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Micromachines, Volume 9, Issue 9 (September 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The brain is one the most complex living structures known, and is capable of process computation, [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle The Use of a Water Soluble Flexible Substrate to Embed Electronics in Additively Manufactured Objects: From Tattoo to Water Transfer Printed Electronics
Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090474
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
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Abstract
The integration of electronics into the process flow of the additive manufacturing of 3D objects is demonstrated using water soluble films as a temporary flexible substrate. Three process variants are detailed to evaluate their capabilities to meet the additive manufacturing requirements. One of
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The integration of electronics into the process flow of the additive manufacturing of 3D objects is demonstrated using water soluble films as a temporary flexible substrate. Three process variants are detailed to evaluate their capabilities to meet the additive manufacturing requirements. One of them, called water transfer printing, shows the best ability to fabricate electronics onto 3D additively manufactured objects. Moreover, a curved capacitive touchpad hidden by color films is successfully transferred onto the 3D objects, showing a potential application of this technology to fabricate fully additively manufactured discrete or even hidden electronic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Printed Flexible and Stretchable Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle LED Optrode with Integrated Temperature Sensing for Optogenetics
Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090473
Received: 23 July 2018 / Revised: 18 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
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Abstract
In optogenetic studies, the brain is exposed to high-power light sources and inadequate power density or exposure time can cause cell damage from overheating (typically temperature increasing of 2 C). In order to overcome overheating issues in optogenetics, this paper presents a
[...] Read more.
In optogenetic studies, the brain is exposed to high-power light sources and inadequate power density or exposure time can cause cell damage from overheating (typically temperature increasing of 2 C). In order to overcome overheating issues in optogenetics, this paper presents a neural tool capable of assessing tissue temperature over time, combined with the capability of electrical recording and optical stimulation. A silicon-based 8 mm long probe was manufactured to reach deep neural structures. The final proof-of-concept device comprises a double-sided function: on one side, an optrode with LED-based stimulation and platinum (Pt) recording points; and, on the opposite side, a Pt-based thin-film thermoresistance (RTD) for temperature assessing in the photostimulation site surroundings. Pt thin-films for tissue interface were chosen due to its biocompatibility and thermal linearity. A single-shaft probe is demonstrated for integration in a 3D probe array. A 3D probe array will reduce the distance between the thermal sensor and the heating source. Results show good recording and optical features, with average impedance magnitude of 371 k Ω , at 1 kHz, and optical power of 1.2 mW·mm 2 (at 470 nm), respectively. The manufactured RTD showed resolution of 0.2 C at 37 C (normal body temperature). Overall, the results show a device capable of meeting the requirements of a neural interface for recording/stimulating of neural activity and monitoring temperature profile of the photostimulation site surroundings, which suggests a promising tool for neuroscience research filed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neural Microelectrodes: Design and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle A 3D-Printed Millifluidic Platform Enabling Bacterial Preconcentration and DNA Purification for Molecular Detection of Pathogens in Blood
Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090472
Received: 13 August 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
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Abstract
Molecular detection of pathogens in clinical samples often requires pretreatment techniques, including immunomagnetic separation and magnetic silica-bead-based DNA purification to obtain the purified DNA of pathogens. These two techniques usually rely on handling small tubes containing a few millilitres of the sample and
[...] Read more.
Molecular detection of pathogens in clinical samples often requires pretreatment techniques, including immunomagnetic separation and magnetic silica-bead-based DNA purification to obtain the purified DNA of pathogens. These two techniques usually rely on handling small tubes containing a few millilitres of the sample and manual operation, implying that an automated system encompassing both techniques is needed for larger quantities of the samples. Here, we report a three-dimensional (3D)-printed millifluidic platform that enables bacterial preconcentration and genomic DNA (gDNA) purification for improving the molecular detection of target pathogens in blood samples. The device consists of two millichannels and one chamber, which can be used to preconcentrate pathogens bound to antibody-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles (Ab-MNPs) and subsequently extract gDNA using magnetic silica beads (MSBs) in a sequential manner. The platform was able to preconcentrate very low concentrations (1–1000 colony forming units (CFU)) of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and extract their genomic DNA in 10 mL of buffer and 10% blood within 30 min. The performance of the platform was verified by detecting as low as 1 CFU of E. coli O157:H7 in 10% blood using either polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with post gel electrophoresis or quantitative PCR. The results suggest that the 3D-printed millifluidic platform is highly useful for lowering the limitations on molecular detection in blood by preconcentrating the target pathogen and isolating its DNA in a large volume of the sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printed Microfluidic Devices)
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Open AccessArticle Liquid Cladding Mediated Optical Fiber Sensors for Copper Ion Detection
Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090471
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
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Abstract
We present a label-free optical fiber based sensor device to detect copper ions (Cu2+) in water. A multimode optical fiber, with its polymer cladding removed along a 1-cm length, is used for the optical sensor head, where the injected Cu2+
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We present a label-free optical fiber based sensor device to detect copper ions (Cu2+) in water. A multimode optical fiber, with its polymer cladding removed along a 1-cm length, is used for the optical sensor head, where the injected Cu2+ in the liquid phase acts as a liquid cladding for the optical mode. The various Cu2+ concentrations modulate the numerical aperture (NA) of the liquid cladding waveguide part. The degree of NA mismatch between the liquid cladding and solid cladding guided parts gives rise to an optical power transmittance change, forming the sensing principle. The presented liquid cladding fiber sensor exhibits a minimum resolvable refractive index of 2.48 × 10−6. For Cu2+ detection, we functionalize the sensor head surface (fiber core) using chitosan conjugated ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) which captures Cu2+ effectively due to the enhanced chelating effects. We obtain a limit of detection of Cu2+ of 1.62 nM (104 ppt), which is significantly lower than the tolerable level in drinking water (~30 µM), and achieve a dynamic range of 1 mM. The simple structure of the sensor head and the sensing system ensures the potential capability of being miniaturized. This may allow for in-situ, highly-sensitive, heavy metal sensors in a compact format. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NANO KOREA 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Measurement of Carcinoembryonic Antigen in Clinical Serum Samples Using a Centrifugal Microfluidic Device
Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090470
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
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Abstract
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a broad-spectrum tumor marker used in clinical applications. The primarily clinical method for measuring CEA is based on chemiluminescence in serum during enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in 96-well plates. However, this multi-step process requires large and expensive instruments, and
[...] Read more.
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a broad-spectrum tumor marker used in clinical applications. The primarily clinical method for measuring CEA is based on chemiluminescence in serum during enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in 96-well plates. However, this multi-step process requires large and expensive instruments, and takes a long time. In this study, a high-throughput centrifugal microfluidic device was developed for detecting CEA in serum without the need for cumbersome washing steps normally used in immunoreactions. This centrifugal microdevice contains 14 identical pencil-like units, and the CEA molecules are separated from the bulk serum for subsequent immunofluorescence detection using density gradient centrifugation in each unit simultaneously. To determine the optimal conditions for CEA detection in serum, the effects of the density of the medium, rotation speed, and spin duration were investigated. The measured values from 34 clinical serum samples using this high-throughput centrifugal microfluidic device showed good agreement with the known values (average relative error = 9.22%). These results indicate that the high-throughput centrifugal microfluidic device could provide an alternative approach for replacing the classical method for CEA detection in clinical serum samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Devices for Blood Analysis)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Continuous Recirculation of Microdroplets in a Closed Loop Tailored for Screening of Bacteria Cultures
Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090469
Received: 16 August 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
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Abstract
Emerging microfluidic technology has introduced new precision controls over reaction conditions. Owing to the small amount of reagents, microfluidics significantly lowers the cost of carrying a single reaction. Moreover, in two-phase systems, each part of a dispersed fluid can be treated as an
[...] Read more.
Emerging microfluidic technology has introduced new precision controls over reaction conditions. Owing to the small amount of reagents, microfluidics significantly lowers the cost of carrying a single reaction. Moreover, in two-phase systems, each part of a dispersed fluid can be treated as an independent chemical reactor with a volume from femtoliters to microliters, increasing the throughput. In this work, we propose a microfluidic device that provides continuous recirculation of droplets in a closed loop, maintaining low consumption of oil phase, no cross-contamination, stabilized temperature, a constant condition of gas exchange, dynamic feedback control on droplet volume, and a real-time optical characterization of bacterial growth in a droplet. The channels (tubing) and junction cubes are made of Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) to ensure non-wetting conditions and to prevent the formation of biofilm, which is particularly crucial for biological experiments. We show the design and operation of a novel microfluidic loop with the circular motion of microdroplet reactors monitored with optical sensors and precision temperature controls. We have employed the proposed system for long term monitoring of bacterial growth during the antibiotic chloramphenicol treatment. The proposed system can find applications in a broad field of biomedical diagnostics and therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micro/Nanofluidics and Lab on a Chip)
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Open AccessArticle Structural Formation of Oil-in-Water (O/W) and Water-in-Oil-in-Water (W/O/W) Droplets in PDMS Device Using Protrusion Channel without Hydrophilic Surface Treatment
Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090468
Received: 25 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents a simple method of droplet formation using liquids that easily wet polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces without any surface treatment. Using only structural features and uniform flow focusing, Oil-in-Water (O/W) and Water-in-Oil-in-Water (W/O/W) droplets were formed in the full PDMS structure. Extrusion
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a simple method of droplet formation using liquids that easily wet polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces without any surface treatment. Using only structural features and uniform flow focusing, Oil-in-Water (O/W) and Water-in-Oil-in-Water (W/O/W) droplets were formed in the full PDMS structure. Extrusion channel and three-dimensional flow focusing resulted in effective fluidic conditions for droplet formation and the droplet size could be precisely controlled by controlling the flow rate of each phase. The proposed structure can be utilized as an important element for droplet based research, as well as a droplet generator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micro-/Nano-system and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle Microfluidic-Based Technique for Measuring RBC Aggregation and Blood Viscosity in a Continuous and Simultaneous Fashion
Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090467
Received: 24 August 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
Hemorheological properties such as viscosity, deformability, and aggregation have been employed to monitor or screen patients with cardiovascular diseases. To effectively evaluate blood circulating within an in vitro closed circuit, it is important to quantify its hemorheological properties consistently and accurately. A simple
[...] Read more.
Hemorheological properties such as viscosity, deformability, and aggregation have been employed to monitor or screen patients with cardiovascular diseases. To effectively evaluate blood circulating within an in vitro closed circuit, it is important to quantify its hemorheological properties consistently and accurately. A simple method for measuring red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and blood viscosity is proposed for analyzing blood flow in a microfluidic device, especially in a continuous and simultaneous fashion. To measure RBC aggregation, blood flows through three channels: the left wide channel, the narrow channel and the right wide channel sequentially. After quantifying the image intensity of RBCs aggregated in the left channel (<IRA>) and the RBCs disaggregated in the right channel (<IRD>), the RBC aggregation index (AIPM) is obtained by dividing <IRA> by <IRD>. Simultaneously, based on a modified parallel flow method, blood viscosity is obtained by detecting the interface between two fluids in the right wide channel. RBC aggregation and blood viscosity were first evaluated under constant and pulsatile blood flows. AIPM varies significantly with respect to blood flow rate (for both its amplitude and period) and the concentration of the dextran solution used. According to our quantitative comparison between the proposed aggregation index (AIPM) and the conventional aggregation index (AICM), it is found that AIPM provides consistent results. Finally, the suggested method is employed to obtain the RBC aggregation and blood viscosity of blood circulating within an in vitro fluidic circuit. The experimental results lead to the conclusion that the proposed method can be successfully used to measure RBC aggregation and blood viscosity, especially in a continuous and simultaneous fashion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microfluidics for Cell-Based Assays)
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Open AccessArticle A Plantar Pressure Sensing System with Balancing Sensitivity Based on Tailored MWCNTs/PDMS Composites
Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090466
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents a flexible plantar pressure sensor with a simple structure and easy accessibility, suitable for everyday use. In this study, the design, fabrication, and characteristics of both the composite and the sensor were involved. By using the solution method, the piezoresistive
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a flexible plantar pressure sensor with a simple structure and easy accessibility, suitable for everyday use. In this study, the design, fabrication, and characteristics of both the composite and the sensor were involved. By using the solution method, the piezoresistive composite was fabricated by uniform dispersion of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix. The proposed sensor consists of eight sensing elements with a laminated structure. The upper layer is a sensing layer made of the piezoresistive composite, and the lower layer is a flexible printed circuit-board working as electrodes. A particular design of sensing elements was carried out by using different doping concentrations according to arrangement positions under the feet to obtain balancing sensitivity. A signal processing system to convert the variable resistance signal into voltages by the current-to-voltage method was designed. Experimental results prove that the designed sensor shows a repeatable response with a sensitivity of 11.5 mV/kPa within the range of 265 kPa. Also, an actual application verifies that the designed plantar pressure sensor can measure the pressure under the foot and can be used for gait detection and disease diagnosis purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micro-/Nano-system and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle Magnetorheological Fluids Actuated Haptic-Based Teleoperated Catheter Operating System
Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090465
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
During conventional catheter endovascular procedures, surgeons needs to adjust the catheter intervention moving direction and velocity according to the direct sensation. Moreover, in the conventional method, both the surgeon and the patient are inevitable exposed to a large amount of, and for a
[...] Read more.
During conventional catheter endovascular procedures, surgeons needs to adjust the catheter intervention moving direction and velocity according to the direct sensation. Moreover, in the conventional method, both the surgeon and the patient are inevitable exposed to a large amount of, and for a long period of time, X-ray radiation during the surgical procedure. The purpose of this paper is to ensure surgical safety and to protect the surgeon from X-ray radiation during the surgical procedure by adopting a novel haptic-based robot-assisted master-slave system mode. In this paper, a kind of magnetorheological fluids (MR fluids)-based haptic interface has been developed to generate a kind of controllable haptic sensation providing to the catheter operator, and the catheter intervention kinematics parameters measured the motion capture part to control the salve robotic catheter operating system following the master side kinematics. The slave catheter operating the mechanical system has also been designed and manufactured to manipulate the clinical catheter by mimicking the surgeon operating the catheter intervention surgical procedure, which has a 2-DOF (advance, retreat, and rotate) catheter motion characteristic; in addition, the interaction force between the catheter and inner wall of vasculature can be measured by its force sensing unit and the feedback to the master system. The catheter intervention synchronous evaluation experiments between the master and slave system are tested. Also, the advantages of integrating the controllable haptic sensation to the master-slave system experimental evaluations have been done in vitro. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed haptic-based robot-assisted master-slave system mode can reduce the surgical time and protect the surgeon from X-ray radiation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nanoscale-Textured Tantalum Surfaces for Mammalian Cell Alignment
Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090464
Received: 12 July 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
Tantalum is one of the most important biomaterials used for surgical implant devices. However, little knowledge exists about how nanoscale-textured tantalum surfaces affect cell morphology. Mammalian (Vero) cell morphology on tantalum-coated comb structures was studied using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy.
[...] Read more.
Tantalum is one of the most important biomaterials used for surgical implant devices. However, little knowledge exists about how nanoscale-textured tantalum surfaces affect cell morphology. Mammalian (Vero) cell morphology on tantalum-coated comb structures was studied using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. These structures contained parallel lines and trenches with equal widths in the range of 0.18 to 100 μm. Results showed that as much as 77% of adherent cell nuclei oriented within 10° of the line axes when deposited on comb structures with widths smaller than 10 μm. However, less than 20% of cells exhibited the same alignment performance on blanket tantalum films or structures with line widths larger than 50 μm. Two types of line-width-dependent cell morphology were observed. When line widths were smaller than 0.5 μm, nanometer-scale pseudopodia bridged across trench gaps without contacting the bottom surfaces. In contrast, pseudopodia structures covered the entire trench sidewalls and the trench bottom surfaces of comb structures with line-widths larger than 0.5 μm. Furthermore, results showed that when a single cell simultaneously adhered to multiple surface structures, the portion of the cell contacting each surface reflected the type of morphology observed for cells individually contacting the surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Small Scale Deformation using Advanced Nanoindentation Techniques)
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Open AccessArticle A High-Frequency-Compatible Miniaturized Bandpass Filter with Air-Bridge Structures Using GaAs-Based Integrated Passive Device Technology
Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090463
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 8 September 2018 / Accepted: 9 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
This paper reports on the use of gallium arsenide-based integrated passive device technology for the implementation of a miniaturized bandpass filter that incorporates an intertwined circle-shaped spiral inductor and an integrated center-located capacitor. Air-bridge structures were introduced to the outer inductor and inner
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This paper reports on the use of gallium arsenide-based integrated passive device technology for the implementation of a miniaturized bandpass filter that incorporates an intertwined circle-shaped spiral inductor and an integrated center-located capacitor. Air-bridge structures were introduced to the outer inductor and inner capacitor for the purpose of space-saving, thereby yielding a filter with an overall chip area of 1178 μm × 970 μm. Thus, not only is the chip area minimized, but the magnitude of return loss is also improved as a result of selective variation of bridge capacitance. The proposed device possesses a single passband with a central frequency of 1.71 GHz (return loss: 32.1 dB), and a wide fractional bandwidth (FBW) of 66.63% (insertion loss: 0.50 dB). One transmission zero with an amplitude of 43.42 dB was obtained on the right side of the passband at 4.48 GHz. Owing to its miniaturized chip size, wide FBW, good out-band suppression, and ability to yield high-quality signals, the fabricated bandpass filter can be implemented in various L-band applications such as mobile services, satellite navigation, telecommunications, and aircraft surveillance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IEEE ICASI 2018)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Approach to Droplet’s 3D Shape Recovery Based on Mask R-CNN and Improved Lambert–Phong Model
Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090462
Received: 25 August 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
Aiming at the demand for extracting the three-dimensional shapes of droplets in microelectronic packaging, life science, and some related fields, as well as the problems of complex calculation and slow running speed of conventional shape from shading (SFS) illumination reflection models, this paper
[...] Read more.
Aiming at the demand for extracting the three-dimensional shapes of droplets in microelectronic packaging, life science, and some related fields, as well as the problems of complex calculation and slow running speed of conventional shape from shading (SFS) illumination reflection models, this paper proposes a Lambert–Phong hybrid model algorithm to recover the 3D shapes of micro-droplets based on the mask regions with convolutional neural network features (R-CNN) method to extract the highlight region of the droplet surface. This method fully integrates the advantages of the Lambertian model’s fast running speed and the Phong model’s high accuracy for reconstruction of the highlight region. First, the Mask R-CNN network is used to realize the segmentation of the highlight region of the droplet and obtain its coordinate information. Then, different reflection models are constructed for the different reflection regions of the droplet, and the Taylor expansion and Newton iteration method are used for the reflection model to get the final height of all positions. Finally, a three-dimensional reconstruction experimental platform is built to analyze the accuracy and speed of the algorithm on the synthesized hemisphere image and the actual droplet image. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm based on mask R-CNN had better precision and shorter running time. Hence, this paper provides a new approach for real-time measurement of 3D droplet shape in the dispensing state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micro-/Nano-system and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle Low-Cost, Accessible Fabrication Methods for Microfluidics Research in Low-Resource Settings
Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090461
Received: 17 August 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
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Abstract
Microfluidics are expected to revolutionize the healthcare industry especially in developing countries since it would bring portable, easy-to-use, self-contained diagnostic devices to places with limited access to healthcare. To date, however, microfluidics has not yet been able to live up to these expectations.
[...] Read more.
Microfluidics are expected to revolutionize the healthcare industry especially in developing countries since it would bring portable, easy-to-use, self-contained diagnostic devices to places with limited access to healthcare. To date, however, microfluidics has not yet been able to live up to these expectations. One non-negligible factor can be attributed to inaccessible prototyping methods for researchers in low-resource settings who are unable to afford expensive equipment and/or obtain critical reagents and, therefore, unable to engage and contribute to microfluidics research. In this paper, we present methods to create microfluidic devices that reduce initial costs from hundreds of thousands of dollars to about $6000 by using readily accessible consumables and inexpensive equipment. By including the scientific community most embedded and aware of the requirements of healthcare in developing countries, microfluidics will be able to increase its reach in the research community and be better informed to provide relevant solutions to global healthcare challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Approaches to Micropatterning)
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Open AccessArticle Fluorescence Enhancement Using Bimetal Surface Plasmon-Coupled Emission from 5-Carboxyfluorescein (FAM)
Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090460
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
PDF Full-text (2110 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We demonstrate the enhancement of fluorescence emission from a dye, 5-carboxyfluorescein (FAM), which couples with surface plasmons at the spectral channels of excitation and emission. Experiments and calculations revealed that bimetallic (gold-silver) plasmon, as compared to the monometallic ones, allowed such coupling to
[...] Read more.
We demonstrate the enhancement of fluorescence emission from a dye, 5-carboxyfluorescein (FAM), which couples with surface plasmons at the spectral channels of excitation and emission. Experiments and calculations revealed that bimetallic (gold-silver) plasmon, as compared to the monometallic ones, allowed such coupling to be enhanced, at both the spectral channels. We achieved the maximum fluorescence enhancement level of 46.5-fold, with markedly high reproducibility (coefficient of variation ~ 0.5%) at a FAM concentration of 10 nM. We also found that higher fluorescence enhancement was more likely to be reproducible. This encourages the use of this technology for practical applications in fluorescence-based biochemical assays. Moreover, we investigated a FAM concentration-dependent enhancement of fluorescence. It was found that fluorescence enhancement decreased and saturated at above 10 nM concentration possibly due to partial photo-bleaching of FAM molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NANO KOREA 2018)
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Open AccessArticle A Dynamic Model of Drag Force for Catalytic Micromotors Based on Navier–Stokes Equations
Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090459
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 1 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
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Abstract
In past decades, considerable advances have been achieved in micro and nanomotors. Particular attention has been given to self-propelled catalytic micromotors, which have been widely used in cell separation, drug delivery, microsurgery, lithography and environmental remediation. Fast moving, long life micromotors appear regularly,
[...] Read more.
In past decades, considerable advances have been achieved in micro and nanomotors. Particular attention has been given to self-propelled catalytic micromotors, which have been widely used in cell separation, drug delivery, microsurgery, lithography and environmental remediation. Fast moving, long life micromotors appear regularly, however it seems there are no solutions yet that thoroughly clarify the hydrodynamic behavior of catalytic micromotors moving in fluid. Dynamic behavior of this kind of micromotors is mainly determined by the driving force and drag force acting on the micromotors. Based on the hydromechanics theory, a hydrodynamic model is established to predict the drag force for a conical micromotor immersed in the flow field. By using the computational fluid dynamics software Fluent 18.0 (ANSYS), the drag force and the drag coefficient of different conical micromotors are calculated. A mathematical model was proposed to describe the relationship among Reynolds numbers Re, the ratio λ, the semi-cone angle δ and the drag coefficient Cd of the micromotors. This work provides theoretical support and reference for optimizing the design and development of conical micromotors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nanomotors 2018)
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Open AccessArticle LSS-RM: Using Multi-Mounted Devices to Construct a Lightweight Site-Survey Radio Map for WiFi Positioning
Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090458
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
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Abstract
A WiFi-received signal strength index (RSSI) fingerprinting-based indoor positioning system (WiFi-RSSI IPS) is widely studied due to advantages of low cost and high accuracy, especially in a complex indoor environment where performance of the ranging method is limited. The key drawback that limits
[...] Read more.
A WiFi-received signal strength index (RSSI) fingerprinting-based indoor positioning system (WiFi-RSSI IPS) is widely studied due to advantages of low cost and high accuracy, especially in a complex indoor environment where performance of the ranging method is limited. The key drawback that limits the large-scale deployment of WiFi-RSSI IPS is time-consuming offline site surveys. To solve this problem, we developed a method using multi-mounted devices to construct a lightweight site-survey radio map (LSS-RM) for WiFi positioning. A smartphone was mounted on the foot (Phone-F) and another on the waist (Phone-W) to scan WiFi-RSSI and simultaneously sample microelectromechanical system inertial measurement-unit (MEMS-IMU) readings, including triaxial accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer measurements. The offline site-survey phase in LSS-RM is a client–server model of a data collection and preprocessing process, and a post calibration process. Reference-point (RP) coordinates were estimated using the pedestrian dead-reckoning algorithm. The heading was calculated with a corner detected by Phone-W and the preassigned site-survey trajectory. Step number and stride length were estimated using Phone-F based on the stance-phase detection algorithm. Finally, the WiFi-RSSI radio map was constructed with the RP coordinates and timestamps of each stance phase. Experimental results show that our LSS-RM method can reduce the time consumption of constructing a WiFi-RSSI radio map from 54 min to 7.6 min compared with the manual site-survey method. The average positioning error was below 2.5 m with three rounds along the preassigned site-survey trajectory. LSS-RM aims to reduce offline site-survey time consumption, which would cut down on manpower. It can be used in the large-scale implementation of WiFi-RSSI IPS, such as shopping malls, hospitals, and parking lots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS Accelerometers)
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Open AccessArticle Thermal-Flow Characteristics of Ferrofluids in a Rotating Eccentric Cylinder under External Magnetic Force
Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090457
Received: 19 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
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Abstract
Heat dissipation has become an important issue due to the miniaturization of various electronic devices. Various methods such as spray and nozzle coolers, heat sinks and so on are used for heat dissipation. However, the emergence of ferrofluids drastically improves the operating characteristics
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Heat dissipation has become an important issue due to the miniaturization of various electronic devices. Various methods such as spray and nozzle coolers, heat sinks and so on are used for heat dissipation. However, the emergence of ferrofluids drastically improves the operating characteristics of electromagnetic systems and devices. A ferrofluid is a suspension containing 10-nm magnetic particles in a colloidal solution. This material exhibits paramagnetic behavior and is sensitive to magnetic field and temperature. In this study, heat transfer characteristics of ferrofluids in a rotating eccentric cylinder were investigated using the commercial code, COMSOL Multiphysics. Numerical results of the local Nusselt number, magnetophoretic force and velocity distributions were obtained from various eccentricities of the cylinder, and the results were graphically depicted with various flow conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NANO KOREA 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Electrohydrodynamic Direct-Writing Micropatterns with Assisted Airflow
Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090456
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
Electrohydrodynamic direct-writing (EDW) is a developing technology for high-resolution printing. How to decrease the line width and improve the deposition accuracy of direct-written patterns has been the key to the promotion for the further application of EDW. In this paper, an airflow-assisted spinneret
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Electrohydrodynamic direct-writing (EDW) is a developing technology for high-resolution printing. How to decrease the line width and improve the deposition accuracy of direct-written patterns has been the key to the promotion for the further application of EDW. In this paper, an airflow-assisted spinneret for electrohydrodynamic direct-writing was designed. An assisted laminar airflow was introduced to the EDW process, which provided an additional stretching and constraining force on the jet to reduce the surrounding interferences and enhance jet stability. The flow field and the electric field around the spinneret were simulated to direct the structure design of the airflow-assisted spinneret. Then, a series of experiments were conducted, and the results verified the spinneret design and demonstrated a stable ejection of jet in the EDW process. With assisted airflow, the uniformity of printed patterns and the deposition position accuracy of a charged jet can be improved. Complex patterns with positioning errors of less than 5% have been printed and characterized, which provide an effective way to promote the integration of micro/nanosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced MEMS/NEMS Technology)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication and Characterization of PZT Fibered-Epitaxial Thin Film on Si for Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasound Transducer
Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090455
Received: 17 August 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents a fibered-epitaxial lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin film with intermediate features between the monocrystalline and polycrystalline thin films for piezoelectric micromachined ultrasound transducer (pMUT). The grain boundaries confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, but it still maintained the in-plane epitaxial relationship
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This paper presents a fibered-epitaxial lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin film with intermediate features between the monocrystalline and polycrystalline thin films for piezoelectric micromachined ultrasound transducer (pMUT). The grain boundaries confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, but it still maintained the in-plane epitaxial relationship found by X-ray diffraction analyses. The dielectric constant (εr33 = 500) was relatively high compared to those of the monocrystalline thin films, but was lower than those of conventional polycrystalline thin films near the morphotropic phase boundary composition. The fundamental characterizations were evaluated through the operation tests of the prototyped pMUT with the fibered-epitaxial thin film. As a result, its piezoelectric coefficient without poling treatment was estimated to be e31,f = −10–−11 C/m2, and thus reasonably high compared to polycrystalline thin films. An appropriate poling treatment increased e31,f and decreased εr33. In addition, this unique film was demonstrated to be mechanically tougher than the monocrystalline thin film. It has the potential ability to become a well-balanced piezoelectric film with both high signal-to-noise ratio and mechanical toughness for pMUT. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design, Simulation and Experimental Study of the Linear Magnetic Microactuator
Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090454
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
This paper reports the design, simulation and experimental study of a linear magnetic microactuator for portable electronic equipment and microsatellite high resolution remote sensing technology. The linear magnetic microactuator consists of a planar microcoil, a supporter and a microspring. Its bistable mechanism can
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This paper reports the design, simulation and experimental study of a linear magnetic microactuator for portable electronic equipment and microsatellite high resolution remote sensing technology. The linear magnetic microactuator consists of a planar microcoil, a supporter and a microspring. Its bistable mechanism can be kept without current by external permanent magnetic force, and can be switched by the bidirectional electromagnetic force. The linearization and threshold of the bistable mechanism was optimized by topology structure design of the microspring. The linear microactuator was then fabricated based on non-silicon technology and the prototype was tested. The testing results indicated that the bistable mechanism was realized with a fast response of 0.96 ms, which verified the simulation and analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS/NEMS Sensors: Fabrication and Application)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Characterization and Integration of Terahertz Technology within Microfluidic Platforms
Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090453
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
In this work, the prospects of integrating terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) within polymer-based microfluidic platforms are investigated. The work considers platforms based upon the polar polymers polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polycarbonate (PC), polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and the nonpolar polymers fluorinated ethylene propylene
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In this work, the prospects of integrating terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) within polymer-based microfluidic platforms are investigated. The work considers platforms based upon the polar polymers polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polycarbonate (PC), polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and the nonpolar polymers fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP), polystyrene (PS), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). The THz absorption coefficients for these polymers are measured. Two microfluidic platforms are then designed, fabricated, and tested, with one being based upon PET, as a representative high-loss polar polymer, and one being based upon UHMWPE, as a representative low-loss nonpolar polymer. It is shown that the UHMWPE microfluidic platform yields reliable measurements of THz absorption coefficients up to a frequency of 1.75 THz, in contrast to the PET microfluidic platform, which functions only up to 1.38 THz. The distinction seen here is attributed to the differing levels of THz absorption and the manifestation of differing f for the systems. Such findings can play an important role in the future integration of THz technology and polymer-based microfluidic systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced MEMS/NEMS Technology)
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Open AccessReview Introduction to Photonics: Principles and the Most Recent Applications of Microstructures
Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090452
Received: 1 February 2018 / Revised: 25 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
Light has found applications in data transmission, such as optical fibers and waveguides and in optoelectronics. It consists of a series of electromagnetic waves, with particle behavior. Photonics involves the proper use of light as a tool for the benefit of humans. It
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Light has found applications in data transmission, such as optical fibers and waveguides and in optoelectronics. It consists of a series of electromagnetic waves, with particle behavior. Photonics involves the proper use of light as a tool for the benefit of humans. It is derived from the root word “photon”, which connotes the tiniest entity of light analogous to an electron in electricity. Photonics have a broad range of scientific and technological applications that are practically limitless and include medical diagnostics, organic synthesis, communications, as well as fusion energy. This will enhance the quality of life in many areas such as communications and information technology, advanced manufacturing, defense, health, medicine, and energy. The signal transmission methods used in wireless photonic systems are digital baseband and RoF (Radio-over-Fiber) optical communication. Microwave photonics is considered to be one of the emerging research fields. The mid infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy offers a principal means for biological structure analysis as well as nonintrusive measurements. There is a lower loss in the propagations involving waveguides. Waveguides have simple structures and are cost-efficient in comparison with optical fibers. These are important components due to their compactness, low profile, and many advantages over conventional metallic waveguides. Among the waveguides, optofluidic waveguides have been found to provide a very powerful foundation for building optofluidic sensors. These can be used to fabricate the biosensors based on fluorescence. In an optical fiber, the evanescent field excitation is employed to sense the environmental refractive index changes. Optical fibers as waveguides can be used as sensors to measure strain, temperature, pressure, displacements, vibrations, and other quantities by modifying a fiber. For some application areas, however, fiber-optic sensors are increasingly recognized as a technology with very interesting possibilities. In this review, we present the most common and recent applications of the optical fiber-based sensors. These kinds of sensors can be fabricated by a modification of the waveguide structures to enhance the evanescent field; therefore, direct interactions of the measurand with electromagnetic waves can be performed. In this research, the most recent applications of photonics components are studied and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glassy Materials Based Microdevices)
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Bernardin E.K.; et al. Demonstration of a Robust All-Silicon-Carbide Intracortical Neural Interface. Micromachines, 2018, 9, 412
Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090451
Received: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
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Abstract
The authors would like to indicate the following financial support they received to the Acknowledgement Section of their published paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neural Microelectrodes: Design and Applications)
Open AccessArticle Activity Monitoring with a Wrist-Worn, Accelerometer-Based Device
Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090450
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 8 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
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Abstract
This study condenses huge amount of raw data measured from a MEMS accelerometer-based, wrist-worn device on different levels of physical activities (PAs) for subjects wearing the device 24 h a day continuously. In this study, we have employed the device to build up
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This study condenses huge amount of raw data measured from a MEMS accelerometer-based, wrist-worn device on different levels of physical activities (PAs) for subjects wearing the device 24 h a day continuously. In this study, we have employed the device to build up assessment models for quantifying activities, to develop an algorithm for sleep duration detection and to assess the regularity of activity of daily living (ADL) quantitatively. A new parameter, the activity index (AI), has been proposed to represent the quantity of activities and can be used to categorize different PAs into 5 levels, namely, rest/sleep, sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous activity states. Another new parameter, the regularity index (RI), was calculated to represent the degree of regularity for ADL. The methods proposed in this study have been used to monitor a subject’s daily PA status and to access sleep quality, along with the quantitative assessment of the regularity of activity of daily living (ADL) with the 24-h continuously recorded data over several months to develop activity-based evaluation models for different medical-care applications. This work provides simple models for activity monitoring based on the accelerometer-based, wrist-worn device without trying to identify the details of types of activity and that are suitable for further applications combined with cloud computing services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS Accelerometers)
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Open AccessArticle Interrogation Techniques and Interface Circuits for Coil-Coupled Passive Sensors
Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090449
Received: 17 August 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 9 September 2018
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Abstract
Coil-coupled passive sensors can be interrogated without contact, exploiting the magnetic coupling between two coils forming a telemetric proximity link. A primary coil connected to the interface circuit forms the readout unit, while a passive sensor connected to a secondary coil forms the
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Coil-coupled passive sensors can be interrogated without contact, exploiting the magnetic coupling between two coils forming a telemetric proximity link. A primary coil connected to the interface circuit forms the readout unit, while a passive sensor connected to a secondary coil forms the sensor unit. This work is focused on the interrogation of sensor units based on resonance, denoted as resonant sensor units, in which the readout signals are the resonant frequency and, possibly, the quality factor. Specifically, capacitive and electromechanical piezoelectric resonator sensor units are considered. Two interrogation techniques, namely a frequency-domain technique and a time-domain technique, have been analyzed, that are theoretically independent of the coupling between the coils which, in turn, ensure that the sensor readings are not affected by the interrogation distance. However, it is shown that the unavoidable parasitic capacitance in parallel to the readout coil introduces, for both techniques, an undesired dependence of the readings on the interrogation distance. This effect is especially marked for capacitance sensor units. A compensation circuit is innovatively proposed to counteract the effects of the parasitic input capacitance, and advantageously obtain distance-independent readings in real operating conditions. Experimental tests on a coil-coupled capacitance sensor with resonance at 5.45 MHz have shown a deviation within 1.5 kHz, i.e., 300 ppm, for interrogation distances of up to 18 mm. For the same distance range, with a coil-coupled quartz crystal resonator with a mechanical resonant frequency of 4.432 MHz, variations of less than 1.8 Hz, i.e., 0.5 ppm, have been obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interface Circuits for Microsensor Integrated Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Utilization of 2:1 Internal Resonance in Microsystems
Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090448
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 8 September 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, the nonlinear mode coupling at 2:1 internal resonance has been studied both analytically and experimentally. A modified micro T-beam structure is proposed, and the equations of motion are developed using Lagrange’s energy method. A two-variable expansion perturbation method is used
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In this paper, the nonlinear mode coupling at 2:1 internal resonance has been studied both analytically and experimentally. A modified micro T-beam structure is proposed, and the equations of motion are developed using Lagrange’s energy method. A two-variable expansion perturbation method is used to describe the nonlinear behavior of the system. It is shown that in a microresonator with 2:1 internal resonance, the low-frequency mode is autoparametrically excited after the excitation amplitude reaches a certain threshold. The effect of damping on the performance of the system is also investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro-Resonators: The Quest for Superior Performance)
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Open AccessArticle Quantifying Discretization Errors in Electrophoretically-Guided Micro Additive Manufacturing
Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090447
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents process models for a new micro additive manufacturing process termed Electrophoretically-guided Micro Additive Manufacturing (EPμAM). In EPμAM, a planar microelectrode array generates the electric potential distributions which cause colloidal particles to agglomerate and deposit in desired regions. The discrete microelectrode
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This paper presents process models for a new micro additive manufacturing process termed Electrophoretically-guided Micro Additive Manufacturing (EPμAM). In EPμAM, a planar microelectrode array generates the electric potential distributions which cause colloidal particles to agglomerate and deposit in desired regions. The discrete microelectrode array nature and the used pulse width modulation (PWM) technique for microelectrode actuation create unavoidable process errors—space and time discretization errors—that distort particle trajectories. To combat this, we developed finite element method (FEM) models to study trajectory deviations due to these errors. Mean square displacement (MSD) analysis of the computed particle trajectories is used to compare these deviations for several electrode geometries. The two top-performing electrode geometries evaluated by MSD were additionally investigated through separate case studies via geometry variation and MSD recomputation. Furthermore, separate time-discretization error simulations are also studied where electrode actuating waveforms were simulated. The mechanical impulse of the electromechanical force, generated from these waveforms is used as the basis for comparison. The obtained results show a moderate MSDs variability and significant differences in the computed mechanical impulses for the actuating waveforms. The observed limitations of the developed process model and of the error comparison technique are briefly discussed and future steps are recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micro-/Nano-system and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of Growth Factor and Tenocyte Proliferation Induced by Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) in a 3-Chamber Co-Culture Device
Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090446
Received: 15 August 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
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Abstract
The platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has become an attractive topic for soft tissue healing therapy recently. While some clinical reports revealed the effective treatments for knee osteoarthritis, lateral epicondylitis, and rotator cuff tears, other case studies showed that there was no statistically significant healing
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The platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has become an attractive topic for soft tissue healing therapy recently. While some clinical reports revealed the effective treatments for knee osteoarthritis, lateral epicondylitis, and rotator cuff tears, other case studies showed that there was no statistically significant healing improvement. The efficacy of the PRP therapy is still unclear clinically. Thus, a significant amount of basic studies should be conducted to optimize the preparation procedure and the platelet concentration of the PRP. In this work, a 3-chamber co-culture device was developed for the PRP study in order to reduce the usage of primary cells and to avoid the PRP gelation effect. The device was a culture, well partitioning into 3 sub-chambers. Tenocytes and PRP could be respectively loaded into the sub-chambers and co-cultured under the interlinked medium. The results showed that a higher platelet number in the PRP could diffuse higher concentration of the growth factors in the medium and induce higher tenocyte proliferation. The 3-chamber co-culture device provides a simple and practical tool for the PRP study. It is potentially applied for optimizing the preparation procedure and platelet concentration of the PRP therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micro/Nanofluidics and Lab on a Chip)
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Open AccessPerspective The History and Horizons of Microscale Neural Interfaces
Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090445
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
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Abstract
Microscale neural technologies interface with the nervous system to record and stimulate brain tissue with high spatial and temporal resolution. These devices are being developed to understand the mechanisms that govern brain function, plasticity and cognitive learning, treat neurological diseases, or monitor and
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Microscale neural technologies interface with the nervous system to record and stimulate brain tissue with high spatial and temporal resolution. These devices are being developed to understand the mechanisms that govern brain function, plasticity and cognitive learning, treat neurological diseases, or monitor and restore functions over the lifetime of the patient. Despite decades of use in basic research over days to months, and the growing prevalence of neuromodulation therapies, in many cases the lack of knowledge regarding the fundamental mechanisms driving activation has dramatically limited our ability to interpret data or fine-tune design parameters to improve long-term performance. While advances in materials, microfabrication techniques, packaging, and understanding of the nervous system has enabled tremendous innovation in the field of neural engineering, many challenges and opportunities remain at the frontiers of the neural interface in terms of both neurobiology and engineering. In this short-communication, we explore critical needs in the neural engineering field to overcome these challenges. Disentangling the complexities involved in the chronic neural interface problem requires simultaneous proficiency in multiple scientific and engineering disciplines. The critical component of advancing neural interface knowledge is to prepare the next wave of investigators who have simultaneous multi-disciplinary proficiencies with a diverse set of perspectives necessary to solve the chronic neural interface challenge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neural Microelectrodes: Design and Applications)
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