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Body Mass Index (BMI) Trajectories from Birth to 11.5 Years: Relation to Early Life Food Intake
Sydney School of Public Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, 431 Glebe Point Road, Glebe, NSW 2037, Australia
Atkins Center for Weight and Health, University of California, 3 Giannini Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 August 2012; in revised form: 19 September 2012 / Accepted: 20 September 2012 / Published: 9 October 2012
Abstract: Recent research has shown that the pattern of change over time, or trajectory, of body mass index (BMI) varies among children. However, the factors that underlie the heterogeneity in these trajectories remain largely unexplored. Our aim was to use a growth mixture model to empirically identify classes of BMI trajectories (from birth to 11.5 years) and examine the effects of breastfeeding, introduction of solids, as well as food and nutrient intake at 18 months on these BMI trajectories. We identified three BMI growth trajectories between birth and age 11.5 years, separately in boys and girls. Breastfeeding duration less than six months and the early introduction of solids did not adversely influence BMI trajectories in our sample but high intakes of meat, particularly high fat varieties, and high intakes of carbohydrate at age around 18 months were associated with a high BMI trajectory in boys. It is not clear whether these dietary factors confer a direct risk of higher BMI in childhood or are markers for other dietary patterns that are present early and/or develop through childhood and contribute to higher BMI.
Keywords: body mass index; developmental trajectory; obesity; breastfeeding; dietary intake; nutrition; diet; infant
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Garden, F.L.; Marks, G.B.; Simpson, J.M.; Webb, K.L. Body Mass Index (BMI) Trajectories from Birth to 11.5 Years: Relation to Early Life Food Intake. Nutrients 2012, 4, 1382-1398.
Garden FL, Marks GB, Simpson JM, Webb KL. Body Mass Index (BMI) Trajectories from Birth to 11.5 Years: Relation to Early Life Food Intake. Nutrients. 2012; 4(10):1382-1398.
Garden, Frances L.; Marks, Guy B.; Simpson, Judy M.; Webb, Karen L. 2012. "Body Mass Index (BMI) Trajectories from Birth to 11.5 Years: Relation to Early Life Food Intake." Nutrients 4, no. 10: 1382-1398.