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Water 2017, 9(6), 439; doi:10.3390/w9060439

Runoff Effect Evaluation of LID through SWMM in Typical Mountainous, Low-Lying Urban Areas: A Case Study in China

1
College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 056021, China
2
First Planning Department, Jiangsu Surveying and Design Institute of Water Resources Co., Ltd., Yangzhou 225127, China
3
Rural Economy & Regional Development, China International Engineering Consulting Corporation, Beijing 100048, China
4
State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, Beijing 100038, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 5 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
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Abstract

Urban flooding occurs frequently in many regions of China. To reduce the losses caused by urban flooding, sponge city (SPC) and low-impact development (LID) have been carried out in many Chinese cities. However, urban flooding is influenced by various factors, such as climate, land cover characteristics and nearby river networks, so it is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of LID measures. In this study, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) was adopted to simulate historical urban storm processes in the mountainous Fragrance Hills region of Beijing, China. Subsequently, numerical simulations were performed to evaluate how various LID measures (concave greenbelt, permeable pavement, bio-retention, vegetative swales, and comprehensive measures) influenced urban runoff reduction. The results showed that the LID measures are effective in controlling the surface runoff of the storm events with return periods shorter than five years, in particular, for one-year events. Furthermore, the effectiveness on traffic congestion mitigation of several LID measures (concave greenbelt, vegetative swales, and comprehensive measures) was evaluated. However, the effective return periods of storm events are shorter than two years if the effectiveness on traffic congestion relief is considered. In all evaluated aspects, comprehensive measures and concave greenbelts are the most effective, and vegetative swale is the least effective. This indicated that LID measures are less effective for removing ponding from most storm events in a mountainous, low-lying and backward pipeline infrastructure region with pressures from interval flooding and urban waterlogging. The engineering measures including water conservancy projects and pipeline infrastructure construction combined with the non-engineering measures were suggested to effectively control severe urban storms. View Full-Text
Keywords: SWMM; LID; runoff reduction; traffic congestion relief; effectiveness evaluation SWMM; LID; runoff reduction; traffic congestion relief; effectiveness evaluation
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Luan, Q.; Fu, X.; Song, C.; Wang, H.; Liu, J.; Wang, Y. Runoff Effect Evaluation of LID through SWMM in Typical Mountainous, Low-Lying Urban Areas: A Case Study in China. Water 2017, 9, 439.

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