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Nutrients, Volume 2, Issue 2 (February 2010), Pages 99-229

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Assessment of Information to Substantiate a Health Claim on the Prevention of Prostate Cancer by Lignans
Nutrients 2010, 2(2), 99-115; doi:10.3390/nu2020099
Received: 14 December 2009 / Accepted: 25 January 2010 / Published: 28 January 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (283 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lignans and their in vivo metabolites, especially enterolactone (ENL), have attracted substantial interest as potential chemopreventive agents for prostate cancer. Preclinical and clinical interventions performed with lignan-rich flaxseed that use surrogate biomarkers as endpoints suggest that lignans may attenuate prostate carcinogenesis in individuals
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Lignans and their in vivo metabolites, especially enterolactone (ENL), have attracted substantial interest as potential chemopreventive agents for prostate cancer. Preclinical and clinical interventions performed with lignan-rich flaxseed that use surrogate biomarkers as endpoints suggest that lignans may attenuate prostate carcinogenesis in individuals with increased risk or with diagnosed cancer. No unequivocal prostate cancer risk reduction has been found for lignans in epidemiological studies, suggesting that lignan concentrations found in populations consuming a regular non-supplemented diet are not chemopreventive in prostate cancer. Presumably, the main obstacles in assessing the efficacy of food lignans is limited knowledge of the serum and tissue lignan concentrations required for the putative prevention. Further clinical studies performed with the purified compounds are required to substantiate a health claim. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isoflavones and Lignans)
Open AccessArticle Dietary Phospholipids and Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption
Nutrients 2010, 2(2), 116-127; doi:10.3390/nu2020116
Received: 27 November 2009 / Accepted: 29 January 2010 / Published: 8 February 2010
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (176 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Experiments carried out with cultured cells and in experimental animals have consistently shown that phospholipids (PLs) can inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption. Limited evidence from clinical studies suggests that dietary PL supplementation has a similar effect in man. A number of biological mechanisms have
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Experiments carried out with cultured cells and in experimental animals have consistently shown that phospholipids (PLs) can inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption. Limited evidence from clinical studies suggests that dietary PL supplementation has a similar effect in man. A number of biological mechanisms have been proposed in order to explain how PL in the gut lumen is able to affect cholesterol uptake by the gut mucosa. Further research is however required to establish whether the ability of PLs to inhibit cholesterol absorption is of therapeutic benefit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phospholipid Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Production of Hesperetin Glycosides by Xanthomonas campestris and Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase and Their Anti-allergic Activities
Nutrients 2010, 2(2), 171-180; doi:10.3390/nu2020171
Received: 7 January 2010 / Accepted: 1 February 2010 / Published: 9 February 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (264 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The production of hesperetin glycosides was investigated using glycosylation with Xanthomonas campestris and cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase). X. campestris glucosylated hesperetin to its 3'-, 5-, and 7-O-glucosides, and CGTase converted hesperetin glucosides into the corresponding maltosides. The resulting 7-O-glucoside and
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The production of hesperetin glycosides was investigated using glycosylation with Xanthomonas campestris and cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase). X. campestris glucosylated hesperetin to its 3'-, 5-, and 7-O-glucosides, and CGTase converted hesperetin glucosides into the corresponding maltosides. The resulting 7-O-glucoside and 7-O-maltoside of hesperetin showed inhibitory effects on IgE antibody production and on O2- generation from rat neutrophils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Vitamins)
Open AccessArticle Vaccenic and Elaidic Acid Modify Plasma and Splenocyte Membrane Phospholipids and Mitogen-Stimulated Cytokine Production in Obese Insulin Resistant JCR: LA-cp Rats
Nutrients 2010, 2(2), 181-197; doi:10.3390/nu2020181
Received: 14 December 2009 / Accepted: 8 February 2010 / Published: 11 February 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (227 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study assessed the long-term effects of dietary vaccenic acid (VA) and elaidic acid (EA) on plasma and splenocyte phospholipid (PL) composition and related changes in inflammation and splenocyte phenotypes and cytokine responses in obese/insulin resistant JCR:LA-cp rats. Relative to lean control
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This study assessed the long-term effects of dietary vaccenic acid (VA) and elaidic acid (EA) on plasma and splenocyte phospholipid (PL) composition and related changes in inflammation and splenocyte phenotypes and cytokine responses in obese/insulin resistant JCR:LA-cp rats. Relative to lean control (Ctl), obese Ctl rats had higher serum haptoglobin and impaired T-cell-stimulated cytokine responses. VA and EA diets improved T-cell-stimulated cytokine production; but, only VA normalized serum haptoglobin. However, EA- and VA-fed rats had enhanced LPS-stimulated cytokine responses. The changes elicited by VA were likely due changes in essential fatty acid composition in PL; whereas EA-induced changes may due to direct incorporation into membrane PL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phospholipid Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Do Pregnant Women and Those at Risk of Developing Post-Natal Depression Consume Lower Amounts of Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids?
Nutrients 2010, 2(2), 198-213; doi:10.3390/nu2020198
Received: 28 January 2010 / Accepted: 11 February 2010 / Published: 21 February 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aims were to compare intakes of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC n-3 PUFA) in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Australia and to compare these intakes to the Australian National Nutrition Survey of 1995 (NNS95) [1] and to determine if the
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The aims were to compare intakes of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC n-3 PUFA) in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Australia and to compare these intakes to the Australian National Nutrition Survey of 1995 (NNS95) [1] and to determine if the LC n-3 PUFA intakes differed in women who may be ‘at risk’ compared with women ‘not at risk’ of developing post-natal depression (PND). A validated LC n-3 PUFA food frequency questionnaire and pregnant women’s Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) scores were used. LC n-3 PUFA intakes were comparable to the NNS95 but did not differ due to pregnancy or whether or not a woman is at risk of developing PND. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Update)
Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Properties and Neuroprotective Capacity of Strawberry Tree Fruit (Arbutus unedo)
Nutrients 2010, 2(2), 214-229; doi:10.3390/nu2020214
Received: 16 December 2009 / Accepted: 9 February 2010 / Published: 21 February 2010
Cited by 35 | PDF Full-text (409 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Berries contain significant amounts of phytochemicals, including polyphenols, which are reported to reduce cancer risk, coronary heart disease and other degenerative diseases. These effects are mainly attributed to the antioxidant capacity of polyphenols found in berries. Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) berries
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Berries contain significant amounts of phytochemicals, including polyphenols, which are reported to reduce cancer risk, coronary heart disease and other degenerative diseases. These effects are mainly attributed to the antioxidant capacity of polyphenols found in berries. Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) berries are used in folk medicine but seldom eaten as fresh fruits. Their phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity reveal a high potential, but they are not well characterized as a “health promoting food”. The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant properties of the edible strawberry tree fruit in vitro and in a neurodegeneration cell model. Raspberry (Rubus idaeus), a well documented health-promoting fruit, was used as a control for comparison purposes. A. unedo yielded a similar content in polyphenols and a slightly lower value of total antioxidant capacity in comparison to R. idaeus. Although the chemically-measured antioxidant activity was similar between both fruits, R. idaeus increased neuroblastoma survival in a neurodegeneration cell model by 36.6% whereas A. unedo extracts caused no effect on neuroblastoma viability. These results clearly demonstrate that a promising level of chemically-determined antioxidant activity of a plant extract is not necessarily correlated with biological significance, as assessed by the effect of A. unedo fruit in a neurodegeneration cell model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2009)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Oiling the Brain: A Review of Randomized Controlled Trials of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Psychopathology across the Lifespan
Nutrients 2010, 2(2), 128-170; doi:10.3390/nu2020128
Received: 3 December 2009 / Accepted: 3 February 2010 / Published: 9 February 2010
Cited by 47 | PDF Full-text (303 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Around one in four people suffer from mental illness at some stage in their lifetime. There is increasing awareness of the importance of nutrition, particularly omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), for optimal brain development and function. Hence in recent decades, researchers have
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Around one in four people suffer from mental illness at some stage in their lifetime. There is increasing awareness of the importance of nutrition, particularly omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), for optimal brain development and function. Hence in recent decades, researchers have explored effects of n-3 PUFA on mental health problems over the lifespan, from developmental disorders in childhood, to depression, aggression, and schizophrenia in adulthood, and cognitive decline, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease in late adulthood. This review provides an updated overview of the published and the registered clinical trials that investigate effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on mental health and behavior, highlighting methodological differences and issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Update)

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