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Special Issue "Isoflavones and Lignans"

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A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2009)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Wendy E. Ward

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +1 416 978 5882
Interests: soy isoflavones and early programming of bone metabolism; role of phytoestrogens and omega-3 fatty acids in bone health

Keywords

  • cardiovascular disease
  • type 2 diabetes
  • inflammation
  • obesity
  • cancer (breast; prostate; colon)
  • bone metabolism
  • immunity
  • menopausal symptoms
  • sex steroid metabolism
  • metabolism to equol
  • epigenetics

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Information to Substantiate a Health Claim on the Prevention of Prostate Cancer by Lignans
Nutrients 2010, 2(2), 99-115; doi:10.3390/nu2020099
Received: 14 December 2009 / Accepted: 25 January 2010 / Published: 28 January 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (283 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lignans and their in vivo metabolites, especially enterolactone (ENL), have attracted substantial interest as potential chemopreventive agents for prostate cancer. Preclinical and clinical interventions performed with lignan-rich flaxseed that use surrogate biomarkers as endpoints suggest that lignans may attenuate prostate carcinogenesis in individuals
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Lignans and their in vivo metabolites, especially enterolactone (ENL), have attracted substantial interest as potential chemopreventive agents for prostate cancer. Preclinical and clinical interventions performed with lignan-rich flaxseed that use surrogate biomarkers as endpoints suggest that lignans may attenuate prostate carcinogenesis in individuals with increased risk or with diagnosed cancer. No unequivocal prostate cancer risk reduction has been found for lignans in epidemiological studies, suggesting that lignan concentrations found in populations consuming a regular non-supplemented diet are not chemopreventive in prostate cancer. Presumably, the main obstacles in assessing the efficacy of food lignans is limited knowledge of the serum and tissue lignan concentrations required for the putative prevention. Further clinical studies performed with the purified compounds are required to substantiate a health claim. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isoflavones and Lignans)

Review

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Open AccessReview Early Exposure to Soy Isoflavones and Effects on Reproductive Health: A Review of Human and Animal Studies
Nutrients 2010, 2(11), 1156-1187; doi:10.3390/nu2111156
Received: 19 October 2010 / Revised: 11 November 2010 / Accepted: 19 November 2010 / Published: 23 November 2010
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (363 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Soy isoflavones are phytoestrogens with potential hormonal activity due to their similar chemical structure to 17-β-estradiol. The increasing availability of soy isoflavones throughout the food supply and through use of supplements has prompted extensive research on biological benefits to humans in chronic disease
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Soy isoflavones are phytoestrogens with potential hormonal activity due to their similar chemical structure to 17-β-estradiol. The increasing availability of soy isoflavones throughout the food supply and through use of supplements has prompted extensive research on biological benefits to humans in chronic disease prevention and health maintenance. While much of this research has focused on adult populations, infants fed soy protein based infant formulas are exposed to substantial levels of soy isoflavones, even when compared to adult populations that consume a higher quantity of soy-based foods. Infant exposure, through soy formula, primarily occurs from birth to one year of life, a stage of development that is particularly sensitive to dietary and environmental compounds. This has led investigators to study the potential hormonal effects of soy isoflavones on later reproductive health outcomes. Such studies have included minimal human data with the large majority of studies using animal models. This review discusses key aspects of the current human and animal studies and identifies critical areas to be investigated as there is no clear consensus in this research field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isoflavones and Lignans)
Open AccessReview Potential Health-modulating Effects of Isoflavones and Metabolites via Activation of PPAR and AhR
Nutrients 2010, 2(3), 241-279; doi:10.3390/nu2030241
Received: 21 December 2009 / Accepted: 23 February 2010 / Published: 26 February 2010
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Isoflavones have multiple actions on cell functions. The most prominent one is the activation of estrogen receptors. Other functions are often overlooked, but are equally important and explain the beneficial health effects of isoflavones. Isoflavones are potent dual PPARα/γ agonists and exert anti-inflammatory
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Isoflavones have multiple actions on cell functions. The most prominent one is the activation of estrogen receptors. Other functions are often overlooked, but are equally important and explain the beneficial health effects of isoflavones. Isoflavones are potent dual PPARα/γ agonists and exert anti-inflammatory activity, which may contribute to the prevention of metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis and various other inflammatory diseases. Some isoflavones are potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists and induce cell cycle arrest, chemoprevention and modulate xenobiotic metabolism. This review discusses effects mediated by the activation of AhR and PPARs and casts a light on the concerted action of isoflavones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isoflavones and Lignans)
Open AccessReview Epidemiologic Studies of Isoflavones & Mammographic Density
Nutrients 2010, 2(1), 35-48; doi:10.3390/nu2010035
Received: 12 November 2009 / Accepted: 15 January 2010 / Published: 19 January 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (207 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Isoflavones, phytoestrogens in soy beans with estrogen-like properties, have been examined for their cancer protective effects. Mammographic density is a strong predictor of breast cancer. This review summarizes studies that have examined the association between isoflavones and breast density. Observational investigations in Hawaii
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Isoflavones, phytoestrogens in soy beans with estrogen-like properties, have been examined for their cancer protective effects. Mammographic density is a strong predictor of breast cancer. This review summarizes studies that have examined the association between isoflavones and breast density. Observational investigations in Hawaii and Singapore suggest slightly lower breast density among women of Asian descent with regular soy intake, but two larger studies from Japan and Singapore did not observe a protective effect. The findings from seven randomized trials with primarily Caucasian women indicate that soy or isoflavones do not modify mammographic density. Soy foods and isoflavone supplements within a nutritional range do not appear to modify breast cancer risk as assessed by mammographic density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isoflavones and Lignans)
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