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Special Issue "Advances in Sports Nutrition"

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A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Jonathan Peake

School of Biomedical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
E-Mail
Interests: inflammatory responses to exercise-induced muscle damage; relationship between inflammation and oxidative stress; signal transduction pathways in skeletal muscle

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the past 30 years, sport nutrition has emerged not only as a key component of training and competition for athletes, but also as a genuine scientific discipline. Research has traditionally focused on specific aspects of nutrition before, during and after exercise. However, in reality, for most competitive athletes adequate and appropriate nutritional intake is a constant consideration. Carbohydrate intake is important before and during exercise to support the metabolic demands of exercise, but also after exercise to recover and prepare for subsequent training sessions. Protein intake is important at all times to support muscle repair and hypertrophy. In contrast with carbohydrate and protein, most athletes focus on minimising fat intake so as to maintain low levels of body fat. Fluid intake is important to maintain hydration and reduce the potential risk of exertional heat illness. Consuming a well-balanced diet helps athletes to obtain adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals, which play a key role in maintaining metabolism and other general cellular functions. Some other nutritional compounds have the potential to enhance athletic performance. The purpose of this special issue is to provide a summary of contemporary issues and invite contributions that describe new insights into managing nutrition for athletes.

Dr. Jonathan Peake
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • carbohydrate loading
  • glycogen resynthesis
  • protein synthesis
  • hypohydration
  • rehydration
  • ergogenic aid

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Effect of 10 Week Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Competition and Training Performance in Elite Swimmers
Nutrients 2012, 4(10), 1441-1453; doi:10.3390/nu4101441
Received: 25 July 2012 / Revised: 17 September 2012 / Accepted: 26 September 2012 / Published: 9 October 2012
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (594 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although some laboratory-based studies show an ergogenic effect with beta-alanine supplementation, there is a lack of field-based research in training and competition settings. Elite/Sub-elite swimmers (n = 23 males and 18 females, age = 21.7 ± 2.8 years; mean ± SD) were
[...] Read more.
Although some laboratory-based studies show an ergogenic effect with beta-alanine supplementation, there is a lack of field-based research in training and competition settings. Elite/Sub-elite swimmers (n = 23 males and 18 females, age = 21.7 ± 2.8 years; mean ± SD) were supplemented with either beta-alanine (4 weeks loading phase of 4.8 g/day and 3.2 g/day thereafter) or placebo for 10 weeks. Competition performance times were log-transformed, then evaluated before (National Championships) and after (international or national selection meet) supplementation. Swimmers also completed three standardized training sets at baseline, 4 and 10 weeks of supplementation. Capillary blood was analyzed for pH, bicarbonate and lactate concentration in both competition and training. There was an unclear effect (0.4%; ±0.8%, mean, ±90% confidence limits) of beta-alanine on competition performance compared to placebo with no meaningful changes in blood chemistry. While there was a transient improvement on training performance after 4 weeks with beta-alanine (−1.3%; ±1.0%), there was an unclear effect at ten weeks (−0.2%; ±1.5%) and no meaningful changes in blood chemistry. Beta-alanine supplementation appears to have minimal effect on swimming performance in non-laboratory controlled real-world training and competition settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sports Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Glucose Monitoring Methods during Steady-State Exercise in Women
Nutrients 2012, 4(9), 1282-1292; doi:10.3390/nu4091282
Received: 23 July 2012 / Revised: 31 August 2012 / Accepted: 31 August 2012 / Published: 14 September 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (405 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Data from Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) systems may help improve overall daily glycemia; however, the accuracy of CGM during exercise remains questionable. The objective of this single group experimental study was to compare CGM-estimated values to venous plasma glucose (VPG) and capillary plasma
[...] Read more.
Data from Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) systems may help improve overall daily glycemia; however, the accuracy of CGM during exercise remains questionable. The objective of this single group experimental study was to compare CGM-estimated values to venous plasma glucose (VPG) and capillary plasma glucose (CPG) during steady-state exercise. Twelve recreationally active females without diabetes (aged 21.8 ± 2.4 years), from Central Washington University completed the study. CGM is used by individuals with diabetes, however the purpose of this study was to first validate the use of this device during exercise for anyone. Data were collected between November 2009 and April 2010. Participants performed two identical 45-min steady-state cycling trials (~60% Pmax) on non-consecutive days. Glucose concentrations (CGM-estimated, VPG, and CPG values) were measured every 5 min. Two carbohydrate gel supplements along with 360 mL of water were consumed 15 min into exercise. A product-moment correlation was used to assess the relationship and a Bland-Altman analysis determined error between the three glucose measurement methods. It was found that the CGM system overestimated mean VPG (mean absolute difference 17.4 mg/dL (0.97 mmol/L)) and mean CPG (mean absolute difference 15.5 mg/dL (0.86 mmol/L)). Bland-Altman analysis displayed wide limits of agreement (95% confidence interval) of 44.3 mg/dL (2.46 mmol/L) (VPG compared with CGM) and 41.2 mg/dL (2.29 mmol/L) (CPG compared with CGM). Results from the current study support that data from CGM did not meet accuracy standards from the 15197 International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sports Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Glycerol and Creatine Hyperhydration on Doping-Relevant Blood Parameters
Nutrients 2012, 4(9), 1171-1186; doi:10.3390/nu4091171
Received: 12 June 2012 / Revised: 17 July 2012 / Accepted: 16 August 2012 / Published: 31 August 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (303 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Glycerol is prohibited as an ergogenic aid by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) due to the potential for its plasma expansion properties to have masking effects. However, the scientific basis of the inclusion of Gly as a “masking agent” remains inconclusive. The purpose
[...] Read more.
Glycerol is prohibited as an ergogenic aid by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) due to the potential for its plasma expansion properties to have masking effects. However, the scientific basis of the inclusion of Gly as a “masking agent” remains inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a hyperhydrating supplement containing Gly on doping-relevant blood parameters. Nine trained males ingested a hyperhydrating mixture twice per day for 7 days containing 1.0 g•kg−1 body mass (BM) of Gly, 10.0 g of creatine and 75.0 g of glucose. Blood samples were collected and total hemoglobin (Hb) mass determined using the optimized carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method pre- and post-supplementation. BM and total body water (TBW) increased significantly following supplementation by 1.1 ± 1.2 and 1.0 ± 1.2 L (BM, P < 0.01; TBW, P < 0.01), respectively. This hyperhydration did not significantly alter plasma volume or any of the doping-relevant blood parameters (e.g., hematocrit, Hb, reticulocytes and total Hb-mass) even when Gly was clearly detectable in urine samples. In conclusion, this study shows that supplementation with hyperhydrating solution containing Gly for 7 days does not significantly alter doping-relevant blood parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sports Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Pre-Exercise Hyperhydration-Induced Bodyweight Gain Does Not Alter Prolonged Treadmill Running Time-Trial Performance in Warm Ambient Conditions
Nutrients 2012, 4(8), 949-966; doi:10.3390/nu4080949
Received: 9 May 2012 / Revised: 17 July 2012 / Accepted: 7 August 2012 / Published: 13 August 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2951 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study compared the effect of pre-exercise hyperhydration (PEH) and pre-exercise euhydration (PEE) upon treadmill running time-trial (TT) performance in the heat. Six highly trained runners or triathletes underwent two 18 km TT runs (~28 °C, 25%–30% RH) on a motorized treadmill, in
[...] Read more.
This study compared the effect of pre-exercise hyperhydration (PEH) and pre-exercise euhydration (PEE) upon treadmill running time-trial (TT) performance in the heat. Six highly trained runners or triathletes underwent two 18 km TT runs (~28 °C, 25%–30% RH) on a motorized treadmill, in a randomized, crossover fashion, while being euhydrated or after hyperhydration with 26 mL/kg bodyweight (BW) of a 130 mmol/L sodium solution. Subjects then ran four successive 4.5 km blocks alternating between 2.5 km at 1% and 2 km at 6% gradient, while drinking a total of 7 mL/kg BW of a 6% sports drink solution (Gatorade, USA). PEH increased BW by 1.00 ± 0.34 kg (P < 0.01) and, compared with PEE, reduced BW loss from 3.1% ± 0.3% (EUH) to 1.4% ± 0.4% (HYP) (P < 0.01) during exercise. Running TT time did not differ between groups (PEH: 85.6 ± 11.6 min; PEE: 85.3 ± 9.6 min, P = 0.82). Heart rate (5 ± 1 beats/min) and rectal (0.3 ± 0.1 °C) and body (0.2 ± 0.1 °C) temperatures of PEE were higher than those of PEH (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in abdominal discomfort and perceived exertion or heat stress between groups. Our results suggest that pre-exercise sodium-induced hyperhydration of a magnitude of 1 L does not alter 80–90 min running TT performance under warm conditions in highly-trained runners drinking ~500 mL sports drink during exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sports Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Significant Effect of a Pre-Exercise High-Fat Meal after a 3-Day High-Carbohydrate Diet on Endurance Performance
Nutrients 2012, 4(7), 625-637; doi:10.3390/nu4070625
Received: 2 May 2012 / Revised: 7 June 2012 / Accepted: 14 June 2012 / Published: 27 June 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (440 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We investigated the effect of macronutrient composition of pre-exercise meals on endurance performance. Subjects consumed a high-carbohydrate diet at each meal for 3 days, followed by a high-fat meal (HFM; 1007 ± 21 kcal, 30% CHO, 55% F and 15% P) or high-carbohydrate
[...] Read more.
We investigated the effect of macronutrient composition of pre-exercise meals on endurance performance. Subjects consumed a high-carbohydrate diet at each meal for 3 days, followed by a high-fat meal (HFM; 1007 ± 21 kcal, 30% CHO, 55% F and 15% P) or high-carbohydrate meal (HCM; 1007 ± 21 kcal, 71% CHO, 20% F and 9% P) 4 h before exercise. Furthermore, just prior to the test, subjects in the HFM group ingested either maltodextrin jelly (M) or a placebo jelly (P), while subjects in the HCM ingested a placebo jelly. Endurance performance was measured as running time until exhaustion at a speed between lactate threshold and the onset of blood lactate accumulation. All subjects participated in each trial, randomly assigned at weekly intervals. We observed that the time until exhaustion was significantly longer in the HFM + M (p < 0.05) than in HFM + P and HCM + P conditions. Furthermore, the total amount of fat oxidation during exercise was significantly higher in HFM + M and HFM + P than in HCM + P (p < 0.05). These results suggest that ingestion of a HFM prior to exercise is more favorable for endurance performance than HCM. In addition, HFM and maltodextrin ingestion following 3 days of carbohydrate loading enhances endurance running performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sports Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Recovery from Cycling Exercise: Effects of Carbohydrate and Protein Beverages
Nutrients 2012, 4(7), 568-584; doi:10.3390/nu4070568
Received: 24 May 2012 / Revised: 11 June 2012 / Accepted: 15 June 2012 / Published: 25 June 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (244 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effects of different carbohydrate-protein (CHO + Pro) beverages were compared during recovery from cycling exercise. Twelve male cyclists (VO2peak: 65 ± 7 mL/kg/min) completed ~1 h of high-intensity intervals (EX1). Immediately and 120 min following EX1, subjects consumed one of
[...] Read more.
The effects of different carbohydrate-protein (CHO + Pro) beverages were compared during recovery from cycling exercise. Twelve male cyclists (VO2peak: 65 ± 7 mL/kg/min) completed ~1 h of high-intensity intervals (EX1). Immediately and 120 min following EX1, subjects consumed one of three calorically-similar beverages (285–300 kcal) in a cross-over design: carbohydrate-only (CHO; 75 g per beverage), high-carbohydrate/low-protein (HCLP; 45 g CHO, 25 g Pro, 0.5 g fat), or low-carbohydrate/high-protein (LCHP; 8 g CHO, 55 g Pro, 4 g fat). After 4 h of recovery, subjects performed subsequent exercise (EX2; 20 min at 70% VO2peak + 20 km time-trial). Beverages were also consumed following EX2. Blood glucose levels (30 min after beverage ingestion) differed across all treatments (CHO > HCLP > LCHP; p < 0.05), and serum insulin was higher following CHO and HCLP ingestion versus LCHP. Peak quadriceps force, serum creatine kinase, muscle soreness, and fatigue/energy ratings measured pre- and post-exercise were not different between treatments. EX2 performance was not significantly different between CHO (48.5 ± 1.5 min), HCLP (48.8 ± 2.1 min) and LCHP (50.3 ± 2.7 min). Beverages containing similar caloric content but different proportions of carbohydrate/protein provided similar effects on muscle recovery and subsequent exercise performance in well-trained cyclists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sports Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Nutrition Education by a Registered Dietitian Improves Dietary Intake and Nutrition Knowledge of a NCAA Female Volleyball Team
Nutrients 2012, 4(6), 506-516; doi:10.3390/nu4060506
Received: 23 April 2012 / Revised: 30 May 2012 / Accepted: 5 June 2012 / Published: 8 June 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (185 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Eleven female participants from a NCAA Division I volleyball team were evaluated for adequate energy and macronutrient intake during two off-seasons. Total energy and macronutrient intake were assessed by food records and results were compared against estimated needs using the Nelson equation. Dietary
[...] Read more.
Eleven female participants from a NCAA Division I volleyball team were evaluated for adequate energy and macronutrient intake during two off-seasons. Total energy and macronutrient intake were assessed by food records and results were compared against estimated needs using the Nelson equation. Dietary intervention was employed regarding the individual dietary needs of each athlete as well as a pre- and post-sports nutrition knowledge survey. Post dietary intervention, total energy, and macronutrient intake improved, as well as a significant improvement in sports nutrition knowledge (p < 0.001). Nutrition education is useful in improving dietary intake and nutrition knowledge of female athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sports Nutrition)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Exercise-Induced Immunodepression in Endurance Athletes and Nutritional Intervention with Carbohydrate, Protein and Fat — What Is Possible, What Is Not?
Nutrients 2012, 4(9), 1187-1212; doi:10.3390/nu4091187
Received: 8 August 2012 / Revised: 23 August 2012 / Accepted: 24 August 2012 / Published: 4 September 2012
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (901 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Heavily exercising endurance athletes experience extreme physiologic stress, which is associated with temporary immunodepression and higher risk of infection, particularly upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). The aim of this review is to provide a critical up-to-date review of existing evidence on the immunomodulatory
[...] Read more.
Heavily exercising endurance athletes experience extreme physiologic stress, which is associated with temporary immunodepression and higher risk of infection, particularly upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). The aim of this review is to provide a critical up-to-date review of existing evidence on the immunomodulatory potential of selected macronutrients and to evaluate their efficacy. The results of 66 placebo-controlled and/or crossover trials were compared and analysed. Among macronutrients, the most effective approach to maintain immune function in athletes is to consume ≥6% carbohydrate during prolonged exercise. Because inadequate nutrition affects almost all aspects of the immune system, a well-balanced diet is also important. Evidence of beneficial effects from other macronutrients is scarce and results are often inconsistent. Using a single nutrient may not be as effective as a mixture of several nutritional supplements. Due to limited research evidence, with the exception of carbohydrate, no explicit recommendations to reduce post-exercise URTI symptoms with single macronutrients can be derived. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sports Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Ergogenic Effects of β-Alanine and Carnosine: Proposed Future Research to Quantify Their Efficacy
Nutrients 2012, 4(7), 585-601; doi:10.3390/nu4070585
Received: 30 April 2012 / Revised: 11 June 2012 / Accepted: 18 June 2012 / Published: 26 June 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (251 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
β-alanine is an amino acid that, when combined with histidine, forms the dipeptide carnosine within skeletal muscle. Carnosine and β-alanine each have multiple purposes within the human body; this review focuses on their roles as ergogenic aids to exercise performance and suggests how
[...] Read more.
β-alanine is an amino acid that, when combined with histidine, forms the dipeptide carnosine within skeletal muscle. Carnosine and β-alanine each have multiple purposes within the human body; this review focuses on their roles as ergogenic aids to exercise performance and suggests how to best quantify the former’s merits as a buffer. Carnosine normally makes a small contribution to a cell’s total buffer capacity; yet β-alanine supplementation raises intracellular carnosine concentrations that in turn improve a muscle’s ability to buffer protons. Numerous studies assessed the impact of oral β-alanine intake on muscle carnosine levels and exercise performance. β-alanine may best act as an ergogenic aid when metabolic acidosis is the primary factor for compromised exercise performance. Blood lactate kinetics, whereby the concentration of the metabolite is measured as it enters and leaves the vasculature over time, affords the best opportunity to assess the merits of β-alanine supplementation’s ergogenic effect. Optimal β-alanine dosages have not been determined for persons of different ages, genders and nutritional/health conditions. Doses as high as 6.4 g day−1, for ten weeks have been administered to healthy subjects. Paraesthesia is to date the only side effect from oral β-alanine ingestion. The severity and duration of paraesthesia episodes are dose-dependent. It may be unwise for persons with a history of paraesthesia to ingest β-alanine. As for any supplement, caution should be exercised with β-alanine supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sports Nutrition)
Open AccessReview The Impact of Ramadan Observance upon Athletic Performance
Nutrients 2012, 4(6), 491-505; doi:10.3390/nu4060491
Received: 10 April 2012 / Revised: 18 May 2012 / Accepted: 30 May 2012 / Published: 7 June 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (190 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ramadan observance requires a total abstention from food and drink from sunrise to sunset for a period of one month. Such intermittent fasting has only minor effects upon the overall nutrition and physiological responses of the general sedentary population. Larger meals are consumed
[...] Read more.
Ramadan observance requires a total abstention from food and drink from sunrise to sunset for a period of one month. Such intermittent fasting has only minor effects upon the overall nutrition and physiological responses of the general sedentary population. Larger meals are consumed at night and in the early morning. Body mass usually remains unchanged, the total energy intake remains roughly constant, and there is little alteration in the relative consumption of protein, fats and carbohydrates. However, Ramadan observance may be of greater consequence for the training and performance of the competitive athlete, particularly when the festival is celebrated in the hotter part of the year and daylight hours are long, as is the case for the 2012 Summer Olympic Games in London, England. The normal sleeping time then tends to be shortened, and blood sugar and tissue hydration decrease progressively throughout the hours of daylight. Some limitation of anaerobic effort, endurance performance and muscle strength might be anticipated from the decrease in muscle glycogen and body fluid reserves, and a reduced blood glucose may cause a depressed mood state, an increased perception of effort, and poorer team work. This review considers empirical data on the extent of such changes, and their likely effect upon anaerobic, aerobic and muscular performance, suggesting potential nutritional and behavioral tactics for minimizing such effects in the Muslim competitor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sports Nutrition)

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