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Special Issue "Feature Papers for Vitamins"

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A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2009)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Kristina Pentieva (Website)

School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster at Coleraine, Northern Ireland, BT52 1SA, UK
Fax: +44 28 703 249 65
Interests: B-vitamin requirements and recommendations for intake in humans; B-vitamins in health and disease; B-vitamins and epigenetics; food folate bioavailability; food folate analysis; food fortification; functional foods

Keywords

  • vitamins
  • vitamin regulatory mechanisms
  • vitamin interactions
  • status/deficiency
  • epidemiology
  • chronic diseases
  • infection
  • immunity
  • vitamin receptors
  • nutrigenomics
  • epigenetics
  • gene expression

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle A Retrospective Investigation of Thiamin and Energy Intakes Following an Outbreak of Beriberi in the Gambia
Nutrients 2011, 3(1), 135-151; doi:10.3390/nu3010135
Received: 30 November 2010 / Revised: 5 January 2010 / Accepted: 12 January 2011 / Published: 19 January 2011
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Abstract
In the early part of the rainy season in 1988, an outbreak of beriberi occurred in free-living adults in a relatively small area in the North Bank region of The Gambia. In 1995 we selected two compounds in a village called Chilla [...] Read more.
In the early part of the rainy season in 1988, an outbreak of beriberi occurred in free-living adults in a relatively small area in the North Bank region of The Gambia. In 1995 we selected two compounds in a village called Chilla situated within the affected district to retrospectively examine dietary factors potentially contributing to the outbreak. There had previously been cases of beriberi in one compound (BBC) but not in the other (NBC). We measured energy and thiamin intakes for four days on six occasions during the year. We calculated energy and thiamin intakes of people living in the two compounds and foods were collected for thiamin analysis through the year. Thiamin:Energy ratios only met international recommendations in the immediate post‑harvest season when energy and thiamin intakes were highest and then fell through the year. In the rainy season when food was short and labour was heaviest, energy intakes were lower in the NBC but thiamin:energy ratios were lower in BBC. Records of rainfall in 1988 collected near the village indicated that the amount in August was twice the average. We suggest the heavy rainfall may have increased farm workload and reduced income from outside-village work activity. The lower energy intakes in the NBC may have forced adults to rest thus sparing thiamin demands and delaying onset of beriberi. In contrast, the higher energy intake of adults in the BBC may have enabled them to continue working, thus increasing demands for thiamin and inducing the earlier onset of beriberi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Vitamins)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Production of Hesperetin Glycosides by Xanthomonas campestris and Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase and Their Anti-allergic Activities
Nutrients 2010, 2(2), 171-180; doi:10.3390/nu2020171
Received: 7 January 2010 / Accepted: 1 February 2010 / Published: 9 February 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (264 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The production of hesperetin glycosides was investigated using glycosylation with Xanthomonas campestris and cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase). X. campestris glucosylated hesperetin to its 3'-, 5-, and 7-O-glucosides, and CGTase converted hesperetin glucosides into the corresponding maltosides. The resulting 7-O-glucoside [...] Read more.
The production of hesperetin glycosides was investigated using glycosylation with Xanthomonas campestris and cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase). X. campestris glucosylated hesperetin to its 3'-, 5-, and 7-O-glucosides, and CGTase converted hesperetin glucosides into the corresponding maltosides. The resulting 7-O-glucoside and 7-O-maltoside of hesperetin showed inhibitory effects on IgE antibody production and on O2- generation from rat neutrophils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Vitamins)

Review

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Open AccessReview Vitamin D and Bone Health; Potential Mechanisms
Nutrients 2010, 2(7), 693-724; doi:10.3390/nu2070693
Received: 5 June 2010 / Revised: 22 June 2010 / Accepted: 29 June 2010 / Published: 5 July 2010
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (256 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Osteoporosis is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and significant economic and health costs. Vitamin D is a secosteriod hormone essential for calcium absorption and bone mineralization which is positively associated with bone mineral density [BMD]. It is well-established that prolonged and severe [...] Read more.
Osteoporosis is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and significant economic and health costs. Vitamin D is a secosteriod hormone essential for calcium absorption and bone mineralization which is positively associated with bone mineral density [BMD]. It is well-established that prolonged and severe vitamin D deficiency leads to rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Sub-optimal vitamin D status has been reported in many populations but it is a particular concern in older people; thus there is clearly a need for effective strategies to optimise bone health. A number of recent studies have suggested that the role of vitamin D in preventing fractures may be via its mediating effects on muscle function (a defect in muscle function is one of the classical signs of rickets) and inflammation. Studies have demonstrated that vitamin D supplementation can improve muscle strength which in turn contributes to a decrease in incidence of falls, one of the largest contributors to fracture incidence. Osteoporosis is often considered to be an inflammatory condition and pro-inflammatory cytokines have been associated with increased bone metabolism. The immunoregulatory mechanisms of vitamin D may thus modulate the effect of these cytokines on bone health and subsequent fracture risk. Vitamin D, therefore, may influence fracture risk via a number of different mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Vitamins)
Open AccessReview Vitamin A–Not for Your Eyes Only: Requirement for Heart Formation Begins Early in Embryogenesis
Nutrients 2010, 2(5), 532-550; doi:10.3390/nu2050532
Received: 25 March 2010 / Revised: 7 May 2010 / Accepted: 18 May 2010 / Published: 25 May 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (271 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin A insufficiency has profound adverse effects on embryonic development. Major advances in understanding the role of vitamin A in vertebrate heart formation have been made since the discovery that the vitamin A active form, all-trans-retinoic acid, regulates many genes, including developmental [...] Read more.
Vitamin A insufficiency has profound adverse effects on embryonic development. Major advances in understanding the role of vitamin A in vertebrate heart formation have been made since the discovery that the vitamin A active form, all-trans-retinoic acid, regulates many genes, including developmental genes. Among the experimental models used, the vitamin A-deficient avian embryo has been an important tool to study the function of vitamin A during early heart formation. A cluster of retinoic acid-regulated developmental genes have been identified that participate in building the heart. In the absence of retinoic acid the embryonic heart develops abnormally leading to embryolethality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Vitamins)
Open AccessReview The Relationship between Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure and Vitamin D Status
Nutrients 2010, 2(5), 482-495; doi:10.3390/nu2050482
Received: 1 March 2010 / Revised: 14 April 2010 / Accepted: 20 April 2010 / Published: 4 May 2010
Cited by 47 | PDF Full-text (385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reviews the main factors influencing the synthesis of vitamin D, with particular focus on ultraviolet radiation exposure. On the global level, the main source of vitamin D is the sun. The effect of solar radiation on vitamin D synthesis depends [...] Read more.
This paper reviews the main factors influencing the synthesis of vitamin D, with particular focus on ultraviolet radiation exposure. On the global level, the main source of vitamin D is the sun. The effect of solar radiation on vitamin D synthesis depends to some extent on the initial vitamin D levels. At moderate to high latitudes, diet becomes an increasingly important source of vitamin D due to decreased solar intensity and cold temperatures, which discourage skin exposure. During the mid-winter season, these factors result in decreased solar radiation exposure, hindering extensively the synthesis of vitamin D in these populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Vitamins)
Open AccessReview Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease
Nutrients 2010, 2(4), 426-437; doi:10.3390/nu2040426
Received: 26 January 2010 / Revised: 15 March 2010 / Accepted: 19 March 2010 / Published: 31 March 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (234 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency has been observed worldwide at all stages of life. It has been characterized as a public health problem, since low concentrations of this vitamin have been linked to the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases. Several studies have suggested that [...] Read more.
Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency has been observed worldwide at all stages of life. It has been characterized as a public health problem, since low concentrations of this vitamin have been linked to the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases. Several studies have suggested that vitamin D is involved in cardiovascular diseases and have provided evidence that it has a role in reducing cardiovascular disease risk. It may be involved in regulation of gene expression through the presence of vitamin D receptors in various cells, regulation of blood pressure (through renin-angiotensin system), and modulation of cell growth and proliferation including vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes. Identifying correct mechanisms and relationships between vitamin D and such diseases could be important in relation to patient care and healthcare policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Vitamins)
Open AccessReview Nonclassical Vitamin D Actions
Nutrients 2010, 2(4), 408-425; doi:10.3390/nu2040408
Received: 23 February 2010 / Revised: 17 March 2010 / Accepted: 22 March 2010 / Published: 25 March 2010
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (248 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is becoming increasingly clear that vitamin D has a broad range of actions in the human body. Besides its well-known effects on calcium/phosphate homeostasis, vitamin D influences muscle function, cardiovascular homeostasis, nervous function, and the immune response. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency has [...] Read more.
It is becoming increasingly clear that vitamin D has a broad range of actions in the human body. Besides its well-known effects on calcium/phosphate homeostasis, vitamin D influences muscle function, cardiovascular homeostasis, nervous function, and the immune response. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency has been associated with muscle weakness and a high incidence of various chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 and 2 diabetes. Most importantly, low vitamin D status has been found to be an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. Several recent randomized controlled trials support the assumption that vitamin D can improve muscle strength, glucose homeostasis, and cardiovascular risk markers. In addition, vitamin D may reduce cancer incidence and elevated blood pressure. Since the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is high throughout the world, there is a need to improve vitamin D status in the general adult population. However, the currently recommended daily vitamin D intake of 5–15 µg is too low to achieve an adequate vitamin D status in individuals with only modest skin synthesis. Thus, there is a need to recommend a vitamin D intake that is effective for achieving adequate circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (>75 nmol/L). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Vitamins)
Open AccessReview Vitamin D status during Pregnancy and Aspects of Offspring Health
Nutrients 2010, 2(3), 389-407; doi:10.3390/nu2030389
Received: 18 January 2010 / Revised: 15 March 2010 / Accepted: 17 March 2010 / Published: 23 March 2010
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (197 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Low maternal vitamin D levels during pregnancy have been linked to various health outcomes in the offspring, ranging from periconceptional effects to diseases of adult onset. Maternal and infant cord 25(OH)D levels are highly correlated. Here, we review the available evidence for [...] Read more.
Low maternal vitamin D levels during pregnancy have been linked to various health outcomes in the offspring, ranging from periconceptional effects to diseases of adult onset. Maternal and infant cord 25(OH)D levels are highly correlated. Here, we review the available evidence for these adverse health effects. Most of the evidence has arisen from observational epidemiological studies, but randomized controlled trials are now underway. The evidence to date supports that women should be monitored and treated for vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy but optimal and upper limit serum 25(OH)D levels during pregnancy are not known. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Vitamins)
Open AccessReview Vitamin B12 in Health and Disease
Nutrients 2010, 2(3), 299-316; doi:10.3390/nu2030299
Received: 2 February 2010 / Accepted: 1 March 2010 / Published: 5 March 2010
Cited by 38 | PDF Full-text (247 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin B12 is essential for DNA synthesis and for cellular energy production. This review aims to outline the metabolism of vitamin B12, and to evaluate the causes and consequences of sub-clinical vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 deficiency [...] Read more.
Vitamin B12 is essential for DNA synthesis and for cellular energy production. This review aims to outline the metabolism of vitamin B12, and to evaluate the causes and consequences of sub-clinical vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 deficiency is common, mainly due to limited dietary intake of animal foods or malabsorption of the vitamin. Vegetarians are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency as are other groups with low intakes of animal foods or those with restrictive dietary patterns. Malabsorption of vitamin B12 is most commonly seen in the elderly, secondary to gastric achlorhydria. The symptoms of sub-clinical deficiency are subtle and often not recognized. The long-term consequences of sub-clinical deficiency are not fully known but may include adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes, vascular, cognitive, bone and eye health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Vitamins)

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