Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Nutrients, Volume 10, Issue 7 (July 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Protein hydrolysates are recognized as a potent source of bioactive peptides, including many [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-155
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessReview Nutrients in Fish and Possible Associations with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 952; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070952
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
PDF Full-text (562 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Non-communicable diseases (NSDs) are responsible for two-thirds of all deaths globally, whereas cardiovascular disease (CVD) alone counts for nearly half of them. To reduce the impact of CVD, targeting modifiable risk factors comprised in metabolic syndrome (e.g., waist circumference, lipid profile, blood pressure,
[...] Read more.
Non-communicable diseases (NSDs) are responsible for two-thirds of all deaths globally, whereas cardiovascular disease (CVD) alone counts for nearly half of them. To reduce the impact of CVD, targeting modifiable risk factors comprised in metabolic syndrome (e.g., waist circumference, lipid profile, blood pressure, and blood glucose) is of great importance. Beneficial effects of fish consumption on CVD has been revealed over the past decades, and some studies suggest that fish consumption may have a protective role in preventing metabolic syndrome. Fish contains a variety of nutrients that may contribute to health benefits. This review examines current recommendations for fish intake as a source of various nutrients (proteins, n-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, iodine, selenium, and taurine), and their effects on metabolic syndrome and the CVD risk factors. Fatty fish is recommended due to its high levels of n-3 fatty acids, however lean fish also contains nutrients that may be beneficial in the prevention of CVD. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Eating Out-of-Home in Adult Residents in Shanghai and the Nutritional Differences among Dining Places
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 951; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070951
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 14 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
PDF Full-text (4519 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: With the rapid development of Shanghai’s economy, diet habits have undergone great changes. The study aimed to examine the situation of out-of-home (OH) eating in Shanghai adults and the nutrition characteristics of eating in different dining places, and to assess the social
[...] Read more.
Background: With the rapid development of Shanghai’s economy, diet habits have undergone great changes. The study aimed to examine the situation of out-of-home (OH) eating in Shanghai adults and the nutrition characteristics of eating in different dining places, and to assess the social demographic determinants of eating OH. Method: Data was sourced from the Shanghai Diet and Health Survey (SDHS) involving people aged 18 years or older in 2012–2013. The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and three-day 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) were used to collect dietary intake data on how people eat out in a cross-sectional study of 1689 adults. OH food refers to the food prepared or consumed away from home. We define that people who eat at least one meal prepared away from home in each survey have a habit of eating outside. The multiple linear and logistic regression methods were used for statistical analysis. Results: The prevalence of eating OH and at restaurants was only 55.1% and 31.8%, respectively. There was an increase in energy, protein, carbohydrate, fat, and iron intake while eating OH. Restaurant and company/school canteen consumption were both associated with an increase in daily total energy intake of 140 kcal and 91 kcal, and fat intake of 6.0 g and 4.3 g, respectively. However, eating at restaurants was associated with higher intake of 548 mg of sodium. However, no significant association was observed between eating at canteens and higher sodium intake. Conclusions: Eating OH related to a poor diet quality, and the diet quality was different between restaurant and canteen food. There may be a need for interventions to target residents’ overall dining-out behavior, particularly focusing on the consumption of restaurant food. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Dietary Flavonoids and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer: An Updated Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Studies
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 950; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070950
Received: 2 June 2018 / Revised: 15 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
PDF Full-text (2909 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aim: The aim of this study was to perform an up-to-date meta-analysis of the association between the intake of dietary flavonoids and the risk of colorectal cancer. Methods: The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched to identify eligible studies. The risk
[...] Read more.
Aim: The aim of this study was to perform an up-to-date meta-analysis of the association between the intake of dietary flavonoids and the risk of colorectal cancer. Methods: The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched to identify eligible studies. The risk of colorectal cancer for the highest versus the lowest categories of flavonoids intake were assessed. Results: A total of 12 studies (5 cohort and 7 case-control studies) involving 17,481 cases and 740,859 controls were eligible for meta-analysis. High intake of dietary flavonols, flavones and anthocyanidins may decrease the risk of colorectal cancer; the pooled odds ratio (OR) for the highest intake compared with the lowest was 0.70 (0.54–0.90), 0.79 (0.83–0.99) and 0.78 (0.64–0.95), respectively. No association between the intake of total flavonoids, flavanones or flavan-3-ols and the risk of colorectal cancer was observed. Furthermore, the data showed that high intake of flavonols may decrease the risk of colon cancer [0.80 (0.68–0.94)] but not rectal cancer [0.93 (0.74–1.18)], while on the contrary, the intake of flavones may decrease rectal cancer risk [0.82 (0.70–0.97)] but not colon cancer risk [0.88 (0.69–1.13)]. Conclusions: The present study suggested that high intake of flavonols (such as quercetin) may reduce the risk of colon cancer, and high intake of flavones (such as apigenin) may reduce the risk of rectal cancer. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Metabolism of Caprine Milk Carbohydrates by Probiotic Bacteria and Caco-2:HT29–MTX Epithelial Co-Cultures and Their Impact on Intestinal Barrier Integrity
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 949; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070949
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
PDF Full-text (2160 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development and maturation of the neonatal intestine is generally influenced by diet and commensal bacteria, the composition of which, in turn, can be influenced by the diet. Colonisation of the neonatal intestine by probiotic Lactobacillus strains can strengthen, preserve, and improve barrier
[...] Read more.
The development and maturation of the neonatal intestine is generally influenced by diet and commensal bacteria, the composition of which, in turn, can be influenced by the diet. Colonisation of the neonatal intestine by probiotic Lactobacillus strains can strengthen, preserve, and improve barrier integrity, and adherence of probiotics to the intestinal epithelium can be influenced by the available carbon sources. The goal of the present study was to examine the role of probiotic lactobacilli strains alone or together with a carbohydrate fraction (CF) from caprine milk on barrier integrity of a co-culture model of the small intestinal epithelium. Barrier integrity (as measured by trans epithelial electrical resistance (TEER)), was enhanced by three bacteria/CF combinations (Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, L. plantarum 299v, and L. casei Shirota) to a greater extent than CF or bacteria alone. Levels of occludin mRNA were increased for all treatments compared to untreated co-cultures, and L. plantarum 299v in combination with CF had increased mRNA levels of MUC4, MUC2 and MUC5AC mucins and MUC4 protein abundance. These results indicate that three out of the four probiotic bacteria tested, in combination with CF, were able to elicit a greater increase in barrier integrity of a co-culture model of the small intestinal epithelium compared to that for either component alone. This study provides additional insight into the individual or combined roles of microbe–diet interactions in the small intestine and their beneficial contribution to the intestinal barrier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Combination of Aronia, Red Ginseng, Shiitake Mushroom and Nattokinase Potentiated Insulin Secretion and Reduced Insulin Resistance with Improving Gut Microbiome Dysbiosis in Insulin Deficient Type 2 Diabetic Rats
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 948; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070948
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 3 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
PDF Full-text (2025 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The combination of freeze-dried aronia, red ginseng, ultraviolet-irradiated shiitake mushroom and nattokinase (AGM; 3.4:4.1:2.4:0.1) was examined to evaluate its effects on insulin resistance, insulin secretion and the gut microbiome in a non-obese type 2 diabetic animal model. Pancreatectomized (Px) rats were provided high
[...] Read more.
The combination of freeze-dried aronia, red ginseng, ultraviolet-irradiated shiitake mushroom and nattokinase (AGM; 3.4:4.1:2.4:0.1) was examined to evaluate its effects on insulin resistance, insulin secretion and the gut microbiome in a non-obese type 2 diabetic animal model. Pancreatectomized (Px) rats were provided high fat diets supplemented with either (1) 0.5 g AGM (AGM-L), (2) 1 g AGM (AGM-H), (3) 1 g dextrin (control), or (4) 1 g dextrin with 120 mg metformin (positive-control) per kg body weight for 12 weeks. AGM (1 g) contained 6.22 mg cyanidin-3-galactose, 2.5 mg ginsenoside Rg3 and 244 mg β-glucan. Px rats had decreased bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femur and lean body mass in the hip and leg compared to the normal-control and AGM-L and AGM-H prevented the decrease. Visceral fat mass was lower in the control group than the normal-control group and its decrease was smaller with AGM-L and AGM-H. HOMA-IR was lower in descending order of the control, positive-control, AGM-L, AGM-H and normal-control groups. Glucose tolerance deteriorated in the control group and was improved by AGM-L and AGM-H more than in the positive-control group. Glucose tolerance is associated with insulin resistance and insulin secretion. Insulin tolerance indicated insulin resistance was highly impaired in diabetic rats, but it was improved in the ascending order of the positive-control, AGM-L and AGM-H. Insulin secretion capacity, measured by hyperglycemic clamp, was much lower in the control group than the normal-control group and it was improved in the ascending order of the positive-control, AGM-L and AGM-H. Diabetes modulated the composition of the gut microbiome and AGM prevented the modulation of gut microbiome. In conclusion, AGM improved glucose metabolism by potentiating insulin secretion and reducing insulin resistance in insulin deficient type 2 diabetic rats. The improvement of diabetic status alleviated body composition changes and prevented changes of gut microbiome composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Type 2 Diabetes)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Promoting Healthy Diet, Physical Activity, and Life-Skills in High School Athletes: Results from the WAVE Ripples for Change Childhood Obesity Prevention Two-Year Intervention
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 947; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070947
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 22 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
PDF Full-text (757 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to compare changes in diet and daily physical activity (PA) in high school (HS) soccer players who participated in either a two-year obesity prevention intervention or comparison group, while controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Participants
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to compare changes in diet and daily physical activity (PA) in high school (HS) soccer players who participated in either a two-year obesity prevention intervention or comparison group, while controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Participants (n = 388; females = 58%; Latino = 38%; 15.3 ± 1.1 years, 38% National School Breakfast/Lunch Program) were assigned to either an intervention (n = 278; 9 schools) or comparison group (n = 110; 4 schools) based on geographical location. Pre/post intervention assessment of diet was done using Block Fat/Sugar/Fruit/Vegetable Screener, and daily steps was done using the Fitbit-Zip. Groups were compared over-time for mean changes (post-pre) in fruit/vegetables (FV), saturated fat (SF), added sugar, and PA (daily steps, moderate-to-vigorous PA) using analysis of covariance. The two-year intervention decreased mean added sugar intake (−12.1 g/day, CI (7.4, 16.8), p = 0.02); there were no differences in groups for FV or SF intake (p = 0.89). For both groups, PA was significantly higher in-soccer (9937 steps/day) vs. out-of-soccer season (8117 steps/day), emphasizing the contribution of organized sports to youth daily PA. At baseline, Latino youth had significantly higher added sugar intake (+14 g/day, p < 0.01) than non-Latinos. Targeting active youth in a diet/PA intervention improves diet, but out of soccer season youth need engagement to maintain PA (200). Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effects of a High-Protein Diet Including Whole Eggs on Muscle Composition and Indices of Cardiometabolic Health and Systemic Inflammation in Older Adults with Overweight or Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 946; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070946
Received: 1 July 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
PDF Full-text (875 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Age-related increases in intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) impair muscle quality, decrease functional capacity, and promote several cardiometabolic and inflammatory disorders. Whether these age-related alterations in muscle composition improve by consuming a high-protein (HP) diet with whole eggs are unclear. This parallel-design, randomized-controlled trial
[...] Read more.
Age-related increases in intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) impair muscle quality, decrease functional capacity, and promote several cardiometabolic and inflammatory disorders. Whether these age-related alterations in muscle composition improve by consuming a high-protein (HP) diet with whole eggs are unclear. This parallel-design, randomized-controlled trial assessed the effects of a 12-week eucaloric HP diet with three whole eggs per day (1.4 g protein kg−1 day−1) versus a normal-protein diet void of eggs (NP, 0.8 g protein kg−1 day−1) on muscle composition (IMAT), cardiometabolic health, and systemic inflammation in older adults with overweight or obesity (12 men and 10 women; age 70 ± 5 years, BMI 31.3 ± 3.2 kg/m2, mean ± SD). No changes in muscle composition were observed over time, independent of protein intake. Total body weight was reduced in both groups (−3.3 ± 1.2%) and lean mass was preserved only with the HP diet. LDL concentration and hip circumference decreased only with the NP diet, while MCP-1 and HsCRP concentrations increased over time in both groups. A HP diet with whole eggs promotes lean mass retention with modest weight loss, but does not positively influence muscle composition, cardiometabolic health or systemic inflammation, compared to a NP diet void of eggs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Egg Intake and Human Health)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Dietary Fiber Intake and Endometrial Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 945; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070945
Received: 24 June 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 22 July 2018
PDF Full-text (3579 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Epidemiological studies are inconclusive regarding the association between dietary fiber intake and endometrial cancer risk. Thus, we aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to clarify the association between dietary fiber and endometrial cancer risk. We searched the PubMed and ISI Web databases for relevant
[...] Read more.
Epidemiological studies are inconclusive regarding the association between dietary fiber intake and endometrial cancer risk. Thus, we aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to clarify the association between dietary fiber and endometrial cancer risk. We searched the PubMed and ISI Web databases for relevant studies through March 2018. The association between dietary fiber and endometrial cancer risk was evaluated by conducting a meta-analysis including 3 cohort and 12 case–control studies. A significant negative association was observed between total dietary fiber intake and endometrial cancer risk in 11 case–control studies (odds ratios (OR) 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.64–0.89, I2 = 35.2%, p = 0.117), but a marginal positive association was observed in three cohort studies (relative risk (RR) 1.22, 95% CI: 1.00–1.49, I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.995). Particularly, a negative association was observed in North America (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.59–0.83, I2 = 8.9%, p = 0.362). In addition, a positive association was observed in cereal fiber (RR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03–1.52, I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.530, 3 cohort studies) and a negative association was observed in vegetable fiber (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.58–0.94, I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.445, 3 case–control studies). In conclusion, negative associations with endometrial cancer risk were observed for higher total dietary fiber intake and higher vegetable fiber intake in the case–control studies. However, results from the cohort studies suggested positive relationships of higher total fiber intake and higher cereal fiber intake with endometrial cancer risk. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Attenuating Pregnancy Weight Gain—What Works and Why: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 944; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070944
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 22 July 2018
PDF Full-text (1034 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Excessive maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) contributes to generational obesity. Our aim was to explore efficacy and intervention characteristics (trimester, duration, frequency, intensity, and delivery method) of interventions to prevent excessive GWG. CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, LILACS, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Scopus were searched up
[...] Read more.
Excessive maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) contributes to generational obesity. Our aim was to explore efficacy and intervention characteristics (trimester, duration, frequency, intensity, and delivery method) of interventions to prevent excessive GWG. CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, LILACS, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Scopus were searched up to May 2018 (no date or language restrictions). Keywords and MeSH terms for diet, GWG, intervention, lifestyle, maternal, physical activity, and pregnancy were used to locate randomized-controlled trials (RCTs). The Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias was applied. Eighty-nine RCTs were included. Meta-analysis (60 trials) estimated that women in diet only (WMD: −3.27; 95% CI: −4.96, −1.58, p < 0.01), physical activity (PA) (WMD: −1.02; 95% CI: −1.56, −0.49, p < 0.01), and lifestyle interventions (combining diet and PA) (WMD: −0.84; 95% CI: −1.29, −0.39, p < 0.01) gained significantly less weight than controls. The three eHealth interventions favored neither intervention nor control (WMD: −1.06; 95% CI: −4.13, 2.00, p = 0.50). Meta-regression demonstrated no optimal duration, frequency, intensity, setting, or diet type. Traditional face to face delivery of weight management interventions during pregnancy can be successful. Delivery via eHealth has potential to extend its reach to younger women but needs further evaluation of its success. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Life Nutrition: From Nutrients to Systems)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Dietary Fibre as a Unifying Remedy for the Whole Spectrum of Obesity-Associated Cardiovascular Risk
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 943; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070943
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 15 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1105 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity is a pandemic carrying the heavy burden of multiple and serious co-morbidities including metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The pathophysiological processes leading to the accumulation of body fat slowly evolve to fat accumulation in other body compartments than subcutaneous
[...] Read more.
Obesity is a pandemic carrying the heavy burden of multiple and serious co-morbidities including metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The pathophysiological processes leading to the accumulation of body fat slowly evolve to fat accumulation in other body compartments than subcutaneous tissue. This abnormal fat deposition determines insulin resistance which in turn causes blood glucose and lipid metabolism derangement, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. All these conditions contribute to increase the cardiovascular risk of obese people. Several randomized clinical trials demonstrated that moderate weight loss (5–10%) in obese patients improves obesity-related metabolic risk factors and coexisting disorders. Therefore, nutritional strategies able to facilitate weight management, and in the meantime positively influence obesity-associated cardiovascular risk factors, should be implemented. To this aim, a suitable option could be dietary fibres that may also act independently of weight loss. The present narrative review summarizes the current evidence about the effects of dietary fibres on weight management in obese people. Moreover, all of the different cardiovascular risk factors are individually considered and evidence on cardiovascular outcomes is summarized. We also describe the plausible mechanisms by which different dietary fibres could modulate cardio-metabolic risk factors. Overall, despite both epidemiological and intervention studies on weight loss that show statistically significant but negligible clinical effects, dietary fibres seem to have a beneficial impact on main pathophysiological pathways involved in cardiovascular risk (i.e., insulin resistance, renin-angiotensin, and sympathetic nervous systems). Although the evidence is not conclusive, this suggests that fibre would be a suitable option to counteract obesity-related cardio-metabolic diseases also independently of weight loss. However, evidence is not consistent for the different risk factors, with clear beneficial effects shown on blood glucose metabolism and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol while there is fewer, and less consistent data shown on plasma triglyceride and blood pressure. Ascribing the beneficial effect of some foods (i.e., fruits and vegetables) solely to their fibre content requires more investigation on the pathophysiological role of other dietary components, such as polyphenols. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Are Inversely Correlated with Hepatic Lipid Content in Male Collegiate Football Athletes
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 942; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070942
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
PDF Full-text (1913 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations are associated with more weight and fat mass gain in adults in the general population, but it is unknown whether this is the case in collegiate football athletes with greater body weight. This study aimed to investigate
[...] Read more.
Lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations are associated with more weight and fat mass gain in adults in the general population, but it is unknown whether this is the case in collegiate football athletes with greater body weight. This study aimed to investigate associations of serum 25(OH)D concentrations with body fat and ectopic fat accumulation, and to determine which fat indicators are closely related to serum 25(OH)D in male collegiate football athletes. Thirty-four collegiate athletes aged 21 years were recruited. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations and the levels of visceral fat area (VFA), vastus lateralis intramyocellular lipid (IMCL), extramyocellular lipid (EMCL), and intrahepatic lipid (IHCL) were measured. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were negatively associated with the IHCL values (r = −0.372, p = 0.030), and the relationship remained after adjustment for several factors (r = −0.378, p = 0.047). Additionally, multiple stepwise regression analysis of IHCL content as the dependent variable indicated that 25(OH)D concentrations were a stronger predictor of IHCL content (β = −0.363, p = 0.030) than % body fat and VO2peakFFM. Higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations are more closely related to lower IHCL content rather than any other fat indicators, suggesting that increasing serum 25(OH)D concentrations may have some effect that inhibits lipid accumulation in hepatic tissue, especially in heavy athletes. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Suboptimal Iodine Status and Low Iodine Knowledge in Young Norwegian Women
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 941; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070941
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
PDF Full-text (955 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Previous studies have documented mild to moderate iodine deficiency in pregnant and lactating women in Norway. This study focused on non-pregnant young women because their future children may be susceptible to the adverse effects of iodine deficiency. We assessed urinary iodine concentration (UIC),
[...] Read more.
Previous studies have documented mild to moderate iodine deficiency in pregnant and lactating women in Norway. This study focused on non-pregnant young women because their future children may be susceptible to the adverse effects of iodine deficiency. We assessed urinary iodine concentration (UIC), iodine intake from food and supplements, and iodine knowledge in 403 non-pregnant women, mainly students, aged 18–30 years. Iodine concentration was measured in spot urine samples analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and iodine intake was calculated from a self-reported food frequency questionnaire. Knowledge about iodine was collected through the self-administered, paper-based questionnaire. Median (p25–p75) UIC was 75 (42–130) µg/L and 31% had UIC < 50 µg/L. Habitual iodine intake was 100 (69–136) µg/day. In multiple regression models, supplemental iodine, use of thyroid medication, and iodine intake from food were positively associated with UIC, while vegetarian practice was negatively associated, explaining 16% of the variance. Approximately 40% of the young women had low iodine knowledge score and no differences were found between women in different study programs. Young women in Norway are mild to moderately iodine-deficient, and public health strategies are needed to improve and secure adequate iodine status. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Cancer Prevention and Therapy with Polyphenols: Sphingolipid-Mediated Mechanisms
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 940; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070940
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2581 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyphenols, chemically characterized by a polyhydroxylated phenolic structure, are well known for their widespread pharmacological properties: anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, antiseptic, antitumor, antiallergic, cardioprotective and others. Their distribution in food products is also extensive especially in plant foods such as vegetables, cereals, legumes, fruits, nuts
[...] Read more.
Polyphenols, chemically characterized by a polyhydroxylated phenolic structure, are well known for their widespread pharmacological properties: anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, antiseptic, antitumor, antiallergic, cardioprotective and others. Their distribution in food products is also extensive especially in plant foods such as vegetables, cereals, legumes, fruits, nuts and certain beverages. The latest scientific literature outlines a resilient interconnection between cancer modulation and dietary polyphenols by sphingolipid-mediated mechanisms, usually correlated with a modification of their metabolism. We aim to extensively survey this relationship to show how it could be advantageous in cancer treatment or prevention by nutrients. From this analysis it emerges that a combination of classical chemotherapy with nutrients and especially with polyphenols dietary sources may improve efficacy and decreases negative side effects of the antineoplastic drug. In this multifaceted scenario, sphingolipids play a pivotal role as bioactive molecules, emerging as the mediators of cell proliferation in cancer and modulator of chemotherapeutics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Cancer Prevention and Therapy)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Understanding the Impact of Dietary Cholesterol on Chronic Metabolic Diseases through Studies in Rodent Models
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 939; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070939
Received: 22 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
PDF Full-text (1089 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of certain chronic metabolic diseases has been attributed to elevated levels of dietary cholesterol. However, decades of research in animal models and humans have demonstrated a high complexity with respect to the impact of dietary cholesterol on the progression of these
[...] Read more.
The development of certain chronic metabolic diseases has been attributed to elevated levels of dietary cholesterol. However, decades of research in animal models and humans have demonstrated a high complexity with respect to the impact of dietary cholesterol on the progression of these diseases. Thus, recent investigations in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) point to dietary cholesterol as a key factor for the activation of inflammatory pathways underlying the transition from NAFLD to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and to hepatic carcinoma. Dietary cholesterol was initially thought to be the key factor for cardiovascular disease development, but its impact on the disease depends partly on the capacity to modulate plasmatic circulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. These studies evidence a complex relationship between these chronic metabolic diseases and dietary cholesterol, which, in certain conditions, might promote metabolic complications. In this review, we summarize rodent studies that evaluate the impact of dietary cholesterol on these two prevalent chronic diseases and their relevance to human pathology. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Lactation Duration and Long-Term Thyroid Function: A Study among Women with Gestational Diabetes
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 938; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070938
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
PDF Full-text (285 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lactation is associated with reduced postpartum weight retention and a lower risk of several cardiometabolic disorders in population-based studies. We examined the association between lactation and long-term thyroid function among women with history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a high-risk population for subsequent
[...] Read more.
Lactation is associated with reduced postpartum weight retention and a lower risk of several cardiometabolic disorders in population-based studies. We examined the association between lactation and long-term thyroid function among women with history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a high-risk population for subsequent metabolic complications. The study included 550 women who developed GDM in the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996–2002) and followed-up in the Diabetes & Women’s Health Study (2012–2014). We assessed adjusted associations between cumulative lactation duration and concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (fT3), and free thyroxine (fT4) measured at follow-up. Women with longer cumulative lactation duration tended to have higher fT3 levels (adjusted β and 95% confidence interval (CI) for ≥12 months vs. none: 0.19 (0.03–0.36); p-trend = 0.05). When restricted to women with a single lifetime pregnancy to control for parity (n = 70), women who lactated for >6 months (vs. none) had higher fT3 levels (0.46 pmol/L (0.12–0.80); p-trend = 0.02) and a higher fT3:fT4 ratio (0.61 (0.17–1.05); p-trend = 0.007). Our findings suggested that a longer duration of lactation may be related to greater serum fT3 levels and fT3:fT4 ratio 9–16 years postpartum among Danish women with a history of GDM. The association was particularly pronounced among women who only had one lifetime pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breastfeeding and Human Lactation)
Open AccessArticle Gene Expression of Sirtuin-1 and Endogenous Secretory Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products in Healthy and Slightly Overweight Subjects after Caloric Restriction and Resveratrol Administration
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 937; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070937
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 15 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
PDF Full-text (597 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sirtuin-1 (Sirt-1) and an endogenous secretory receptor for an advanced glycation end product (esRAGE) are associated with vascular protection. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of resveratrol (RSV) and caloric restriction (CR) on gene expression of Sirt-1 and esRAGE
[...] Read more.
Sirtuin-1 (Sirt-1) and an endogenous secretory receptor for an advanced glycation end product (esRAGE) are associated with vascular protection. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of resveratrol (RSV) and caloric restriction (CR) on gene expression of Sirt-1 and esRAGE on serum levels of Sirt1 and esRAGE in healthy and slightly overweight subjects. The study included 48 healthy subjects randomized to 30 days of RSV (500 mg/day) or CR (1000 cal/day). Waist circumference (p = 0.011), TC (p = 0.007), HDL (p = 0.031), non-HDL (p = 0.025), ApoA1 (p = 0.011), and ApoB (p = 0.037) decreased in the CR group. However, TC (p = 0.030), non-HDL (p = 0.010), ApoB (p = 0.034), and HOMA-IR (p = 0.038) increased in the RSV group. RSV and CR increased serum levels of Sirt-1, respectively, from 1.06 ± 0.71 ng/mL to 5.75 ± 2.98 ng/mL (p < 0.0001) and from 1.65 ± 1.81 ng/mL to 5.80 ± 2.23 ng/mL (p < 0.0001). esRAGE serum levels were similar in RSV (p = NS) and CR (p = NS) groups. Significant positive correlation was observed between gene expression changes of Sirt-1 and esRAGE in RSV (r = 0.86; p < 0.0001) and in CR (r = 0.71; p < 0.0001) groups, but not for the changes in serum concentrations. CR promoted increases in the gene expression of esRAGE (post/pre). Future long-term studies are needed to evaluate the impact of these outcomes on vascular health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of Resveratrol Supplementation)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Calcium and Phosphate Metabolism, Blood Lipids and Intestinal Sterols in Human Intervention Studies Using Different Sources of Phosphate as Supplements—Pooled Results and Literature Search
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 936; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070936
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
PDF Full-text (1920 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Phosphates are associated with negative physiological effects. The objectives of this publication were to compare differential effects of supplementation with calcium phosphate or phosphate alone in healthy humans. Four adult human studies were conducted with pentacalcium hydroxy-trisphosphate supplementation (CaP; 90 subjects) and their
[...] Read more.
Phosphates are associated with negative physiological effects. The objectives of this publication were to compare differential effects of supplementation with calcium phosphate or phosphate alone in healthy humans. Four adult human studies were conducted with pentacalcium hydroxy-trisphosphate supplementation (CaP; 90 subjects) and their data were pooled for assessment. For literature search; PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge were used and 21 items were assigned to three main topics. The pooled study results show that following CaP supplementation, faecal calcium and phosphorus and urinary calcium were increased, blood lipids were positively modulated, and faecal bile acids were increased, as compared with placebo. The literature search reveals that following calcium phosphate supplementation, urinary calcium was increased. Following solely phosphate supplementation, urinary phosphorus was increased and urinary calcium was decreased. Postprandial calcium concentrations were increased following calcium phosphate supplementation. Postprandial phosphate concentrations were increased following solely phosphate supplementation. Calcium phosphate supplementation resulted in rather positively modulated blood lipids and gut-related parameters. The presented results show the relevance to distinguish between calcium phosphate and solely phosphate supplementations, and the importance of a balanced calcium and phosphorus intake. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Dietary Protein, Muscle and Physical Function in the Very Old
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 935; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070935
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
PDF Full-text (270 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is an ongoing debate as to the optimal protein intake in older adults. An increasing body of experimental studies on skeletal muscle protein metabolism as well as epidemiological data suggest that protein requirements with ageing might be greater than many current dietary
[...] Read more.
There is an ongoing debate as to the optimal protein intake in older adults. An increasing body of experimental studies on skeletal muscle protein metabolism as well as epidemiological data suggest that protein requirements with ageing might be greater than many current dietary recommendations. Importantly, none of the intervention studies in this context specifically investigated very old individuals. Data on the fastest growing age group of the oldest old (aged 85 years and older) is very limited. In this review, we examine the current evidence on protein intake for preserving muscle mass, strength and function in older individuals, with emphasis on data in the very old. Available observational data suggest beneficial effects of a higher protein intake with physical function in the oldest old. Whilst, studies estimating protein requirements in old and very old individuals based on whole-body measurements, show no differences between these sub-populations of elderly. However, small sample sizes preclude drawing firm conclusions. Experimental studies that compared muscle protein synthetic (MPS) responses to protein ingestion in young and old adults suggest that a higher relative protein intake is required to maximally stimulate skeletal muscle MPS in the aged. Although, data on MPS responses to protein ingestion in the oldest old are currently lacking. Collectively, the data reviewed for this article support the concept that there is a close interaction of physical activity, diet, function and ageing. An attractive hypothesis is that regular physical activity may preserve and even enhance the responsiveness of ageing skeletal muscle to protein intake, until very advanced age. More research involving study participants particularly aged ≥85 years is warranted to better investigate and determine protein requirements in this specific growing population group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Protein and Muscle in Aging People)
Open AccessArticle Dose-Dependent Increase in Unconjugated Cinnamic Acid Concentration in Plasma Following Acute Consumption of Polyphenol Rich Curry in the Polyspice Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 934; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070934
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
PDF Full-text (1547 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Spices that are rich in polyphenols are metabolized to a convergent group of phenolic/aromatic acids. We conducted a dose-exposure nutrikinetic study to investigate associations between mixed spices intake and plasma concentrations of selected, unconjugated phenolic/aromatic acids. In a randomized crossover study, 17 Chinese
[...] Read more.
Spices that are rich in polyphenols are metabolized to a convergent group of phenolic/aromatic acids. We conducted a dose-exposure nutrikinetic study to investigate associations between mixed spices intake and plasma concentrations of selected, unconjugated phenolic/aromatic acids. In a randomized crossover study, 17 Chinese males consumed a curry meal containing 0 g, 6 g, and 12 g of mixed spices. Postprandial blood was drawn up to 7 h at regular intervals and plasma phenolic/aromatic acids were quantified via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Cinnamic acid (CNA, p < 0.0001) and phenylacetic acid (PAA, p < 0.0005) concentrations were significantly increased with mixed spices consumption, although none of the other measured phenolic/aromatic acids differ significantly between treatments. CNA displayed a high dose-exposure association (R2 > 0.8, p < 0.0001). The adjusted mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve until 7 h (AUC0–7 h) for CNA during the 3 increasing doses were 8.4 ± 3.4, 376.1 ± 104.7 and 875.7 ± 291.9 nM.h respectively. Plasma CNA concentration may be used as a biomarker of spice intake. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Lupinus mutabilis Extract Exerts an Anti-Diabetic Effect by Improving Insulin Release in Type 2 Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki Rats
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 933; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070933
Received: 5 June 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
PDF Full-text (2562 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Lupinus mutabilis (LM) is a legume part of Bolivian traditional diet that has a nutraceutical property reducing blood glucose levels. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide thus; the search for novel anti-diabetic drugs is needed. Based on its
[...] Read more.
Lupinus mutabilis (LM) is a legume part of Bolivian traditional diet that has a nutraceutical property reducing blood glucose levels. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide thus; the search for novel anti-diabetic drugs is needed. Based on its traditional use, we evaluated the anti-diabetic effect of LM in the spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat, a model of type 2 diabetes and in Wistar (W) rats as healthy control. LM seeds hydroethanolic extract, analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, is a complex mixture of volatile and non-volatile components. A single oral administration of LM extract (2000 mg/kg b.w.) improved glucose tolerance during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (30–120 min) in GK and W rats (p < 0.0001). The long-term treatment with LM (1000 mg/kg b.w.), for 21 days, improved the area under the curve (AUC) of glucose during OGTT at day 20, in both GK (p < 0.01) and W rats (p < 0.01). The HbA1c (GK rats, p < 0.05 and W rats, p < 0.0001) and the non-fasting glucose (GK rats, p < 0.05) were also reduced. LM increased both serum insulin levels (2.4-fold in GK rats and 2.5-fold W rats), and the glucose-induced (16.7 mM glucose) insulin release in isolated islets from treated animals (6.7-fold in GK rats, and 6.6-fold in W rats). Moreover, LM (10 mg/mL) stimulated in vitro glucose induced (16.7 mM glucose) insulin release in batch incubated GK and W rat islets (p < 0.0001). In perifused GK rat islets, insulin release in 16.7 mM glucose was increased 95.3-fold compared to untreated islets (p < 0.0001), while no significant differences were found in perifused W rat islets. The LM mechanism of action, evaluated using inhibitory compounds of the insulin secretion pathway, showed that LM-dependent insulin secretion was reduced 42% by diazoxide (p < 0.001), 70% by nifedipine (p < 0.001), 86.7% by H89 (p < 0.0001), 70.8% by calphostine-C (p < 0.0001) and 93% by pertussis toxin (p < 0.0001). A similar effect was observed in W rats islets. Our findings provide evidence that LM has an anti-diabetic effect through stimulation of insulin release. The effect is-dependent on L-type calcium channel, protein kinase A and C systems, and G protein-coupled exocytosis and is partially mediated by K-ATP channels. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Supplementation-Dependent Effects of Vegetable Oils with Varying Fatty Acid Compositions on Anthropometric and Biochemical Parameters in Obese Women
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 932; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070932
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
PDF Full-text (1168 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Fatty acid (FA) composition is a determinant of the physiological effects of dietary oils. This study investigated the effects of vegetable oil supplementation with different FA compositions on anthropometric and biochemical parameters in obese women on a hypocaloric diet with lifestyle modifications. Seventy-five
[...] Read more.
Fatty acid (FA) composition is a determinant of the physiological effects of dietary oils. This study investigated the effects of vegetable oil supplementation with different FA compositions on anthropometric and biochemical parameters in obese women on a hypocaloric diet with lifestyle modifications. Seventy-five women (body mass index, BMI, 30–39.9kg/m2) were randomized based on 8-week oil supplementation into four experimental groups: the coconut oil group (CoG, n = 18), the safflower oil group (SafG, n = 19), the chia oil group (ChG, n = 19), and the soybean oil placebo group (PG, n = 19). Pre- and post-supplementation weight, anthropometric parameters, and body fat (%BF), and lean mass percentages (%LM) were evaluated, along with biochemical parameters related to lipid and glycidemic profiles. In the anthropometric evaluation, the CoG showed greater weight loss (Δ% = −8.54 ± 2.38), and reduced BMI (absolute variation, Δabs = −2.86 ± 0.79), waist circumference (Δabs = −6.61 ± 0.85), waist-to-height ratio (Δabs = −0.041 ± 0.006), conicity index (Δabs = −0.03 ± 0.016), and %BF (Δabs = −2.78 ± 0.46), but increased %LM (Δabs = 2.61 ± 1.40) (p < 0.001). Moreover, the CoG showed a higher reduction in biochemical parameters of glycemia (Δabs = −24.71 ± 8.13) and glycated hemoglobin (Δabs = −0.86 ± 0.28) (p < 0.001). The ChG showed a higher reduction in cholesterol (Δabs = −45.36 ± 0.94), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc; Δabs = −42.53 ± 22.65), and triglycerides (Δabs = −49.74 ± 26.3), but an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc; abs = 3.73 ± 1.24, p = 0.007). Coconut oil had a more pronounced effect on abdominal adiposity and glycidic profile, whereas chia oil had a higher effect on improving the lipid profile. Indeed, supplementation with different fatty acid compositions resulted in specific responses. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Aqueous Extract of Pepino (Solanum muriactum Ait) Leaves Ameliorate Lipid Accumulation and Oxidative Stress in Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 931; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070931
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
PDF Full-text (2328 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Chronic alcohol intake leads to alcoholic fatty liver. The pathogenesis of alcoholic fatty liver is related to abnormal lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, endotoxins, and cytokines. Solanum muricatum Ait. (Pepino) is a plant food commonly cultivated in the Penghu island, Taiwan. Previous studies indicated
[...] Read more.
Chronic alcohol intake leads to alcoholic fatty liver. The pathogenesis of alcoholic fatty liver is related to abnormal lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, endotoxins, and cytokines. Solanum muricatum Ait. (Pepino) is a plant food commonly cultivated in the Penghu island, Taiwan. Previous studies indicated that the aqueous extract of pepino was able to attenuate diabetic progression via its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the mechanisms of the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of pepino leaf in preventing alcoholic fatty liver remain unknown. In this study, Lieber–DeCarli ethanol-containing liquid diet was used to induce alcoholic hepatic injury in C57BL/6 mice. The hepatoprotective effects and the related mechanisms of aqueous extract of pepino leaf (AEPL) were examined. Our results showed that 2% AEPL treatments protected the liver from ethanol-induced injury through reducing serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) (all p < 0.05). AEPL had the effects in improving the ethanol-induced lipid accumulation in mice under histological examination. Molecular data indicated that the anti-lipid accumulation effect of AEPL might be mediated via inducing hepatic levels of phospho-adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (p-AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α, and reducing the expressions of hepatic lipogenic enzymes, including sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) (all p < 0.05). AEPL also decreased hepatic levels of thiobarbituric acid relative substances (TBARS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-6, as well as the expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) (all p < 0.05). Moreover, AEPL significantly elevated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione (GSH) content compared to the ethanol-fed group (all p < 0.05). Our present study suggests that AEPL could protect the liver against ethanol-induced oxidative injury and lipid accumulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemicals in Health and Disease)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle New Iodine Food Composition Database and Updated Calculations of Iodine Intake among Norwegians
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 930; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070930
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 14 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
PDF Full-text (284 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Iodine food composition data of Norwegian foods have been sparse and knowledge about different dietary iodine sources limited. We compiled a comprehensive iodine food composition database and estimated dietary iodine intake among adults in the latest Norwegian national dietary survey (Norkost 3). The
[...] Read more.
Iodine food composition data of Norwegian foods have been sparse and knowledge about different dietary iodine sources limited. We compiled a comprehensive iodine food composition database and estimated dietary iodine intake among adults in the latest Norwegian national dietary survey (Norkost 3). The iodine content of food and beverages were compiled using international guidelines and standards. Iodine content of 3259 food items were compiled, including analytical values, values from other food composition databases, estimated values, and values that were based on recipes. Estimated iodine intake in the Norkost 3 population ranged from 15 to 1462 µg/day. Men had significantly higher intake of iodine than women (p < 0.001). The proportion of men and women with estimated iodine intake below average requirement was 19% and 33%, respectively. In young women, 46% had estimated iodine intakes below average requirement and a high probability of inadequate iodine intake. Several dietary sources contributed to iodine intake and differences in the consumption pattern may put subgroups at risk of insufficient iodine intake. In the coming years, the determination of iodine in foods and national dietary surveys should be regularly performed to monitor the iodine intake in the Norwegian population. Full article
Open AccessReview Dietary Protein and Muscle in Aging People: The Potential Role of the Gut Microbiome
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 929; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070929
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
PDF Full-text (899 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Muscle mass, strength, and physical function are known to decline with age. This is associated with the development of geriatric syndromes including sarcopenia and frailty. Dietary protein is essential for skeletal muscle function. Resistance exercise appears to be the most beneficial form of
[...] Read more.
Muscle mass, strength, and physical function are known to decline with age. This is associated with the development of geriatric syndromes including sarcopenia and frailty. Dietary protein is essential for skeletal muscle function. Resistance exercise appears to be the most beneficial form of physical activity for preserving skeletal muscle and a synergistic effect has been noted when this is combined with dietary protein. However, older adults have shown evidence of anabolic resistance, where greater amounts of protein are required to stimulate muscle protein synthesis, and response is variable. Thus, the recommended daily amount of protein is greater for older people. The aetiologies and mechanisms responsible for anabolic resistance are not fully understood. The gut microbiota is implicated in many of the postulated mechanisms for anabolic resistance, either directly or indirectly. The gut microbiota change with age, and are influenced by dietary protein. Research also implies a role for the gut microbiome in skeletal muscle function. This leads to the hypothesis that the gut microbiome might modulate individual response to protein in the diet. We summarise the existing evidence for the role of the gut microbiota in anabolic resistance and skeletal muscle in aging people, and introduce the metabolome as a tool to probe this relationship in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Protein and Muscle in Aging People)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Serum Adiponectin Levels in Pregnancy: Results from a Cohort Study in Normal Weight Caucasian Women
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 928; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070928
Received: 9 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is significantly associated with anti-inflammatory effects and a favorable health outcome. During pregnancy, both inflammatory changes and oxidative balance are essential for a successful outcome, while an unbalanced inflammatory response can be a key mediator of obstetrical syndromes. The
[...] Read more.
The Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is significantly associated with anti-inflammatory effects and a favorable health outcome. During pregnancy, both inflammatory changes and oxidative balance are essential for a successful outcome, while an unbalanced inflammatory response can be a key mediator of obstetrical syndromes. The aim of this study is to investigate the adherence to MedDiet during pregnancy in the 1st and in the 3rd trimester, and to test whether the adherence was associated with serum adiponectin levels. The study was carried out on 99 normal weight Caucasian women. The adherence to MedDiet was measured by a 13-point Mediterranean scale. The whole sample scored 7.2 ± 1.5, with no difference between first and third trimester (p = 0.7). Critical points were: fruit < 3 servings/day in 77% of the sample, beans < 3 times/week in 89%, fish < 2 times/week in 69%, and nut weekly intake < 30 g in 75%. The serum adiponectin levels significantly decreased from the first to the third trimester (−16% ± 4%, p = 0.008), which confirms a low-grade inflammatory condition associated with advancing gestational age. The women who were in the highest tertile of the adherence to MedDiet had a lower percentage decrease, as compared with those in the lowest tertile (10% ± 11% vs. −34% ± 3%, p = 0.01). Even if in pregnancy the adiponectin levels are strongly influenced by the low-grade inflammation, the adherence to MedDiet may modulate this state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
Open AccessArticle Dietary Determinants of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA) Status in a High Fish-Eating Cohort during Pregnancy
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 927; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070927
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
PDF Full-text (274 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential for neurodevelopment and the developing foetus depends on an optimal maternal status. Fish is a rich source of PUFA. The current study investigated dietary patterns, and associations with PUFA status in a high-fish consuming cohort of pregnant
[...] Read more.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential for neurodevelopment and the developing foetus depends on an optimal maternal status. Fish is a rich source of PUFA. The current study investigated dietary patterns, and associations with PUFA status in a high-fish consuming cohort of pregnant women in the Seychelles. At 28 weeks’ gestation, pregnant women provided a blood sample, from which serum total PUFA concentrations were measured, A Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and Fish Use Questionnaire (FUQ) were also completed. Principal component analysis (PCA) of dietary information identified four patterns. Regression analyses found dietary pattern 2, containing foods traditionally eaten in the Seychelles e.g., fish, fruit and vegetables was positively associated with serum docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (β = 0.134; CI = 0.001, 0.022), and serum total n-3 PUFA (β = 0.139; CI = 0.001, 0.023) concentrations. Dietary pattern 1, high in processed foods, snacks, white meat and eggs, was not significantly associated with any of the serum PUFA concentrations. The FUQ indicated that fatty fish was associated with EPA status (β = 0.180; CI = 0.001, 0.005) in high consumers. The second dietary pattern, consisting of higher consumption of fish and fruit, was positively associated with n-3 PUFA status during pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
Open AccessArticle Neuroprotective Effects of Taraxacum officinale Wigg. Extract on Glutamate-Induced Oxidative Stress in HT22 Cells via HO-1/Nrf2 Pathways
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 926; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070926
Received: 16 June 2018 / Revised: 7 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
PDF Full-text (1807 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oxidative stress-mediated neuron damage is considered an important contributor to the pathogenesis and development of neurodegenerative diseases. Taraxacum officinale has been reported to possess antioxidant activities. However, whether it can protect neurons against oxidative damage and the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been
[...] Read more.
Oxidative stress-mediated neuron damage is considered an important contributor to the pathogenesis and development of neurodegenerative diseases. Taraxacum officinale has been reported to possess antioxidant activities. However, whether it can protect neurons against oxidative damage and the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully determined. In the present study, we examined the neuroprotective effects of ethanol extracts of this plant (ETOW) on glutamate-induced oxidative stress in HT22 cells. Both cell viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays showed that ETOW effectively attenuated glutamate-induced cytotoxicity and ROS generation. Furthermore, our results revealed that ETOW increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and promoted the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2). The inhibitory effects of ETOW on glutamate-stimulated cell toxicity and ROS production were partially reversed by tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), an HO activity inhibitor. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ETOW can protect HT22 cells against glutamate-induced oxidative damage by inducing the Nrf2/HO-1 pathways. Our study supports the idea that Taraxacum officinale Wigg. is a promising agent for preventing neurodegenerative diseases. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Combined Supplementation of Pre-Exercise Carbohydrate, Alanine, and Proline and Continuous Intake of Green Tea Catechins Effectively Boost Endurance Performance in Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 925; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070925
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
PDF Full-text (1109 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Continuous intake of green tea catechins (GTC) increases fatty acid utilization as an energy source and improves endurance capacity. Conversely, the single pre-exercise intake of maltodextrin (MD) as a carbohydrate source and the gluconeogenic amino acids alanine (Ala) and proline (Pro) effectively maintain
[...] Read more.
Continuous intake of green tea catechins (GTC) increases fatty acid utilization as an energy source and improves endurance capacity. Conversely, the single pre-exercise intake of maltodextrin (MD) as a carbohydrate source and the gluconeogenic amino acids alanine (Ala) and proline (Pro) effectively maintain blood glucose levels and increase endurance performance. In this study, we investigated the synergistic combinational effect of these interventions on endurance performance in mice. Male BALB/c mice were fed a 0.5% GTC diet or Control diet for 8 weeks. Maximum running time was measured every 2 weeks. MD (2 g/kg body weight (B.W.)), MD (1 g/kg B.W.) + AlaPro (9:1, 1 g/kg B.W.), and vehicle were orally administrated 60 mins before measurements in each diet group. The GTC + MD + AlaPro group showed significantly higher endurance performance than the Control-Vehicle group at all measurements. Indirect calorimetry analysis during running exercise at 4 weeks in the Control and GTC groups supplemented with pre-exercise MD + AlaPro administration revealed significantly higher fat oxidation in the GTC groups compared to the Control group. The combined increase in fatty acid utilization through continuous GTC intake and pre-exercise MD + AlaPro carbohydrate energy supplementation synergistically improves endurance capacity. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle “Benifuuki” Extract Reduces Serum Levels of Lectin-Like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1 Ligands Containing Apolipoprotein B: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 924; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070924
Received: 18 June 2018 / Revised: 14 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
PDF Full-text (958 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
(1) Background: Arteriosclerosis is associated with high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. O-methylated catechins in “Benifuuki” green tea are expected to reduce cholesterol levels, although there is limited research regarding this topic; (2) Methods: This trial evaluated 159 healthy volunteers who
[...] Read more.
(1) Background: Arteriosclerosis is associated with high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. O-methylated catechins in “Benifuuki” green tea are expected to reduce cholesterol levels, although there is limited research regarding this topic; (2) Methods: This trial evaluated 159 healthy volunteers who were randomized to receive ice cream containing a high-dose of “Benifuuki” extract including 676 mg of catechins (group H), a low-dose of “Benifuuki” extract including 322 mg of catechins (group L), or no “Benifuuki” extract (group C). Each group consumed ice cream (with or without extract) daily for 12 weeks, and their lipid-related parameters were compared; (3) Results: A significant reduction in the level of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 ligand containing ApoB (LAB) was detected in group H, compared to groups L and C. No significant differences between the three groups were detected in their levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol; (4) Conclusions: “Benifuuki” extract containing O-methylated catechins may help prevent arteriosclerosis. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Testing the Feasibility and Preliminary Efficacy of an 8-Week Exercise and Compensatory Eating Intervention
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 923; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070923
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
PDF Full-text (2952 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an intervention comprised of regular exercise alongside educational and motivational support for participants’ avoidance of unhealthy compensatory eating. Forty-five sedentary individuals were randomized to an 8-week exercise plus compensatory
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an intervention comprised of regular exercise alongside educational and motivational support for participants’ avoidance of unhealthy compensatory eating. Forty-five sedentary individuals were randomized to an 8-week exercise plus compensatory eating avoidance program (CEAP; n = 24), or an 8-week exercise intervention only (control; n = 21). The feasibility and preliminary efficacy of the intervention were assessed using quantitative measures and supplemented with written responses to open-ended questions. The CEAP workshop was well-received; however, self-reported use of some of the included behavior change strategies was lower than expected. Post-intervention, there was evidence of reduced self-reported compensatory eating for participants in the CEAP group but not controls, with CEAP participants also reporting greater use of coping plans relative to controls post-intervention. The exercise program had benefits for waist circumference, body fat percentage, blood pressure, and cardiovascular fitness; however, improvements were similar between groups. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that the CEAP is feasible and may reduce compensatory eating around exercise; however, this effect is small. Potential modifications to the CEAP are discussed within the paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity And Diet For Health Optimisation)
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top