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Special Issue "Toxins and Carcinogenesis"

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A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Teresa Frisan

Department Cell and Molecular Biology (CMB), Berzelius väg 35, Box 285, S-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
Website | E-Mail
Phone: (+46) 8 5248 6385
Interests: bacteria and cancer; host-microbe interaction; bacterial genotoxins; DNA damage response; carcinogenesis; bacteria and bacterial toxins internalization and intracellular trafficking

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The role of several environmental and chemical agents in carcinogenesis has been well documented by combining molecular and epidemiological studies. The use of tobacco is a clear example of a carcinogen linked to a specific life style. An emerging feature in the field of toxin and carcinogenesis is the role of bacterial infections. Several bacteria produce toxins that directly or indirectly alter key signaling pathways that regulate the delicate balance between cell proliferation and cell death, or can directly cause DNA damage.

An interesting development in the field of toxins and cancer is the conjugation of toxins (e.g. bacterial toxins) for targeted delivery to tumor cells. Indeed, the immunotoxin Denileukin diftitox (ONTAK) has been approved for treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. Although the development of such drugs has been slow, the exponential development of new technologies will surely contribute to the deployment of toxins in cancer therapy.

This special issue aims to provide the state of the art of the molecular mechanisms by which toxins promote carcinogenesis as well as the development of toxin-based therapeutic protocols for cancer treatment.

Identification of the molecular mechanisms of the toxins mode of action and their contribution to carcinogenesis is extreme valuable for the definition of efficient preventive measures and the design of novel therapeutic protocols.

Dr. Teresa Frisan
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on theInstructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 800 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Keywords

  • environmental and bacterial toxins
  • chronic inflammation
  • genomic instability
  • cell survival
  • cell proliferation
  • cancer risk
  • immunotoxins
  • chemotherapy

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Review

Open AccessReview Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins: From Impacts on Aquatic Ecosystems and Human Health to Anticarcinogenic Effects
Toxins 2013, 5(10), 1896-1917; doi:10.3390/toxins5101896
Received: 11 August 2013 / Revised: 15 October 2013 / Accepted: 17 October 2013 / Published: 23 October 2013
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (255 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cyanobacteria or blue-green algae are among the pioneer organisms of planet Earth. They developed an efficient photosynthetic capacity and played a significant role in the evolution of the early atmosphere. Essential for the development and evolution of species, they proliferate easily in aquatic
[...] Read more.
Cyanobacteria or blue-green algae are among the pioneer organisms of planet Earth. They developed an efficient photosynthetic capacity and played a significant role in the evolution of the early atmosphere. Essential for the development and evolution of species, they proliferate easily in aquatic environments, primarily due to human activities. Eutrophic environments are conducive to the appearance of cyanobacterial blooms that not only affect water quality, but also produce highly toxic metabolites. Poisoning and serious chronic effects in humans, such as cancer, have been described. On the other hand, many cyanobacterial genera have been studied for their toxins with anticancer potential in human cell lines, generating promising results for future research toward controlling human adenocarcinomas. This review presents the knowledge that has evolved on the topic of toxins produced by cyanobacteria, ranging from their negative impacts to their benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins and Carcinogenesis)
Open AccessReview Saporin-S6: A Useful Tool in Cancer Therapy
Toxins 2013, 5(10), 1698-1722; doi:10.3390/toxins5101698
Received: 19 July 2013 / Revised: 17 September 2013 / Accepted: 22 September 2013 / Published: 7 October 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1285 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thirty years ago, the type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) saporin-S6 (also known as saporin) was isolated from Saponaria officinalis L. seeds. Since then, the properties and mechanisms of action of saporin-S6 have been well characterized, and it has been widely employed in the
[...] Read more.
Thirty years ago, the type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) saporin-S6 (also known as saporin) was isolated from Saponaria officinalis L. seeds. Since then, the properties and mechanisms of action of saporin-S6 have been well characterized, and it has been widely employed in the construction of conjugates and immunotoxins for different purposes. These immunotoxins have shown many interesting results when used in cancer therapy, particularly in hematological tumors. The high enzymatic activity, stability and resistance to conjugation procedures and blood proteases make saporin-S6 a very useful tool in cancer therapy. High efficacy has been reported in clinical trials with saporin-S6-containing immunotoxins, at dosages that induced only mild and transient side effects, which were mainly fever, myalgias, hepatotoxicity, thrombocytopenia and vascular leak syndrome. Moreover, saporin-S6 triggers multiple cell death pathways, rendering impossible the selection of RIP-resistant mutants. In this review, some aspects of saporin-S6, such as the chemico-physical characteristics, the structural properties, its endocytosis, its intracellular routing and the pathogenetic mechanisms of the cell damage, are reported. In addition, the recent progress and developments of saporin-S6-containing immunotoxins in cancer immunotherapy are summarized, including in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical studies and clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins and Carcinogenesis)
Open AccessReview Immunotoxins: The Role of the Toxin
Toxins 2013, 5(8), 1486-1502; doi:10.3390/toxins5081486
Received: 15 July 2013 / Revised: 30 July 2013 / Accepted: 6 August 2013 / Published: 21 August 2013
Cited by 35 | PDF Full-text (485 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Immunotoxins are antibody-toxin bifunctional molecules that rely on intracellular toxin action to kill target cells. Target specificity is determined via the binding attributes of the chosen antibody. Mostly, but not exclusively, immunotoxins are purpose-built to kill cancer cells as part of novel treatment
[...] Read more.
Immunotoxins are antibody-toxin bifunctional molecules that rely on intracellular toxin action to kill target cells. Target specificity is determined via the binding attributes of the chosen antibody. Mostly, but not exclusively, immunotoxins are purpose-built to kill cancer cells as part of novel treatment approaches. Other applications for immunotoxins include immune regulation and the treatment of viral or parasitic diseases. Here we discuss the utility of protein toxins, of both bacterial and plant origin, joined to antibodies for targeting cancer cells. Finally, while clinical goals are focused on the development of novel cancer treatments, much has been learned about toxin action and intracellular pathways. Thus toxins are considered both medicines for treating human disease and probes of cellular function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins and Carcinogenesis)
Open AccessReview Bacterial Toxins Fuel Disease Progression in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma
Toxins 2013, 5(8), 1402-1421; doi:10.3390/toxins5081402
Received: 4 July 2013 / Revised: 2 August 2013 / Accepted: 6 August 2013 / Published: 14 August 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (626 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) bacterial infections constitute a major clinical problem caused by compromised skin barrier and a progressive immunodeficiency. Indeed, the majority of patients with advanced disease die from infections with bacteria, e.g., Staphylococcus aureus. Bacterial toxins such
[...] Read more.
In patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) bacterial infections constitute a major clinical problem caused by compromised skin barrier and a progressive immunodeficiency. Indeed, the majority of patients with advanced disease die from infections with bacteria, e.g., Staphylococcus aureus. Bacterial toxins such as staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE) have long been suspected to be involved in the pathogenesis in CTCL. Here, we review links between bacterial infections and CTCL with focus on earlier studies addressing a direct role of SE on malignant T cells and recent data indicating novel indirect mechanisms involving SE- and cytokine-driven cross-talk between malignant- and non-malignant T cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins and Carcinogenesis)
Open AccessReview The Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 from E. Coli: A Janus Toxin Playing with Cancer Regulators
Toxins 2013, 5(8), 1462-1474; doi:10.3390/toxins5081462
Received: 9 July 2013 / Revised: 24 July 2013 / Accepted: 6 August 2013 / Published: 14 August 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (561 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Certain strains of Escherichia coli have been indicated as a risk factor for colon cancer. E. coli is a normal inhabitant of the human intestine that becomes pathogenic, especially in extraintestinal sites, following the acquisition of virulence factors, including the protein toxin CNF1.
[...] Read more.
Certain strains of Escherichia coli have been indicated as a risk factor for colon cancer. E. coli is a normal inhabitant of the human intestine that becomes pathogenic, especially in extraintestinal sites, following the acquisition of virulence factors, including the protein toxin CNF1. This Rho GTPases-activating toxin induces dysfunctions in transformed epithelial cells, such as apoptosis counteraction, pro-inflammatory cytokines’ release, COX2 expression, NF-kB activation and boosted cellular motility. As cancer may arise when the same regulatory pathways are affected, it is conceivable to hypothesize that CNF1-producing E. coli infections can contribute to cancer development. This review focuses on those aspects of CNF1 related to transformation, with the aim of contributing to the identification of a new possible carcinogenic agent from the microbial world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins and Carcinogenesis)

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