Next Article in Journal
Effects of Thinning on Flow Peaks in a Forested Headwater Catchment in Western Japan
Previous Article in Journal
Model of Suspended Solids Removal in the Primary Sedimentation Tanks for the Treatment of Urban Wastewater
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2017, 9(6), 449; doi:10.3390/w9060449

Dissipation of Micropollutants in a Rewetted Fen Peatland: A Field Study Using Treated Wastewater

1
Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF) e.V., Eberswalder Str. 84, 15374 Müncheberg, Germany
2
ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, Böttgerstr. 2-14, 65439 Flörsheim am Main, Germany
3
Department of Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maurizio Barbieri
Received: 25 April 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4041 KB, uploaded 22 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

In the present study, a mixture of treated wastewater and surface water was used to rewet a degraded fen peatland site during a three-year rewetting experiment. We studied the behavior and effects of micropollutants by means of hydrological, physico-chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological monitoring. The highest concentrations of micropollutants in the treated wastewater were found for the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine and diclofenac, some metabolites, the sweetener acesulfame, tolyl- and benzotriazole and diatrizoate. In the underlying, shallow groundwater where treated wastewater application for rewetting had been expected to have the greatest impact due to seeping and evapotranspiration processes, only a sporadic occurrence of micropollutants was found. The influence of dilution by groundwater movements was examined by applying a geohydrological model. The sorption of micropollutants onto the peaty soil also played a role, as found for carbamazepine. Further processes such as photolysis, microbial decay under low redox conditions and plant uptake can be assumed to be relevant for the removal of many substances. Ecotoxicity tests with the soil before and after rewetting did not indicate any negative impact on the soil habitat quality by wastewater application, but clearly pointed at ecotoxicologically relevant geogenic arsenic concentrations at the study site. Although a positive effect on receiving surface water systems is expected if wastewater is applied on land instead of discharged to water bodies, the rewetted soil may turn into a sink for micropollutants in the long term. Hence, the findings of the present field study encourage further investigations in order to identify the governing processes in the elimination of micropollutants in rewetted peatlands flooded with treated wastewater. View Full-Text
Keywords: peat; treated wastewater; micropollutants; organic matter; anaerobic conditions; ecotoxicology; sorption; groundwater; carbamazepine; acesulfame; arsenic; buffer zone peat; treated wastewater; micropollutants; organic matter; anaerobic conditions; ecotoxicology; sorption; groundwater; carbamazepine; acesulfame; arsenic; buffer zone
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Maassen, S.; Richter, E.; Coors, A.; Guimarães, B.; Balla, D. Dissipation of Micropollutants in a Rewetted Fen Peatland: A Field Study Using Treated Wastewater. Water 2017, 9, 449.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top