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Toxins, Volume 5, Issue 10 (October 2013), Pages 1682-1931

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Faces of a Changing Climate: Semi-Quantitative Multi-Mycotoxin Analysis of Grain Grown in Exceptional Climatic Conditions in Norway
Toxins 2013, 5(10), 1682-1697; doi:10.3390/toxins5101682
Received: 22 August 2013 / Revised: 13 September 2013 / Accepted: 22 September 2013 / Published: 27 September 2013
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (463 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent climatological research predicts a significantly wetter climate in Southern Norway as a result of global warming. Thus, the country has already experienced unusually wet summer seasons in the last three years (2010–2012). The aim of this pilot study was to apply an
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Recent climatological research predicts a significantly wetter climate in Southern Norway as a result of global warming. Thus, the country has already experienced unusually wet summer seasons in the last three years (2010–2012). The aim of this pilot study was to apply an existing multi-analyte LC-MS/MS method for the semi-quantitative determination of 320 fungal and bacterial metabolites in Norwegian cereal grain samples from the 2011 growing season. Such knowledge could provide important information for future survey and research programmes in Norway. The method includes all regulated and well-known mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, fumonisins and zearalenone. In addition, a wide range of less studied compounds are included in the method, e.g., Alternaria toxins, ergot alkaloids and other metabolites produced by fungal species within Fusarium, Penicillium and Aspergillus. Altogether, 46 metabolites, all of fungal origin, were detected in the 76 barley, oats and wheat samples. The analyses confirmed the high prevalence and relatively high concentrations of type-A and -B trichothecenes (e.g., deoxynivalenol up to 7230 µg/kg, HT-2 toxin up to 333 µg/kg). Zearalenone was also among the major mycotoxins detected (maximum concentration 1670 µg/kg). Notably, several other Fusarium metabolites such as culmorin, 2-amino-14,16-dimethyloctadecan-3-ol and avenacein Y were co-occurring. Furthermore, the most prevalent Alternaria toxin was alternariol with a maximum concentration of 449 µg/kg. A number of Penicillium and Aspergillus metabolites were also detected in the samples, e.g., sterigmatocystin in concentrations up to 20 µg/kg. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Toxin Detection)
Open AccessArticle Small Chemical Chromatin Effectors Alter Secondary Metabolite Production in Aspergillus clavatus
Toxins 2013, 5(10), 1723-1741; doi:10.3390/toxins5101723
Received: 26 July 2013 / Revised: 29 August 2013 / Accepted: 16 September 2013 / Published: 7 October 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The filamentous fungus Aspergillus clavatus is known to produce a variety of secondary metabolites (SM) such as patulin, pseurotin A, and cytochalasin E. In fungi, the production of most SM is strongly influenced by environmental factors and nutrients. Furthermore, it has been shown
[...] Read more.
The filamentous fungus Aspergillus clavatus is known to produce a variety of secondary metabolites (SM) such as patulin, pseurotin A, and cytochalasin E. In fungi, the production of most SM is strongly influenced by environmental factors and nutrients. Furthermore, it has been shown that the regulation of SM gene clusters is largely based on modulation of a chromatin structure. Communication between fungi and bacteria also triggers chromatin-based induction of silent SM gene clusters. Consequently, chemical chromatin effectors known to inhibit histone deacetylases (HDACs) and DNA-methyltransferases (DNMTs) influence the SM profile of several fungi. In this study, we tested the effect of five different chemicals, which are known to affect chromatin structure, on SM production in A. clavatus using two growth media with a different organic nitrogen source. We found that production of patulin was completely inhibited and cytochalasin E levels strongly reduced, whereas growing A. clavatus in media containing soya-derived peptone led to substantially higher pseurotin A levels. The HDAC inhibitors valproic acid, trichostatin A and butyrate, as well as the DNMT inhibitor 5-azacytidine (AZA) and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, which was used as a proxy for bacterial fungal co-cultivation, had profound influence on SM accumulation and transcription of the corresponding biosynthetic genes. However, the repressing effect of the soya-based nitrogen source on patulin production could not be bypassed by any of the small chemical chromatin effectors. Interestingly, AZA influenced some SM cluster genes and SM production although no Aspergillus species has yet been shown to carry detectable DNA methylation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Two Lectins from Dwarf Elder (Sambucus ebulus L.) Blossoms Related to the Sam n1 Allergen
Toxins 2013, 5(10), 1767-1779; doi:10.3390/toxins5101767
Received: 12 August 2013 / Revised: 16 September 2013 / Accepted: 30 September 2013 / Published: 14 October 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (662 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sambucus species contain a number of lectins with and without antiribosomal activity. Here, we show that dwarf elder (Sambucus ebulus L.) blossoms express two D-galactose-binding lectins that were isolated and purified by affinity chromatography and gel filtration. These proteins, which we named
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Sambucus species contain a number of lectins with and without antiribosomal activity. Here, we show that dwarf elder (Sambucus ebulus L.) blossoms express two D-galactose-binding lectins that were isolated and purified by affinity chromatography and gel filtration. These proteins, which we named ebulin blo (A-B toxin) and SELblo (B-B lectin)—blo from blossoms—were subjected to molecular characterization and analysis by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and tryptic peptide fingerprinting. Both lectins share a high degree of amino acid sequence homology with Sambucus lectins related to the Sam n1 allergen. Ebulin blo, but not SELblo, was highly toxic by nasal instillation to mice. Overall, our results suggested that both lectins would belong to an allergen family exemplified by Sam n1 and could trigger allergy responses. Furthermore, they raise a concern about ebulin blo toxicity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Molecular Characterization of Lys49 and Asp49 Phospholipases A2 from Snake Venom and Their Antiviral Activities against Dengue virus
Toxins 2013, 5(10), 1780-1798; doi:10.3390/toxins5101780
Received: 2 August 2013 / Revised: 11 September 2013 / Accepted: 26 September 2013 / Published: 15 October 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1177 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report the detailed molecular characterization of two PLA2s, Lys49 and Asp49 isolated from Bothrops leucurus venom, and examined their effects against Dengue virus (DENV). The Bl-PLA2s, named BlK-PLA2 and BlD-PLA2, are composed
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We report the detailed molecular characterization of two PLA2s, Lys49 and Asp49 isolated from Bothrops leucurus venom, and examined their effects against Dengue virus (DENV). The Bl-PLA2s, named BlK-PLA2 and BlD-PLA2, are composed of 121 and 122 amino acids determined by automated sequencing of the native proteins and peptides produced by digestion with trypsin. They contain fourteen cysteines with pIs of 9.05 and 8.18 for BlK- and BlD-PLA2s, and show a high degree of sequence similarity to homologous snake venom PLA2s, but may display different biological effects. Molecular masses of 13,689.220 (Lys49) and 13,978.386 (Asp49) were determined by mass spectrometry. DENV causes a prevalent arboviral disease in humans, and no clinically approved antiviral therapy is currently available to treat DENV infections. The maximum non-toxic concentration of the proteins to LLC-MK2 cells determined by MTT assay was 40 µg/mL for Bl-PLA2s (pool) and 20 µg/mL for each isoform. Antiviral effects of Bl-PLA2s were assessed by quantitative Real-Time PCR. Bl-PLA2s were able to reduce DENV-1, DENV-2, and DENV-3 serotypes in LLC-MK2 cells infection. Our data provide further insight into the structural properties and their antiviral activity against DENV, opening up possibilities for biotechnological applications of these Bl-PLA2s as tools of research. Full article
Open AccessArticle Appraisal of Antiophidic Potential of Marine Sponges against Bothrops jararaca and Lachesis muta Venom
Toxins 2013, 5(10), 1799-1813; doi:10.3390/toxins5101799
Received: 2 August 2013 / Revised: 8 October 2013 / Accepted: 11 October 2013 / Published: 17 October 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Snakebites are a health problem in many countries due to the high incidence of such accidents. Antivenom treatment has regularly been used for more than a century, however, this does not neutralize tissue damage and may even increase the severity and morbidity of
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Snakebites are a health problem in many countries due to the high incidence of such accidents. Antivenom treatment has regularly been used for more than a century, however, this does not neutralize tissue damage and may even increase the severity and morbidity of accidents. Thus, it has been relevant to search for new strategies to improve antiserum therapy, and a variety of molecules from natural sources with antiophidian properties have been reported. In this paper, we analyzed the ability of ten extracts from marine sponges (Amphimedon viridis, Aplysina fulva, Chondrosia collectrix, Desmapsamma anchorata, Dysidea etheria, Hymeniacidon heliophila, Mycale angulosa, Petromica citrina, Polymastia janeirensis, and Tedania ignis) to inhibit the effects caused by Bothrops jararaca and Lachesis muta venom. All sponge extracts inhibited proteolysis and hemolysis induced by both snake venoms, except H. heliophila, which failed to inhibit any biological activity. P. citrina inhibited lethality, hemorrhage, plasma clotting, and hemolysis induced by B. jararaca or L. muta. Moreover, other sponges inhibited hemorrhage induced only by B. jararaca. We conclude that Brazilian sponges may be a useful aid in the treatment of snakebites caused by L. muta and B. jararaca and therefore have potential for the discovery of molecules with antiophidian properties. Full article
Open AccessArticle Treatment with the Hyaluronic Acid Synthesis Inhibitor 4-Methylumbelliferone Suppresses SEB-Induced Lung Inflammation
Toxins 2013, 5(10), 1814-1826; doi:10.3390/toxins5101814
Received: 14 August 2013 / Revised: 3 October 2013 / Accepted: 12 October 2013 / Published: 17 October 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1357 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Exposure to bacterial superantigens, such as staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), can lead to the induction of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). To date, there are no known effective treatments for SEB-induced inflammation. In the current study we investigated the potential use
[...] Read more.
Exposure to bacterial superantigens, such as staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), can lead to the induction of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). To date, there are no known effective treatments for SEB-induced inflammation. In the current study we investigated the potential use of the hyaluronic acid synthase inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) on staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) induced acute lung inflammation. Culturing SEB-activated immune cells with 4-MU led to reduced proliferation, reduced cytokine production as well as an increase in apoptosis when compared to untreated cells. Treatment of mice with 4-MU led to protection from SEB-induced lung injury. Specifically, 4-MU treatment led to a reduction in SEB-induced HA levels, reduction in lung permeability, and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Taken together, these results suggest that use of 4-MU to target hyaluronic acid production may be an effective treatment for the inflammatory response following exposure to SEB. Full article
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Clean-Up Methods for Ochratoxin A on Wine, Beer, Roasted Coffee and Chili Commercialized in Italy
Toxins 2013, 5(10), 1827-1844; doi:10.3390/toxins5101827
Received: 30 July 2013 / Revised: 10 October 2013 / Accepted: 11 October 2013 / Published: 22 October 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (266 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The most common technique used to detect ochratoxin A (OTA) in food matrices is based on extraction, clean-up, and chromatography detection. Different clean-up cartridges, such as immunoaffinity columns (IAC), molecular imprinting polymers (MIP), Mycosep™ 229, Mycospin™, and Oasis® HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic balance)
[...] Read more.
The most common technique used to detect ochratoxin A (OTA) in food matrices is based on extraction, clean-up, and chromatography detection. Different clean-up cartridges, such as immunoaffinity columns (IAC), molecular imprinting polymers (MIP), Mycosep™ 229, Mycospin™, and Oasis® HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic balance) as solid phase extraction were tested to optimize the purification for red wine, beer, roasted coffee and chili. Recovery, reproducibility, reproducibility, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were calculated for each clean-up method. IAC demonstrated to be suitable for OTA analysis in wine and beer with recovery rate >90%, as well as Mycosep™ for wine and chili. On the contrary, MIP columns were the most appropriate to clean up coffee. A total of 120 samples (30 wines, 30 beers, 30 roasted coffee, 30 chili) marketed in Italy were analyzed, by applying the developed clean-up methods. Twenty-seven out of 120 samples analyzed (22.7%: two wines, five beers, eight coffees, and 12 chili) resulted positive to OTA. A higher incidence of OTA was found in chili (40.0%) more than wine (6.6%), beers (16.6%) and coffee (26.6%). Moreover, OTA concentration in chili was the highest detected, reaching 47.8 µg/kg. Furthermore, three samples (2.5%), two wines and one chili, exceeded the European threshold. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Ochratoxins Research)
Open AccessArticle Mouse in Vivo Neutralization of Escherichia coli Shiga Toxin 2 with Monoclonal Antibodies
Toxins 2013, 5(10), 1845-1858; doi:10.3390/toxins5101845
Received: 11 September 2013 / Revised: 10 October 2013 / Accepted: 11 October 2013 / Published: 22 October 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (358 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) food contaminations pose serious health concerns, and have been the subject of massive food recalls. STEC has been identified as the major cause of the life-threatening complication of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Besides supportive care, there currently are
[...] Read more.
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) food contaminations pose serious health concerns, and have been the subject of massive food recalls. STEC has been identified as the major cause of the life-threatening complication of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Besides supportive care, there currently are no therapeutics available. The use of antibiotics for combating pathogenic E. coli is not recommended because they have been shown to stimulate toxin production. Clearing Stx2 from the circulation could potentially lessen disease severity. In this study, we tested the in vivo neutralization of Stx2 in mice using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). We measured the biologic half-life of Stx2 in mice and determined the distribution phase or t1/2 α to be 3 min and the clearance phase or t1/2 β to be 40 min. Neutralizing mAbs were capable of clearing Stx2 completely from intoxicated mouse blood within minutes. We also examined the persistence of these mAbs over time and showed that complete protection could be passively conferred to mice 4 weeks before exposure to Stx2. The advent of better diagnositic methods and the availability of a greater arsenal of therapeutic mAbs against Stx2 would greatly enhance treatment outcomes of life threatening E. coli infections. Full article
Open AccessArticle Assessment of the Functional Regions of the Superantigen Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B
Toxins 2013, 5(10), 1859-1871; doi:10.3390/toxins5101859
Received: 8 August 2013 / Revised: 9 October 2013 / Accepted: 10 October 2013 / Published: 22 October 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (387 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The functional activity of superantigens is based on capacity of these microbial proteins to bind to both the β-chain of the T cell receptor (TcR) and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II dimer. We have previously shown that a subset of the
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The functional activity of superantigens is based on capacity of these microbial proteins to bind to both the β-chain of the T cell receptor (TcR) and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II dimer. We have previously shown that a subset of the bacterial superantigens also binds to a membrane protein, designated p85, which is expressed by renal epithelial cells. This binding activity is a property of SEB, SEC1, 2 and 3, but not SEA, SED, SEE or TSST. The crystal structure of the tri-molecular complex of the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) with both the TcR and class II has previously been reported. However, the relative contributions of regions of the superantigen to the overall functional activity of this superantigen remain undefined. In an effort to better define the molecular basis for the interaction of SEB with the TcR β-chain, we report studies here which show the comparative contributions of amino- and carboxy-terminal regions in the superantigen activity of SEB. Recombinant fusion proteins composed of bacterial maltose-binding protein linked to either full-length or truncated toxins in which the 81 N-terminal, or 19 or 34 C-terminal amino acids were deleted, were generated for these studies. This approach provides a determination of the relative strength of the functional activity of the various regions of the superantigen protein. Full article
Open AccessArticle Aflatoxin, Fumonisin and Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infections in Calves and the Effectiveness of Celmanax®/Dairyman’s Choice™ Applications to Eliminate Morbidity and Mortality Losses
Toxins 2013, 5(10), 1872-1895; doi:10.3390/toxins5101872
Received: 9 September 2013 / Revised: 8 October 2013 / Accepted: 11 October 2013 / Published: 23 October 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (461 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mycotoxin mixtures are associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections in mature cattle. STEC are considered commensal bacteria in mature cattle suggesting that mycotoxins provide a mechanism that converts this bacterium to an opportunistic pathogen. In this study, we assessed the mycotoxin
[...] Read more.
Mycotoxin mixtures are associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections in mature cattle. STEC are considered commensal bacteria in mature cattle suggesting that mycotoxins provide a mechanism that converts this bacterium to an opportunistic pathogen. In this study, we assessed the mycotoxin content of hemorrhaged mucosa in dairy calves during natural disease outbreaks, compared the virulence genes of the STECs, evaluated the effect of the mucosal mycotoxins on STEC toxin expression and evaluated a Celmanax®/Dairyman’s Choice™ application to alleviate disease. As for human infections, the OI-122 encoded nleB gene was common to STEC genotypes eliciting serious disease. Low levels of aflatoxin (1–3 ppb) and fumonisin (50–350 ppb) were detected in the hemorrhaged mucosa. Growth of the STECs with the mycotoxins altered the secreted protein concentration with a corresponding increase in cytotoxicity. Changes in intracellular calcium indicated that the mycotoxins increased enterotoxin and pore-forming toxin activity. A prebiotic/probiotic application eliminated the morbidity and mortality losses associated with the STEC infections. Our study demonstrates: the same STEC disease complex exists for immature and mature cattle; the significance of the OI-122 pathogenicity island to virulence; the significance of mycotoxins to STEC toxin activity; and, finally, provides further evidence that prebiotic/probiotic applications alleviate STEC shedding and mycotoxin/STEC interactions that lead to disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Thioridazine on Erythrocytes
Toxins 2013, 5(10), 1918-1931; doi:10.3390/toxins5101918
Received: 4 September 2013 / Revised: 16 October 2013 / Accepted: 18 October 2013 / Published: 23 October 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (260 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Thioridazine, a neuroleptic phenothiazine with antimicrobial efficacy is known to trigger anemia. At least in theory, the anemia could result from stimulation of suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and by phospholipid scrambling of the cell membrane
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Background: Thioridazine, a neuroleptic phenothiazine with antimicrobial efficacy is known to trigger anemia. At least in theory, the anemia could result from stimulation of suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and by phospholipid scrambling of the cell membrane with phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+-concentration ([Ca2+]i) and activation of p38 kinase. The present study explored, whether thioridazine elicits eryptosis. Methods: [Ca2+]i has been estimated from Fluo3-fluorescence, cell volume from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine exposure from annexin-V-binding, and hemolysis from hemoglobin release. Results: A 48 hours exposure to thioridazine was followed by a significant increase of [Ca2+]i (30 µM), decrease of forward scatter (30 µM), and increase of annexin-V-binding (≥12 µM). Nominal absence of extracellular Ca2+ and p38 kinase inhibitor SB203580 (2 µM) significantly blunted but did not abolish annexin-V-binding following thioridazine exposure. Conclusions: Thioridazine stimulates eryptosis, an effect in part due to entry of extracellular Ca2+ and activation of p38 kinase. Full article

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Saporin-S6: A Useful Tool in Cancer Therapy
Toxins 2013, 5(10), 1698-1722; doi:10.3390/toxins5101698
Received: 19 July 2013 / Revised: 17 September 2013 / Accepted: 22 September 2013 / Published: 7 October 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1285 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thirty years ago, the type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) saporin-S6 (also known as saporin) was isolated from Saponaria officinalis L. seeds. Since then, the properties and mechanisms of action of saporin-S6 have been well characterized, and it has been widely employed in the
[...] Read more.
Thirty years ago, the type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) saporin-S6 (also known as saporin) was isolated from Saponaria officinalis L. seeds. Since then, the properties and mechanisms of action of saporin-S6 have been well characterized, and it has been widely employed in the construction of conjugates and immunotoxins for different purposes. These immunotoxins have shown many interesting results when used in cancer therapy, particularly in hematological tumors. The high enzymatic activity, stability and resistance to conjugation procedures and blood proteases make saporin-S6 a very useful tool in cancer therapy. High efficacy has been reported in clinical trials with saporin-S6-containing immunotoxins, at dosages that induced only mild and transient side effects, which were mainly fever, myalgias, hepatotoxicity, thrombocytopenia and vascular leak syndrome. Moreover, saporin-S6 triggers multiple cell death pathways, rendering impossible the selection of RIP-resistant mutants. In this review, some aspects of saporin-S6, such as the chemico-physical characteristics, the structural properties, its endocytosis, its intracellular routing and the pathogenetic mechanisms of the cell damage, are reported. In addition, the recent progress and developments of saporin-S6-containing immunotoxins in cancer immunotherapy are summarized, including in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical studies and clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins and Carcinogenesis)
Open AccessReview Toxicity of Ochratoxin A and Its Modulation by Antioxidants: A Review
Toxins 2013, 5(10), 1742-1766; doi:10.3390/toxins5101742
Received: 29 July 2013 / Revised: 25 September 2013 / Accepted: 27 September 2013 / Published: 11 October 2013
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin involved in the development of different types of cancers in rats, mice and humans. A growing number of in vitro and in vivo studies has been collected and has described evidence compatible with a role for oxidative
[...] Read more.
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin involved in the development of different types of cancers in rats, mice and humans. A growing number of in vitro and in vivo studies has been collected and has described evidence compatible with a role for oxidative stress in OTA toxicity and carcinogenicity. Because the contribution of the oxidative stress response in the development of cancers is well established, a role in OTA carcinogenicity is plausible. Several studies have been performed to try to counteract the adverse effects of oxygen radicals generated under OTA-exposure. A number of molecules with various antioxidant properties were tested, using in vivo or in vitro models. Protection against OTA-induced DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, as well as cytotoxicity were observed, further confirming the link between OTA toxicity and oxidative damage. These studies demonstrated that antioxidants are able to counteract the deleterious effects of chronic consumption or exposure to OTA and confirmed the potential effectiveness of dietary strategies to counteract OTA toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Ochratoxins Research)
Open AccessReview Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins: From Impacts on Aquatic Ecosystems and Human Health to Anticarcinogenic Effects
Toxins 2013, 5(10), 1896-1917; doi:10.3390/toxins5101896
Received: 11 August 2013 / Revised: 15 October 2013 / Accepted: 17 October 2013 / Published: 23 October 2013
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (255 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cyanobacteria or blue-green algae are among the pioneer organisms of planet Earth. They developed an efficient photosynthetic capacity and played a significant role in the evolution of the early atmosphere. Essential for the development and evolution of species, they proliferate easily in aquatic
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Cyanobacteria or blue-green algae are among the pioneer organisms of planet Earth. They developed an efficient photosynthetic capacity and played a significant role in the evolution of the early atmosphere. Essential for the development and evolution of species, they proliferate easily in aquatic environments, primarily due to human activities. Eutrophic environments are conducive to the appearance of cyanobacterial blooms that not only affect water quality, but also produce highly toxic metabolites. Poisoning and serious chronic effects in humans, such as cancer, have been described. On the other hand, many cyanobacterial genera have been studied for their toxins with anticancer potential in human cell lines, generating promising results for future research toward controlling human adenocarcinomas. This review presents the knowledge that has evolved on the topic of toxins produced by cyanobacteria, ranging from their negative impacts to their benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins and Carcinogenesis)

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