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Nutrients, Volume 4, Issue 10 (October 2012), Pages 1358-1541

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Preresection Obesity Increases the Risk of Hepatobiliary Complications in Short Bowel Syndrome
Nutrients 2012, 4(10), 1358-1366; doi:10.3390/nu4101358
Received: 28 June 2012 / Revised: 11 September 2012 / Accepted: 18 September 2012 / Published: 26 September 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (363 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Patients developing the short bowel syndrome (SBS) are at risk for hepatobiliary disease, as are morbidly obese individuals. We hypothesized that morbidly obese SBS individuals would be at increased risk for developing hepatobiliary complications. We reviewed 79 patients with SBS, 53 patients with initial body mass index (BMI) < 35 were controls. Twenty-six patients with initial BMI > 35 were the obese group. Obese patients were more likely to be weaned off parenteral nutrition (PN) (58% vs. 21%). Pre-resection BMI was significantly lower in controls (26 vs. 41). BMI at 1, 2, and 5 years was decreased in controls but persistently increased in obese patients. Obese patients were more likely to undergo cholecystectomy prior to SBS (42% vs. 32%) and after SBS (80% vs. 39%, p < 0.05). Fatty liver was more frequent in the obese group prior to SBS (23% vs. 0%, p < 0.05) but was similar to controls after SBS (23% vs. 15%). Fibrosis (8% vs. 13%) and cirrhosis/portal hypertension (19% vs. 21%) were similar in obese and control groups. Overall, end stage liver disease (ESLD) was similar in obese and control groups (19% vs. 11%) but was significantly higher in obese patients receiving PN (45% vs. 14%, p < 0.05). Obese patients developing SBS are at increased risk of developing hepatobiliary complications. ESLD was similar in the two groups overall but occurs more frequently in obese patients maintained on chronic PN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parenteral Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Differential Development of Glucose Intolerance and Pancreatic Islet Adaptation in Multiple Diet Induced Obesity Models
Nutrients 2012, 4(10), 1367-1381; doi:10.3390/nu4101367
Received: 3 August 2012 / Revised: 24 August 2012 / Accepted: 10 September 2012 / Published: 28 September 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (258 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: The C57BL/6 mouse fed a high fat diet is a common and valuable model in experimental studies of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Different high fat diets are used and in order to determine which diet produces a model [...] Read more.
Background: The C57BL/6 mouse fed a high fat diet is a common and valuable model in experimental studies of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Different high fat diets are used and in order to determine which diet produces a model most accurately resembling human T2D, they need to be compared head-to-head. Methods: Four different diets, the 60% high fat diet (HFD) and the 58% high fat-high sucrose Surwit diet (HFHS) and their respective controls, were compared in C57BL/6J mice using glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) and the euglycemic clamp. Results: Mice fed a HFD gained more weight than HFHS fed mice despite having similar energy intake. Both high fat diet models were glucose intolerant after eight weeks. Mice fed the HFD had elevated basal insulin, which was not seen in the HFHS group. The acute insulin response (AIR) was unchanged in the HFD group, but slightly increased in the HFHS diet group. The HFHS diet group had a threefold greater total insulin secretion during the IVGTT compared to its control, while no differences were seen in the HFD group. Insulin sensitivity was decreased fourfold in the HFD group, but not in the HFHS diet group. Conclusion: The HFD and HFHS diet models show differential effects on the development of insulin resistance and beta cell adaptation. These discrepancies are important to acknowledge in order to select the appropriate diet for specific studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diabetes)
Open AccessArticle Body Mass Index (BMI) Trajectories from Birth to 11.5 Years: Relation to Early Life Food Intake
Nutrients 2012, 4(10), 1382-1398; doi:10.3390/nu4101382
Received: 1 August 2012 / Revised: 19 September 2012 / Accepted: 20 September 2012 / Published: 9 October 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (684 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent research has shown that the pattern of change over time, or trajectory, of body mass index (BMI) varies among children. However, the factors that underlie the heterogeneity in these trajectories remain largely unexplored. Our aim was to use a growth mixture [...] Read more.
Recent research has shown that the pattern of change over time, or trajectory, of body mass index (BMI) varies among children. However, the factors that underlie the heterogeneity in these trajectories remain largely unexplored. Our aim was to use a growth mixture model to empirically identify classes of BMI trajectories (from birth to 11.5 years) and examine the effects of breastfeeding, introduction of solids, as well as food and nutrient intake at 18 months on these BMI trajectories. We identified three BMI growth trajectories between birth and age 11.5 years, separately in boys and girls. Breastfeeding duration less than six months and the early introduction of solids did not adversely influence BMI trajectories in our sample but high intakes of meat, particularly high fat varieties, and high intakes of carbohydrate at age around 18 months were associated with a high BMI trajectory in boys. It is not clear whether these dietary factors confer a direct risk of higher BMI in childhood or are markers for other dietary patterns that are present early and/or develop through childhood and contribute to higher BMI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infant Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Effect of 10 Week Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Competition and Training Performance in Elite Swimmers
Nutrients 2012, 4(10), 1441-1453; doi:10.3390/nu4101441
Received: 25 July 2012 / Revised: 17 September 2012 / Accepted: 26 September 2012 / Published: 9 October 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (594 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although some laboratory-based studies show an ergogenic effect with beta-alanine supplementation, there is a lack of field-based research in training and competition settings. Elite/Sub-elite swimmers (n = 23 males and 18 females, age = 21.7 ± 2.8 years; mean ± SD) [...] Read more.
Although some laboratory-based studies show an ergogenic effect with beta-alanine supplementation, there is a lack of field-based research in training and competition settings. Elite/Sub-elite swimmers (n = 23 males and 18 females, age = 21.7 ± 2.8 years; mean ± SD) were supplemented with either beta-alanine (4 weeks loading phase of 4.8 g/day and 3.2 g/day thereafter) or placebo for 10 weeks. Competition performance times were log-transformed, then evaluated before (National Championships) and after (international or national selection meet) supplementation. Swimmers also completed three standardized training sets at baseline, 4 and 10 weeks of supplementation. Capillary blood was analyzed for pH, bicarbonate and lactate concentration in both competition and training. There was an unclear effect (0.4%; ±0.8%, mean, ±90% confidence limits) of beta-alanine on competition performance compared to placebo with no meaningful changes in blood chemistry. While there was a transient improvement on training performance after 4 weeks with beta-alanine (−1.3%; ±1.0%), there was an unclear effect at ten weeks (−0.2%; ±1.5%) and no meaningful changes in blood chemistry. Beta-alanine supplementation appears to have minimal effect on swimming performance in non-laboratory controlled real-world training and competition settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sports Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle The Use of Implementation Intentions to Promote Vitamin D Supplementation in Young Children
Nutrients 2012, 4(10), 1454-1463; doi:10.3390/nu4101454
Received: 17 July 2012 / Revised: 13 August 2012 / Accepted: 20 September 2012 / Published: 12 October 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (320 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Only 50% of Dutch children aged 0–4 years receive sufficient daily vitamin D supplementation. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of implementation intentions in promoting vitamin D supplementation among young children. An electronic survey was conducted among parents of children aged [...] Read more.
Only 50% of Dutch children aged 0–4 years receive sufficient daily vitamin D supplementation. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of implementation intentions in promoting vitamin D supplementation among young children. An electronic survey was conducted among parents of children aged 0–4 (n = 171). These parents were randomly assigned to two groups: one that received implementation intention instructions and one that did not. At follow-up, there were no significant between group differences in any outcome measures. These results suggest that merely asking parents to formulate an implementation intention with respect to giving their child daily vitamin D supplementation is insufficient to improve vitamin D intake among young children. However, testing the intervention via the Internet may not have allowed us to exploit the full potential of the strategy. Investigation of the use of implementation intentions in the setting of toddler consultation clinics is therefore recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infant Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Food Variety at 2 Years of Age is Related to Duration of Breastfeeding
Nutrients 2012, 4(10), 1464-1474; doi:10.3390/nu4101464
Received: 30 July 2012 / Revised: 3 September 2012 / Accepted: 14 September 2012 / Published: 15 October 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (313 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the association of breastfeeding duration and food variety at 2 years of age. A secondary data analysis was undertaken of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, an ongoing longitudinal study. Data collected from a single 24 h dietary recall of 1905, 2 year-old children were used to calculate two food variety scores; a core food variety score (CFVS) and a fruit and vegetable variety score (FVVS). Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to identify those factors independently associated with the CFVS and FVVS. The mean CFVS was 7.52 (range 1–18) of a possible 34 food items or groups and the mean FVVS was 2.84 (range 0–10) of a possible 16 food items or groups. Breastfeeding duration was independently directly associated with the CFVS (p < 0.001) and FVVS (p < 0.001). In addition, maternal age was independently directly associated with the CFVS (p < 0.001) and FVVS (p = 0.001) as was maternal education (CFVS p < 0.001 and FVVS p = 0.043). The presence of older siblings was independently inversely associated with the CFVS (p = 0.003) and FVVS (p = 0.001). This study demonstrated a direct modest association between breastfeeding duration and food variety in 2 year-old children, independent of maternal demographic characteristics known to predict food variety in children. This finding supports the hypothesis that flavours transferred in breast milk provide repeated early exposure to different tastes and positively shape children’s food preferences and food variety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infant Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Egg White Protein Supplementation on Muscle Strength and Serum Free Amino Acid Concentrations
Nutrients 2012, 4(10), 1504-1517; doi:10.3390/nu4101504
Received: 30 July 2012 / Revised: 1 October 2012 / Accepted: 9 October 2012 / Published: 19 October 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (518 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg white protein compared to carbohydrate intake prior to exercise on fat free mass (FFM), one repetition maximum (1RM) muscle strength and blood biochemistry in female athletes. Thirty healthy female collegiate [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg white protein compared to carbohydrate intake prior to exercise on fat free mass (FFM), one repetition maximum (1RM) muscle strength and blood biochemistry in female athletes. Thirty healthy female collegiate athletes were recruited for this study and matched by sport type, body fat percentage and 1RM leg curl muscle strength. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: protein group (15.0 g egg white protein; 75 kcal) and carbohydrate group (17.5 g maltodextrin, 78 kcal). Supplements were administered daily at the same time in a double-blind manner prior to training during an 8-week period. Measurements were performed before and after the 8-week regimen. The mean dietary energy intake did not change throughout the study period. FFM and 1RM assessments (i.e., leg curl, leg extension, squat, and bench press) increased in both groups. Furthermore, serum urea and serum citrulline levels after the 8-week regimen increased significantly only in the protein group. Our findings indicated that compared to the carbohydrate supplement, the protein supplement was associated with some changes in protein metabolites but not with changes in body composition or muscle strength. Full article
Open AccessArticle Anti-Obesity Effects of Onion Extract in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats
Nutrients 2012, 4(10), 1518-1526; doi:10.3390/nu4101518
Received: 17 August 2012 / Revised: 28 September 2012 / Accepted: 15 October 2012 / Published: 22 October 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (434 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Anti-obesity effects of onion extract were determined in obesity and diabetes-prone Zucker diabetic fatty rats by measuring the efficacy of markers concerned with diabetes and obesity. Body and adipose tissue weights in 5% of onion extract-fed group were found to be significantly [...] Read more.
Anti-obesity effects of onion extract were determined in obesity and diabetes-prone Zucker diabetic fatty rats by measuring the efficacy of markers concerned with diabetes and obesity. Body and adipose tissue weights in 5% of onion extract-fed group were found to be significantly lower than the control group without onion extract. Fasting blood glucose and HOMA-IR levels were also improved, although the serum insulin and leptin levels did not show any remarkable difference. Serum triglyceride and free fatty acid levels in both the 3% and 5%-fed group were found to be reduced compared to the control group. Additionally the feeding of the onion extract increased the glucose tolerance. These results suggest that dietary onion extract is beneficial for improving diabetes by decreasing lipid levels. We also examined differentiation ability of rat white preadipocyte cells using the onion extract and its sulfur-containing components. Cycloalliin, S-methyl-l-cysteine, S-propyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide, dimethyl trisulfide, especially S-methyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide were reported to be effective in inhibiting formation of oil drop in the cells, suggesting that these compounds may be involved in the anti-obesity effect of the onion extract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diabetes)
Open AccessArticle Tocotrienols Reverse Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Liver Changes in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats
Nutrients 2012, 4(10), 1527-1541; doi:10.3390/nu4101527
Received: 13 September 2012 / Revised: 5 October 2012 / Accepted: 15 October 2012 / Published: 22 October 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (602 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tocotrienols have been reported to improve lipid profiles, reduce atherosclerotic lesions, decrease blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin concentrations, normalise blood pressure in vivo and inhibit adipogenesis in vitro, yet their role in the metabolic syndrome has not been investigated. In this [...] Read more.
Tocotrienols have been reported to improve lipid profiles, reduce atherosclerotic lesions, decrease blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin concentrations, normalise blood pressure in vivo and inhibit adipogenesis in vitro, yet their role in the metabolic syndrome has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic, cardiovascular and liver dysfunction in rats. Rats fed a high carbohydrate, high fat diet for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance with increased ventricular stiffness, lower systolic function and reduced liver function. TRF treatment improved ventricular function, attenuated cardiac stiffness and hypertension, and improved glucose and insulin tolerance, with reduced left ventricular collagen deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. TRF improved liver structure and function with reduced plasma liver enzymes, inflammatory cell infiltration, fat vacuoles and balloon hepatocytes. TRF reduced plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations but only omental fat deposition was decreased in the abdomen. These results suggest that tocotrienols protect the heart and liver, and improve plasma glucose and lipid profiles with minimal changes in abdominal obesity in this model of human metabolic syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diabetes)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Dysregulation of Glutathione Homeostasis in Neurodegenerative Diseases
Nutrients 2012, 4(10), 1399-1440; doi:10.3390/nu4101399
Received: 1 July 2012 / Revised: 22 August 2012 / Accepted: 24 September 2012 / Published: 9 October 2012
Cited by 65 | PDF Full-text (1041 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dysregulation of glutathione homeostasis and alterations in glutathione-dependent enzyme activities are increasingly implicated in the induction and progression of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Friedreich’s ataxia. In this review background is provided on the steady-state [...] Read more.
Dysregulation of glutathione homeostasis and alterations in glutathione-dependent enzyme activities are increasingly implicated in the induction and progression of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Friedreich’s ataxia. In this review background is provided on the steady-state synthesis, regulation, and transport of glutathione, with primary focus on the brain. A brief overview is presented on the distinct but vital roles of glutathione in cellular maintenance and survival, and on the functions of key glutathione-dependent enzymes. Major contributors to initiation and progression of neurodegenerative diseases are considered, including oxidative stress, protein misfolding, and protein aggregation. In each case examples of key regulatory mechanisms are identified that are sensitive to changes in glutathione redox status and/or in the activities of glutathione-dependent enzymes. Mechanisms of dysregulation of glutathione and/or glutathione-dependent enzymes are discussed that are implicated in pathogenesis of each neurodegenerative disease. Limitations in information or interpretation are identified, and possible avenues for further research are described with an aim to elucidating novel targets for therapeutic interventions. The pros and cons of administration of N-acetylcysteine or glutathione as therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases, as well as the potential utility of serum glutathione as a biomarker, are critically evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glutathione)
Open AccessReview Protein Analysis-on-Chip Systems in Foodomics
Nutrients 2012, 4(10), 1475-1489; doi:10.3390/nu4101475
Received: 22 May 2012 / Revised: 21 July 2012 / Accepted: 30 September 2012 / Published: 16 October 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (341 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Protein compositional data can address nutritional, packaging, origin/authenticity, processing history, safety and other quality questions. Such data has been time-consuming and expensive to generate until recently but “protein analysis on a chip” systems are now available that can analyze a complex food [...] Read more.
Protein compositional data can address nutritional, packaging, origin/authenticity, processing history, safety and other quality questions. Such data has been time-consuming and expensive to generate until recently but “protein analysis on a chip” systems are now available that can analyze a complex food sample in a few minutes and do not require great protein analytical expertise. We review some of the main new approaches with examples of their application and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2011)
Open AccessReview Risk of Parenteral Nutrition in Neonates—An Overview
Nutrients 2012, 4(10), 1490-1503; doi:10.3390/nu4101490
Received: 15 July 2012 / Revised: 29 August 2012 / Accepted: 25 September 2012 / Published: 16 October 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (361 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) in preterm infants are a challenge to the care of these fragile patients. HAI-incidence rates range from 6 to 27 infections per 1000 patient-days. Most nosocomial infections are bloodstream infections and of these, the majority is associated with the [...] Read more.
Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) in preterm infants are a challenge to the care of these fragile patients. HAI-incidence rates range from 6 to 27 infections per 1000 patient-days. Most nosocomial infections are bloodstream infections and of these, the majority is associated with the use of central venous catheters. Many studies identified parenteral nutrition as an independent risk factor for HAI, catheter-associated bloodstream infection, and clinical sepsis. This fact and various published outbreaks due to contaminated parenteral nutrition preparations highlight the importance of appropriate standards in the preparation and handling of intravenous solutions and parenteral nutrition. Ready-to-use parenteral nutrition formulations may provide additional safety in this context. However, there is concern that such formulations may result in overfeeding and necrotizing enterocolitis. Given the risk for catheter-associated infection, handling with parenteral nutrition should be minimized and the duration shortened. Further research is required about this topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parenteral Nutrition)

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