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Comparison of Clean-Up Methods for Ochratoxin A on Wine, Beer, Roasted Coffee and Chili Commercialized in Italy
Centre of Competence for the Innovation in the Agro-environmental Sector (AGROINNOVA), University of Turin, Grugliasco (TO) 10095, Italy
Department Agricultural, Forestry and Food Sciences (DISAFA), University of Turin, Grugliasco (TO) 10095, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 July 2013; in revised form: 10 October 2013 / Accepted: 11 October 2013 / Published: 22 October 2013
Abstract: The most common technique used to detect ochratoxin A (OTA) in food matrices is based on extraction, clean-up, and chromatography detection. Different clean-up cartridges, such as immunoaffinity columns (IAC), molecular imprinting polymers (MIP), Mycosep™ 229, Mycospin™, and Oasis® HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic balance) as solid phase extraction were tested to optimize the purification for red wine, beer, roasted coffee and chili. Recovery, reproducibility, reproducibility, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were calculated for each clean-up method. IAC demonstrated to be suitable for OTA analysis in wine and beer with recovery rate >90%, as well as Mycosep™ for wine and chili. On the contrary, MIP columns were the most appropriate to clean up coffee. A total of 120 samples (30 wines, 30 beers, 30 roasted coffee, 30 chili) marketed in Italy were analyzed, by applying the developed clean-up methods. Twenty-seven out of 120 samples analyzed (22.7%: two wines, five beers, eight coffees, and 12 chili) resulted positive to OTA. A higher incidence of OTA was found in chili (40.0%) more than wine (6.6%), beers (16.6%) and coffee (26.6%). Moreover, OTA concentration in chili was the highest detected, reaching 47.8 µg/kg. Furthermore, three samples (2.5%), two wines and one chili, exceeded the European threshold.
Keywords: mycotoxins; ochratoxins; occurrence; beer; wine; coffee; chili; HPLC
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Prelle, A.; Spadaro, D.; Denca, A.; Garibaldi, A.; Gullino, M.L. Comparison of Clean-Up Methods for Ochratoxin A on Wine, Beer, Roasted Coffee and Chili Commercialized in Italy. Toxins 2013, 5, 1827-1844.
Prelle A, Spadaro D, Denca A, Garibaldi A, Gullino ML. Comparison of Clean-Up Methods for Ochratoxin A on Wine, Beer, Roasted Coffee and Chili Commercialized in Italy. Toxins. 2013; 5(10):1827-1844.
Prelle, Ambra; Spadaro, Davide; Denca, Aleksandra; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria L. 2013. "Comparison of Clean-Up Methods for Ochratoxin A on Wine, Beer, Roasted Coffee and Chili Commercialized in Italy." Toxins 5, no. 10: 1827-1844.