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Toxins 2013, 5(10), 1682-1697; doi:10.3390/toxins5101682
Article

Faces of a Changing Climate: Semi-Quantitative Multi-Mycotoxin Analysis of Grain Grown in Exceptional Climatic Conditions in Norway

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Received: 22 August 2013; in revised form: 13 September 2013 / Accepted: 22 September 2013 / Published: 27 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Toxin Detection)
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Abstract: Recent climatological research predicts a significantly wetter climate in Southern Norway as a result of global warming. Thus, the country has already experienced unusually wet summer seasons in the last three years (2010–2012). The aim of this pilot study was to apply an existing multi-analyte LC-MS/MS method for the semi-quantitative determination of 320 fungal and bacterial metabolites in Norwegian cereal grain samples from the 2011 growing season. Such knowledge could provide important information for future survey and research programmes in Norway. The method includes all regulated and well-known mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, fumonisins and zearalenone. In addition, a wide range of less studied compounds are included in the method, e.g., Alternaria toxins, ergot alkaloids and other metabolites produced by fungal species within Fusarium, Penicillium and Aspergillus. Altogether, 46 metabolites, all of fungal origin, were detected in the 76 barley, oats and wheat samples. The analyses confirmed the high prevalence and relatively high concentrations of type-A and -B trichothecenes (e.g., deoxynivalenol up to 7230 µg/kg, HT-2 toxin up to 333 µg/kg). Zearalenone was also among the major mycotoxins detected (maximum concentration 1670 µg/kg). Notably, several other Fusarium metabolites such as culmorin, 2-amino-14,16-dimethyloctadecan-3-ol and avenacein Y were co-occurring. Furthermore, the most prevalent Alternaria toxin was alternariol with a maximum concentration of 449 µg/kg. A number of Penicillium and Aspergillus metabolites were also detected in the samples, e.g., sterigmatocystin in concentrations up to 20 µg/kg.
Keywords: climate change; fungi; LC-MS; multiplexing; mycotoxin climate change; fungi; LC-MS; multiplexing; mycotoxin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Uhlig, S.; Eriksen, G.S.; Hofgaard, I.S.; Krska, R.; Beltrán, E.; Sulyok, M. Faces of a Changing Climate: Semi-Quantitative Multi-Mycotoxin Analysis of Grain Grown in Exceptional Climatic Conditions in Norway. Toxins 2013, 5, 1682-1697.

AMA Style

Uhlig S, Eriksen GS, Hofgaard IS, Krska R, Beltrán E, Sulyok M. Faces of a Changing Climate: Semi-Quantitative Multi-Mycotoxin Analysis of Grain Grown in Exceptional Climatic Conditions in Norway. Toxins. 2013; 5(10):1682-1697.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Uhlig, Silvio; Eriksen, Gunnar S.; Hofgaard, Ingerd S.; Krska, Rudolf; Beltrán, Eduardo; Sulyok, Michael. 2013. "Faces of a Changing Climate: Semi-Quantitative Multi-Mycotoxin Analysis of Grain Grown in Exceptional Climatic Conditions in Norway." Toxins 5, no. 10: 1682-1697.



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