if wastewater is applied on land instead of discharged to water bodies, the rewetted soil may turn into a sink for micropollutants in the long term. Hence, the findings of the present field study encourage further investigations in order to identify the governing processes in the elimination of micropollutants in rewetted peatlands flooded with treated wastewater. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Model of Suspended Solids Removal in the Primary Sedimentation Tanks for the Treatment of Urban Wastewater
Water 2017, 9(6), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060448
Received: 24 May 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
Primary settling tanks are used to remove solids at wastewater treatment plants and are considered a fundamental part in their joint operation with the biological and sludge treatment processes. The aim of this study was to obtain a greater understanding of the influence
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Primary settling tanks are used to remove solids at wastewater treatment plants and are considered a fundamental part in their joint operation with the biological and sludge treatment processes. The aim of this study was to obtain a greater understanding of the influence of operational parameters, such as surface overflow rate, hydraulic retention time, and temperature, on the removal efficiency of suspended solids and organic matter by the measurement of chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand in the primary sedimentation process. The research was carried out in a semi-technical primary settling tank which was fed with real wastewater from a wastewater treatment plant. The physical process was strictly controlled and without the intervention of chemical additives. Three cycles of operation were tested in relation to the surface overflow rate, in order to check their influence on the different final concentrations. The results obtained show that the elimination efficiency can be increased by 11% for SS and 9% for chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand, for variations in the surface overflow rate of around ±0.6 m3/m2·h and variations in hydraulic retention time of around ±2 h. The results also show that current design criteria are quite conservative. An empirical mathematical model was developed in this paper relating SS removal efficiency to q, influent SS concentration, and sewage temperature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Beach Response to Wave Forcing from Event to Inter-Annual Time Scales at Grand Popo, Benin (Gulf of Guinea)
Water 2017, 9(6), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060447
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
This paper assesses the morphological storm-event impact, seasonal cycles, trends of wave forcing, and beach’s response at the coastal area of Grand Popo, Benin. Three and a half years’ worth of data were collected from 2013 to 2016, using a video system calibrated
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This paper assesses the morphological storm-event impact, seasonal cycles, trends of wave forcing, and beach’s response at the coastal area of Grand Popo, Benin. Three and a half years’ worth of data were collected from 2013 to 2016, using a video system calibrated with field data collected during a 10 day experiment. A comparison was carried out with Wavewatch III IOWAGA wave hindcast data. The along-shore-averaged shoreline position exhibited a seasonal pattern, which was related more to the average wave height than the average storm intensity. Storms occur in austral winter (June, July, August, and September). Based on 12 storms, the results revealed that the average storm duration was 1.6 days, with a mean erosion of 3.1 m. The average post-storm beach recovery duration was 15 days, and the average recovery rate was 0.4 m/day. The impact of storms was more or less amplified depending on the eroding and accreting periods of the wave climate. There was an inter-annual eroding trend of about −1.6 m/year, but the causes of this trend could not be explained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sediment Transport in Coastal Waters)
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Open AccessCommunication Effects of Thinning on Flow Peaks in a Forested Headwater Catchment in Western Japan
Water 2017, 9(6), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060446
Received: 25 April 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 18 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
This study examined the changes in rainfall-runoff characteristics in the year prior to and after intensive thinning of 50% in number in a steep headwater catchment, covered with 46-year-old Japanese cedar and cypress in western Japan. The magnitude of event peak flow, event
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This study examined the changes in rainfall-runoff characteristics in the year prior to and after intensive thinning of 50% in number in a steep headwater catchment, covered with 46-year-old Japanese cedar and cypress in western Japan. The magnitude of event peak flow, event quick flow, event water yield, and event response time did not change after thinning. Because 70% of rainfall events had multiple flow peaks, relationships between each flow peak and the rainfall just prior to that peak were also analyzed. The increases in accumulated quick flow, flow rise and flow drop were significant after thinning. The flow drop following each flow peak increased, and led to a lower initial flow in subsequent peaks, resulting in no increase in peak size. The flow peaks in events with over 30 mm rainfall amount and over 2 mm/h average rainfall intensity showed significant increases in flow peak, flow rise, flow drop, and accumulated quick flow, which suggests that the catchment exhibited more shallow flow paths during large rainfall amounts after thinning. No changes were identified using event-based analysis, but changes in flow peaks were detected, which indicates the importance of examining all flow peaks when investigating rainfall-runoff characteristics of headwater catchments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Urban Flood Simulation Using MODCEL—An Alternative Quasi-2D Conceptual Model
Water 2017, 9(6), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060445
Received: 24 March 2017 / Revised: 11 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
Urban flood modelling has been evolving in recent years, due to computational facilities as well as to the possibility of obtaining detailed terrain data. Flood control techniques have also been evolving to integrate both urban flood and urban planning issues. Land use control
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Urban flood modelling has been evolving in recent years, due to computational facilities as well as to the possibility of obtaining detailed terrain data. Flood control techniques have also been evolving to integrate both urban flood and urban planning issues. Land use control and flow generation concerns, as well as a set of possible distributed measures favouring storage and infiltration over the watershed, also gained importance in flood control projects, reinforcing the need to model the entire basin space. However, the use of 2D equations with highly detailed digital elevation models do not guarantee good results by their own. Urban geometry, including buildings shapes, walls, earth fills, and other structures may cause significant interference on flood paths. In this context, this paper presents an alternative urban flood model, focusing on the system behaviour and its conceptual interpretation. Urban Flood Cell Model-MODCEL is a hydrological-hydrodynamic model proposed to represent a complex flow network, with a set of relatively simple information, using average values to represent urban landscape through the flow-cell concept. In this work, to illustrate model capabilities, MODCEL is benchmarked in a test proposed by the British Environmental Agency. Then, its capability to represent storm drains is verified using measured data and a comparison with Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). Finally, it is applied in a lowland area of the Venetian continental plains, representing floods in a complex setup at the city of Noale and in its surroundings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Spatial Variation, Pollution Assessment and Source Identification of Major Nutrients in Surface Sediments of Nansi Lake, China
Water 2017, 9(6), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060444
Received: 12 May 2017 / Revised: 10 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
Nansi Lake has been seriously affected by intensive anthropogenic activities in recent years. In this study, an extensive survey on spatial variation, pollution assessment as well as the possible sources identification of major nutrients (Total phosphorus: TP, Total nitrogen: TN, and Total organic
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Nansi Lake has been seriously affected by intensive anthropogenic activities in recent years. In this study, an extensive survey on spatial variation, pollution assessment as well as the possible sources identification of major nutrients (Total phosphorus: TP, Total nitrogen: TN, and Total organic carbon: TOC) in the surface sediments of Nansi Lake was conducted. Results showed that the mean contents of TP, TN and TOC were 1.13-, 5.40- and 2.50- fold higher than their background values respectively. Most of the TN and TOC contents in the surface sediments of Nansi Lake were four times as high or higher and twice as high or higher than the background values except the Zhaoyang sub-lake, and the spatial distribution of TN and TOC contents were remarkably similar over a large area. Nearly all the TP contents in the surface sediments of Nansi Lake were all higher than its background values except most part of the Zhaoyang sub-lake. Based on the enrichment factor (EF) and the organic pollution evaluation index (Org-index), TP, TOC and TN showed minor enrichment (1.13), minor enrichment (2.50) and moderately severe enrichment (5.40), respectively, and most part of the Dushan sub-lake and the vicinity of the Weishan island were in moderate or heavy sediments organic pollution, while the other parts were clean. Moreover, according to the results of multivariate statistical analysis, we deduced that anthropogenic TN and TOC were mainly came from industrial sources including enterprises distributed in Jining, Yanzhou and Zoucheng along with iron and steel industries distributed in the southern of the Weishan sub-lake, whereas TP mainly originated from runoff and soil erosion coming from agricultural lands located in Heze city and Weishan island, the local aquacultural activities as well as the domestic sewage discharge of Jining city. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Groundwater Remediation Technologies Based on Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis Approaches
Water 2017, 9(6), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060443
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
Petroleum is an essential resource for the development of society and its production is huge. There is a great risk of leakage of oil during production, refining, and transportation. After entering the environment, the oil pollutants will be a great threat to the
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Petroleum is an essential resource for the development of society and its production is huge. There is a great risk of leakage of oil during production, refining, and transportation. After entering the environment, the oil pollutants will be a great threat to the environment and may endanger human health. Therefore, it is very important to remediate oil pollution in the subsurface. However, it is necessary to choose the appropriate remediation technology. In this paper, 18 technologies are evaluated through constructing a parameter matrix with each technology and seven performance indicators, and a comprehensive analysis model is presented. In this model, four MCDA methods are used. They are SWA (Simple Weighted Addition Method), WP (Weighted Product Method), CGT (Cooperative Game Theory), and TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution). Mean ranking and Borda ranking methods are used to integrate the results of SWA, WP, CGT, and TOPSIS. Then two selection priorities of each method (mean ranking and Borda ranking) are obtained. The model is proposed to help decide the best choice of remediation technologies. It can effectively reduce contingency, subjectivity, one-sidedness of the traditional methods and provide scientific reference for effective decision-making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Water Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Transparency, Geomorphology and Mixing Regime Explain Variability in Trends in Lake Temperature and Stratification across Northeastern North America (1975–2014)
Water 2017, 9(6), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060442
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3413 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Lake surface water temperatures are warming worldwide, raising concerns about the future integrity of valuable lake ecosystem services. In contrast to surface water temperatures, we know far less about what is happening to water temperature beneath the surface, where most organisms live. Moreover,
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Lake surface water temperatures are warming worldwide, raising concerns about the future integrity of valuable lake ecosystem services. In contrast to surface water temperatures, we know far less about what is happening to water temperature beneath the surface, where most organisms live. Moreover, we know little about which characteristics make lakes more or less sensitive to climate change and other environmental stressors. We examined changes in lake thermal structure for 231 lakes across northeastern North America (NENA), a region with an exceptionally high density of lakes. We determined how lake thermal structure has changed in recent decades (1975–2012) and assessed which lake characteristics are related to changes in lake thermal structure. In general, NENA lakes had increasing near-surface temperatures and thermal stratification strength. On average, changes in deepwater temperatures for the 231 lakes were not significantly different than zero, but individually, half of the lakes experienced warming and half cooling deepwater temperature through time. More transparent lakes (Secchi transparency >5 m) tended to have higher near-surface warming and greater increases in strength of thermal stratification than less transparent lakes. Whole-lake warming was greatest in polymictic lakes, where frequent summer mixing distributed heat throughout the water column. Lakes often function as important sentinels of climate change, but lake characteristics within and across regions modify the magnitude of the signal with important implications for lake biology, ecology and chemistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Responses of Lakes to Climate Change)
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Open AccessArticle The Design of a Site-Calibrated Parker–Klingeman Gravel Transport Model
Water 2017, 9(6), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060441
Received: 2 May 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
The use of site-calibrated models for predicting bedload transport in gravel-bed rivers remains relatively rare, despite advances in methodology and computing technology, and its notable advantages in terms of predictive accuracy. This article presents a new algorithm for site calibration of the Parker–Klingeman
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The use of site-calibrated models for predicting bedload transport in gravel-bed rivers remains relatively rare, despite advances in methodology and computing technology, and its notable advantages in terms of predictive accuracy. This article presents a new algorithm for site calibration of the Parker–Klingeman (1982) model, along with a detailed discussion of considerations that influence model selection and calibration methodology. New visualization techniques are explored to demystify the calibration process, using three examples with progressively more challenging calibration conditions. The new method is particularly well suited to streams with high sediment loads, or cases where extrapolation of transport function estimates is necessary. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Methodology for Analyzing and Predicting the Runoff and Sediment into a Reservoir
Water 2017, 9(6), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060440
Received: 11 May 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
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Abstract
With the rapid economic growth in China, a large number of hydropower projects have been planned and constructed. The sediment deposition of the reservoirs is one of the most important disputes during the construction and operation, because there are many heavy sediment-laden rivers.
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With the rapid economic growth in China, a large number of hydropower projects have been planned and constructed. The sediment deposition of the reservoirs is one of the most important disputes during the construction and operation, because there are many heavy sediment-laden rivers. The analysis and prediction of the runoff and sediment into a reservoir is of great significance for reservoir operation. With knowledge of the incoming runoff and sediment characteristics, the regulator can adjust the reservoir discharge to guarantee the water supply, and flush more sediment at appropriate times. In this study, the long-term characteristics of runoff and sediment, including trend, jump point, and change cycle, are analyzed using various statistical approaches, such as accumulated anomaly analysis, the Fisher ordered clustering method, and Maximum Entropy Spectral Analysis (MESA). Based on the characteristics, a prediction model is established using the Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARIMA) method. The whole analysis and prediction system is applied to The Three Gorges Project (TGP), one of the biggest hydropower-complex projects in the world. Taking hydrologic series from 1955 to 2010 as the research objectives, the results show that both the runoff and the sediment are decreasing, and the reduction rate of sediment is much higher. Runoff and sediment into the TGP display cyclic variations over time, with a cycle of about a decade, but catastrophe points for runoff and sediment appear in 1991 and 2001, respectively. Prediction models are thus built based on monthly average hydrologic series from 2003 to 2010. ARIMA (1, 1, 1) × (1, 1, 1)12 and ARIMA (0, 1, 1) × (0, 1, 1)12 are selected for the runoff and sediment predictions, respectively, and the parameters of the models are also calibrated. The analysis of autocorrelation coefficients and partial autocorrelation coefficients of the residuals indicates that the models built in this study are feasible for representing and predicting the runoff and sediment inflow into the TGP with a high accuracy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Runoff Effect Evaluation of LID through SWMM in Typical Mountainous, Low-Lying Urban Areas: A Case Study in China
Water 2017, 9(6), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060439
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 5 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3253 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Urban flooding occurs frequently in many regions of China. To reduce the losses caused by urban flooding, sponge city (SPC) and low-impact development (LID) have been carried out in many Chinese cities. However, urban flooding is influenced by various factors, such as climate,
[...] Read more.
Urban flooding occurs frequently in many regions of China. To reduce the losses caused by urban flooding, sponge city (SPC) and low-impact development (LID) have been carried out in many Chinese cities. However, urban flooding is influenced by various factors, such as climate, land cover characteristics and nearby river networks, so it is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of LID measures. In this study, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) was adopted to simulate historical urban storm processes in the mountainous Fragrance Hills region of Beijing, China. Subsequently, numerical simulations were performed to evaluate how various LID measures (concave greenbelt, permeable pavement, bio-retention, vegetative swales, and comprehensive measures) influenced urban runoff reduction. The results showed that the LID measures are effective in controlling the surface runoff of the storm events with return periods shorter than five years, in particular, for one-year events. Furthermore, the effectiveness on traffic congestion mitigation of several LID measures (concave greenbelt, vegetative swales, and comprehensive measures) was evaluated. However, the effective return periods of storm events are shorter than two years if the effectiveness on traffic congestion relief is considered. In all evaluated aspects, comprehensive measures and concave greenbelts are the most effective, and vegetative swale is the least effective. This indicated that LID measures are less effective for removing ponding from most storm events in a mountainous, low-lying and backward pipeline infrastructure region with pressures from interval flooding and urban waterlogging. The engineering measures including water conservancy projects and pipeline infrastructure construction combined with the non-engineering measures were suggested to effectively control severe urban storms. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial Advancing Water Footprint Assessment Research: Challenges in Monitoring Progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 6
Water 2017, 9(6), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060438
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 17 June 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (359 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This special issue is a collection of recent papers in the field of Water Footprint Assessment (WFA), an emerging area of research focused on the analysis of freshwater use, scarcity, and pollution in relation to consumption, production, and trade. As increasing freshwater scarcity
[...] Read more.
This special issue is a collection of recent papers in the field of Water Footprint Assessment (WFA), an emerging area of research focused on the analysis of freshwater use, scarcity, and pollution in relation to consumption, production, and trade. As increasing freshwater scarcity forms a major risk to the global economy, sustainable management of water resources is a prerequisite to development. We introduce the papers in this special issue by relating them to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) number 6 of the United Nations, the goal on water. We will particularly articulate how each paper drives the understanding needed to achieve target 6.3 on water quality and pollution and target 6.4 on water-use efficiency and water scarcity. Regarding SDG 6, we conclude that it lacks any target on using green water more efficiently, and while addressing efficiency and sustainability of water use, it lacks a target on equitable sharing of water. The latter issue is receiving limited attention in research as well. By primarily focusing on water-use efficiency in farming and industries at the local level, to a lesser extent to using water sustainably at the level of total water systems (like drainage basins, aquifers), and largely ignoring issues around equitable water use, understanding of our water problems and proposed solutions will likely remain unbalanced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Footprint Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle Development of a Station Based Climate Database for SWAT and APEX Assessments in the US
Water 2017, 9(6), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060437
Received: 11 May 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 17 June 2017
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Abstract
Water quality simulation models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and Agricultural Policy EXtender (APEX) are widely used in the US. These models require large amounts of spatial and tabular data to simulate the natural world. Accurate and seamless daily
[...] Read more.
Water quality simulation models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and Agricultural Policy EXtender (APEX) are widely used in the US. These models require large amounts of spatial and tabular data to simulate the natural world. Accurate and seamless daily climatic data are critical for accurate depiction of the hydrologic cycle, yet these data are among the most difficult to obtain and process. In this paper we describe the development of a national (US) database of preprocessed climate data derived from monitoring stations applicable to USGS 12-digit watersheds. Various sources and processing methods are explored and discussed. A relatively simple method was employed to choose representative stations for each of the 83,000 12-digit watersheds in the continental US. Fully processed climate data resulting from this research were published online to facilitate other SWAT and APEX modeling efforts in the US. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperAddendum Addendum: Montagnier, L.; Aïssa, J.; Capolupo, A.; Craddock, T.J.A.; Kurian, P.; Lavallee, C.; Polcari, A.; Romano, P.; Tedeschi, A.; Vitiello, G. Water Bridging Dynamics of Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Gauge Theory Paradigm of Quantum Fields. Water 2017, 9, 339
Water 2017, 9(6), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060436
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 17 June 2017
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Abstract
The authors wish to make the following addendum to their paper [1]:[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrohydrodynamic Liquid Bridges and Electrified Water)
Open AccessErratum Erratum: Chirindja, F., et al. Borehole Logging and Slug Tests for Evaluating the Applicability of Electrical Resistivity Tomography for Groundwater Exploration in Nampula Complex, Mozambique. Water 2017, 9, 95
Water 2017, 9(6), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060435
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
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Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [1]: [...]
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