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Toxicity of Ochratoxin A and Its Modulation by Antioxidants: A Review
Department of Drug Science, Section of Biochemistry, University of Catania, Catania95125, Italy
Agriculture Department, Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria89122, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 July 2013; in revised form: 25 September 2013 / Accepted: 27 September 2013 / Published: 11 October 2013
Abstract: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin involved in the development of different types of cancers in rats, mice and humans. A growing number of in vitro and in vivo studies has been collected and has described evidence compatible with a role for oxidative stress in OTA toxicity and carcinogenicity. Because the contribution of the oxidative stress response in the development of cancers is well established, a role in OTA carcinogenicity is plausible. Several studies have been performed to try to counteract the adverse effects of oxygen radicals generated under OTA-exposure. A number of molecules with various antioxidant properties were tested, using in vivo or in vitro models. Protection against OTA-induced DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, as well as cytotoxicity were observed, further confirming the link between OTA toxicity and oxidative damage. These studies demonstrated that antioxidants are able to counteract the deleterious effects of chronic consumption or exposure to OTA and confirmed the potential effectiveness of dietary strategies to counteract OTA toxicity.
Keywords: ochratoxin A; oxidative stress; DNA damage; antioxidants
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MDPI and ACS Style
Sorrenti, V.; Di Giacomo, C.; Acquaviva, R.; Barbagallo, I.; Bognanno, M.; Galvano, F. Toxicity of Ochratoxin A and Its Modulation by Antioxidants: A Review. Toxins 2013, 5, 1742-1766.
Sorrenti V, Di Giacomo C, Acquaviva R, Barbagallo I, Bognanno M, Galvano F. Toxicity of Ochratoxin A and Its Modulation by Antioxidants: A Review. Toxins. 2013; 5(10):1742-1766.
Sorrenti, Valeria; Di Giacomo, Claudia; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Bognanno, Matteo; Galvano, Fabio. 2013. "Toxicity of Ochratoxin A and Its Modulation by Antioxidants: A Review." Toxins 5, no. 10: 1742-1766.