Next Article in Journal
Methodology for Analyzing and Predicting the Runoff and Sediment into a Reservoir
Previous Article in Journal
Advancing Water Footprint Assessment Research: Challenges in Monitoring Progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 6
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2017, 9(6), 439;

Runoff Effect Evaluation of LID through SWMM in Typical Mountainous, Low-Lying Urban Areas: A Case Study in China

College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 056021, China
First Planning Department, Jiangsu Surveying and Design Institute of Water Resources Co., Ltd., Yangzhou 225127, China
Rural Economy & Regional Development, China International Engineering Consulting Corporation, Beijing 100048, China
State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, Beijing 100038, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 5 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [3253 KB, uploaded 19 June 2017]   |  


Urban flooding occurs frequently in many regions of China. To reduce the losses caused by urban flooding, sponge city (SPC) and low-impact development (LID) have been carried out in many Chinese cities. However, urban flooding is influenced by various factors, such as climate, land cover characteristics and nearby river networks, so it is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of LID measures. In this study, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) was adopted to simulate historical urban storm processes in the mountainous Fragrance Hills region of Beijing, China. Subsequently, numerical simulations were performed to evaluate how various LID measures (concave greenbelt, permeable pavement, bio-retention, vegetative swales, and comprehensive measures) influenced urban runoff reduction. The results showed that the LID measures are effective in controlling the surface runoff of the storm events with return periods shorter than five years, in particular, for one-year events. Furthermore, the effectiveness on traffic congestion mitigation of several LID measures (concave greenbelt, vegetative swales, and comprehensive measures) was evaluated. However, the effective return periods of storm events are shorter than two years if the effectiveness on traffic congestion relief is considered. In all evaluated aspects, comprehensive measures and concave greenbelts are the most effective, and vegetative swale is the least effective. This indicated that LID measures are less effective for removing ponding from most storm events in a mountainous, low-lying and backward pipeline infrastructure region with pressures from interval flooding and urban waterlogging. The engineering measures including water conservancy projects and pipeline infrastructure construction combined with the non-engineering measures were suggested to effectively control severe urban storms. View Full-Text
Keywords: SWMM; LID; runoff reduction; traffic congestion relief; effectiveness evaluation SWMM; LID; runoff reduction; traffic congestion relief; effectiveness evaluation

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Luan, Q.; Fu, X.; Song, C.; Wang, H.; Liu, J.; Wang, Y. Runoff Effect Evaluation of LID through SWMM in Typical Mountainous, Low-Lying Urban Areas: A Case Study in China. Water 2017, 9, 439.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top