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Nutrients, Volume 10, Issue 6 (June 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) A low carbohydrate, high fat ketogenic diet (KD) is a nutritional approach ensuring that the body [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Peptides from Goat Milk Fermented by Lactobacillus casei L61: Preparation, Optimization, and Stability Evaluation in Simulated Gastrointestinal Fluid
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 797; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060797
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 18 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Antioxidant peptides are currently the focus of many studies, since they eliminate free radicals in the human body without harmful effects. In the present study, Lactobacillus casei L61 was used as a starter culture to ferment goat milk because of its high capacity
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Antioxidant peptides are currently the focus of many studies, since they eliminate free radicals in the human body without harmful effects. In the present study, Lactobacillus casei L61 was used as a starter culture to ferment goat milk because of its high capacity to produce antioxidant peptides. An optimal nutrients formula (casein, casein peptone, glucose, soybean peptone, inulin, calcium lactate, and cysteine) was investigated by Plackett–Burman (P–B) and Box–Behnken (B–B) designs for response surface methodology (RSM). Antioxidant peptides were successively isolated and purified from the fermented goat milk. Furthermore, the stability of the antioxidant peptides was evaluated in a simulated gastrointestinal tract at 37 °C. The results showed that calcium lactate, glucose, and casein peptone significantly affected the antioxidant activity of goat milk. The optimal additive amounts were 0.99% (w/v) calcium lactate, 0.21% (w/v) glucose, and 0.29% (w/v) casein peptone. The hydroxyl free radical scavenging rate increased significantly (p < 0.001) from 56.50 ± 0.57% to 88.01 ± 0.69%; the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging rate increased up to 63.48 ± 1.22% under the optimal conditions (n = 3). Our research provides a fitted mathematical model for antioxidant peptides production. Besides, these antioxidant peptides had great stability during simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Fermentation)
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Open AccessReview Skeletal Muscle Metabolism in Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy—Implications for Therapies
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 796; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060796
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 16 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
The interactions between nutrition and metabolism and skeletal muscle have long been known. Muscle is the major metabolic organ—it consumes more calories than other organs—and therefore, there is a clear need to discuss these interactions and provide some direction for future research areas
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The interactions between nutrition and metabolism and skeletal muscle have long been known. Muscle is the major metabolic organ—it consumes more calories than other organs—and therefore, there is a clear need to discuss these interactions and provide some direction for future research areas regarding muscle pathologies. In addition, new experiments and manuscripts continually reveal additional highly intricate, reciprocal interactions between metabolism and muscle. These reciprocal interactions include exercise, age, sex, diet, and pathologies including atrophy, hypoxia, obesity, diabetes, and muscle myopathies. Central to this review are the metabolic changes that occur in the skeletal muscle cells of muscular dystrophy patients and mouse models. Many of these metabolic changes are pathogenic (inappropriate body mass changes, mitochondrial dysfunction, reduced adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, and increased Ca2+) and others are compensatory (increased phosphorylated AMP activated protein kinase (pAMPK), increased slow fiber numbers, and increased utrophin). Therefore, reversing or enhancing these changes with therapies will aid the patients. The multiple therapeutic targets to reverse or enhance the metabolic pathways will be discussed. Among the therapeutic targets are increasing pAMPK, utrophin, mitochondrial number and slow fiber characteristics, and inhibiting reactive oxygen species. Because new data reveals many additional intricate levels of interactions, new questions are rapidly arising. How does muscular dystrophy alter metabolism, and are the changes compensatory or pathogenic? How does metabolism affect muscular dystrophy? Of course, the most profound question is whether clinicians can therapeutically target nutrition and metabolism for muscular dystrophy patient benefit? Obtaining the answers to these questions will greatly aid patients with muscular dystrophy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Musculoskeletal Health)
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Open AccessArticle Personalized Nutrition—Genes, Diet, and Related Interactive Parameters as Predictors of Cancer in Multiethnic Colorectal Cancer Families
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 795; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060795
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
To personalize nutrition, the purpose of this study was to examine five key genes in the folate metabolism pathway, and dietary parameters and related interactive parameters as predictors of colorectal cancer (CRC) by measuring the healthy eating index (HEI) in multiethnic families. The
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To personalize nutrition, the purpose of this study was to examine five key genes in the folate metabolism pathway, and dietary parameters and related interactive parameters as predictors of colorectal cancer (CRC) by measuring the healthy eating index (HEI) in multiethnic families. The five genes included methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677 and 1298, methionine synthase (MTR) 2756, methionine synthase reductase (MTRR 66), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) 19bp, and they were used to compute a total gene mutation score. We included 53 families, 53 CRC patients and 53 paired family friend members of diverse population groups in Southern California. We measured multidimensional data using the ensemble bootstrap forest method to identify variables of importance within domains of genetic, demographic, and dietary parameters to achieve dimension reduction. We then constructed predictive generalized regression (GR) modeling with a supervised machine learning validation procedure with the target variable (cancer status) being specified to validate the results to allow enhanced prediction and reproducibility. The results showed that the CRC group had increased total gene mutation scores compared to the family members (p < 0.05). Using the Akaike’s information criterion and Leave-One-Out cross validation GR methods, the HEI was interactive with thiamine (vitamin B1), which is a new finding for the literature. The natural food sources for thiamine include whole grains, legumes, and some meats and fish which HEI scoring included as part of healthy portions (versus limiting portions on salt, saturated fat and empty calories). Additional predictors included age, as well as gender and the interaction of MTHFR 677 with overweight status (measured by body mass index) in predicting CRC, with the cancer group having more men and overweight cases. The HEI score was significant when split at the median score of 77 into greater or less scores, confirmed through the machine-learning recursive tree method and predictive modeling, although an HEI score of greater than 80 is the US national standard set value for a good diet. The HEI and healthy eating are modifiable factors for healthy living in relation to dietary parameters and cancer prevention, and they can be used for personalized nutrition in the precision-based healthcare era. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet Quality and Health Outcomes)
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Open AccessArticle Do Chinese Preschool Children Eat a Sufficiently Diverse Diet? A Cross-Sectional Study in China
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 794; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060794
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Background: This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate dietary diversity and its associated factors in Chinese preschoolers and explore whether the daily food consumption of children with different dietary diversity-associated characteristics met recommended dietary amounts. Methods: A cross-sectional study covering seven cities and two
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Background: This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate dietary diversity and its associated factors in Chinese preschoolers and explore whether the daily food consumption of children with different dietary diversity-associated characteristics met recommended dietary amounts. Methods: A cross-sectional study covering seven cities and two villages was conducted and included 697 preschool children aged 3–7 years old. Dietary diversity score (DDS) and DDS 10 were calculated based on 24-h dietary recall. The food-intake differences among children with different DDS 10 predictors were examined. Results: The mean DDS and DDS 10 in Chinese preschool children were 7.4 ± 1.5 (ranged from 3 to 9) and 7.0 ± 3 (ranged from 3 to 9) respectively. Positive predictors of dietary diversity included residing in an urban environment, a higher household expenditure on children’s food, and a higher frequency of eating outside. Food-intake differences existed among the predictors. Conclusions: Education and intervention should be strengthened to improve the dietary diversity of preschool children, especially in rural areas. The overall dietary pattern of children requires attention, which means not only increasing dietary diversity but also avoiding an unbalanced diet. Full article
Open AccessArticle Inulin Supplementation Does Not Reduce Plasma Trimethylamine N-Oxide Concentrations in Individuals at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 793; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060793
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Prebiotic supplementation has been purported to reduce TMAO production, but whether prebiotics reduce fasting or postprandial TMAO levels is unclear. Sedentary, overweight/obese adults at risk
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Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Prebiotic supplementation has been purported to reduce TMAO production, but whether prebiotics reduce fasting or postprandial TMAO levels is unclear. Sedentary, overweight/obese adults at risk for T2DM (n = 18) were randomized to consume a standardized diet (55% carbohydrate, 30% fat) with 10 g/day of either an inulin supplement or maltodextrin placebo for 6 weeks. Blood samples were obtained in the fasting state and hourly during a 4-h high-fat challenge meal (820 kcal; 25% carbohydrate, 63% fat; 317.4 mg choline, 62.5 mg betaine, 8.1 mg l-carnitine) before and after the diet. Plasma TMAO and trimethylamine (TMA) moieties (choline, l-carnitine, betaine, and γ-butyrobetaine) were measured using isocratic ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). There were no differences in fasting or postprandial TMAO or TMA moieties between the inulin and placebo groups at baseline (all p > 0.05). There were no significant changes in fasting or postprandial plasma TMAO or TMA moiety concentrations following inulin or placebo. These findings suggest that inulin supplementation for 6 weeks did not reduce fasting or postprandial TMAO in individuals at risk for T2DM. Future studies are needed to identify efficacious interventions that reduce plasma TMAO concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiome and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Intake of Polydextrose Alters Hematology and the Profile of Short Chain Fatty Acids in Partially Gastrectomized Rats
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 792; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060792
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Polydextrose (PDX) ingestion may increase the intestinal absorption of iron. This study evaluated the effects of 7.5% polydextrose supplementation on markers of iron uptake, transport and storage in partially gastrectomized rats. Half of a batch of 40 male Wistar rats (250 g) underwent
[...] Read more.
Polydextrose (PDX) ingestion may increase the intestinal absorption of iron. This study evaluated the effects of 7.5% polydextrose supplementation on markers of iron uptake, transport and storage in partially gastrectomized rats. Half of a batch of 40 male Wistar rats (250 g) underwent Billroth II partial gastrectomy with anterior truncal vagotomy (GXT), while the other half underwent sham gastrectomy (SHAM). At 7 postoperative days, the animals were subdivided into four groups (n = 10): Sham Control and GXT Control (no polydextrose); Sham PDX and GXT PDX (with 7.5% PDX). The animals were euthanized after 60 day of PDX treatment. Organ weight, cecal pH, the characterization and quantification of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), hematological parameters, hepatic iron content and the expression of ferroportin (FPT) in the jejunum, cecum, colon and liver were evaluated. PDX caused changes in the cecum of the supplemented animals, where there was a decrease in pH, increase in cecal wall and marked production of SCFA, especially acetic and propionic acids (p < 0.05). Hepatic iron levels were lower in GXT animals. PDX increased hemoglobin (HGB) values by 29.2% and hematocrit (HCT) by 55.8% in the GXT PDX group compared to the GXT Control group. The GXT PDX group had lower hepatic FPT expression (p < 0.05). PDX led to increased SCFA concentration in the supplemented animals. Considering that SCFAs play a central role in the increasing nutrients uptake, this mechanism may be involved in altering the hematology profile observed in these animals but not enough to reverse iron deficiency anemia in post-gastrectomy rats. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Protective Effects of Salvianolic Acid A against Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute Colitis in Rats
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 791; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060791
Received: 23 May 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Salvianolic acid A (SAA) is an active phenolic acid derived from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen). To explore whether SAA has a therapeutic effect against inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), an acute colitis model was induced in rats by administering 3% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)
[...] Read more.
Salvianolic acid A (SAA) is an active phenolic acid derived from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen). To explore whether SAA has a therapeutic effect against inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), an acute colitis model was induced in rats by administering 3% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) for one week. SAA in doses of 4 and 8 mg/kg/day was given by tail vein injection during DSS administration. Both dosages of SAA ameliorated the colitis symptoms, with decreases observed in the disease activity index. A high dosage of SAA (8 mg/kg/day) promoted a longer colon length and an improved colonic tissue structure, compared with the DSS-treated rats not receiving SAA. SAA dose-dependently decreased colonic gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, MCP-1 and IL-6). Moreover, a high dosage of SAA protected against DSS-induced damage to tight junctions (TJ) in the rats’ colons, by increasing TJ-related gene expression (ZO-1 and occuldin). Finally, using 16S rRNA phylogenetic sequencing, we found that SAA modulated gut microbiota imbalance during colitis by increasing the gut microbial diversity as well as selectively promoting some probiotic populations, including Akkermansia spp. Our study suggests that SAA is a promising candidate for the treatment of IBD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiome and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Nutritional Requirements of Lung Transplant Recipients: Challenges and Considerations
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 790; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060790
Received: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
An optimal nutritional status is associated with better post-transplant outcomes and survival. Post-lung transplant nutrition management is however particularly challenging as lung recipients represent a very heterogeneous group of patients in terms of age, underlying diseases, weight status and presence of comorbidities. Furthermore,
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An optimal nutritional status is associated with better post-transplant outcomes and survival. Post-lung transplant nutrition management is however particularly challenging as lung recipients represent a very heterogeneous group of patients in terms of age, underlying diseases, weight status and presence of comorbidities. Furthermore, the post-transplant period encompasses several stages characterized by physiological and pathophysiological changes that affect nutritional status of patients and necessitate tailored nutrition management. We provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding nutritional requirements in the post-lung transplant period from the immediate post-operative phase to long-term follow-up. In the immediate post-transplantation phase, the high doses of immunosuppressants and corticosteroids, the goal of maintaining hemodynamic stability, the presence of a catabolic state, and the wound healing process increase nutritional demands and lead to metabolic perturbations that necessitate nutritional interventions. As time from transplantation increases, complications such as obesity, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, and kidney disease, may develop and require adjustments to nutrition management. Until specific nutritional guidelines for lung recipients are elaborated, recommendations regarding nutrient requirements are formulated to provide guidance for clinicians caring for these patients. Finally, the management of recipients with special considerations is also briefly addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Relationship between Nutrition and Respiratory Disease)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Interaction between an ADCY3 Genetic Variant and Two Weight-Lowering Diets Affecting Body Fatness and Body Composition Outcomes Depending on Macronutrient Distribution: A Randomized Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 789; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060789
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
The adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3) gene is involved in the regulation of several metabolic processes including the development and function of adipose tissue. The effects of the ADCY3 rs10182181 genetic variant on changes in body composition depending on the macronutrient distribution
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The adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3) gene is involved in the regulation of several metabolic processes including the development and function of adipose tissue. The effects of the ADCY3 rs10182181 genetic variant on changes in body composition depending on the macronutrient distribution intake after 16 weeks of the dietary intervention were tested. The ADCY3 genetic variant was genotyped in 147 overweight or obese subjects, who were randomly assigned to one of the two diets varying in macronutrient content: a moderately-high-protein diet and a low-fat diet. Anthropometric and body composition measurements (DEXA scan) were recorded. Significant interactions between the ADCY3 genotype and dietary intervention on changes in weight, waist circumference, and body composition were found after adjustment for covariates. Thus, in the moderately-high-protein diet group, the G allele was associated with a lower decrease of fat mass, trunk and android fat, and a greater decrease in lean mass. Conversely, in the low-fat diet group carrying the G allele was associated with a greater decrease in trunk, android, gynoid, and visceral fat. Subjects carrying the G allele of the rs10182181 polymorphism may benefit more in terms of weight loss and improvement of body composition measurements when undertaking a hypocaloric low-fat diet as compared to a moderately-high-protein diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics)
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Open AccessReview Fatty Acids and Calcium Regulation in Prostate Cancer
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060788
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Prostate cancer is a widespread malignancy characterized by a comparative ease of primary diagnosis and difficulty in choosing the individualized course of treatment. Management of prostate cancer would benefit from a clearer understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind the transition to the lethal,
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Prostate cancer is a widespread malignancy characterized by a comparative ease of primary diagnosis and difficulty in choosing the individualized course of treatment. Management of prostate cancer would benefit from a clearer understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind the transition to the lethal, late-stage forms of the disease, which could potentially yield new biomarkers for differential prognosis and treatment prioritization in addition to possible new therapeutic targets. Epidemiological research has uncovered a significant correlation of prostate cancer incidence and progression with the intake (and often co-intake) of fatty acids and calcium. Additionally, there is evidence of the impact of these nutrients on intracellular signaling, including the mechanisms mediated by the calcium ion as a second messenger. The present review surveys the recent literature on the molecular mechanisms associated with the critical steps in the prostate cancer progression, with special attention paid to the regulation of these processes by fatty acids and calcium homeostasis. Testable hypotheses are put forward that integrate some of the recent results in a more unified picture of these phenomena at the interface of cell signaling and metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Exercise Intensity on Gastric Emptying Rate, Appetite and Gut Derived Hormone Responses after Consuming a Standardised Semi-Solid Meal in Healthy Males
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 787; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060787
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
This study investigated the acute circulating gut hormone, appetite and gastric emptying rate responses to a semi-solid meal following exercise at different intensities. Twelve men completed three trials in a randomised-crossover design, consisting of continuous cycling at 70% V˙O2Peak (HIGH),
[...] Read more.
This study investigated the acute circulating gut hormone, appetite and gastric emptying rate responses to a semi-solid meal following exercise at different intensities. Twelve men completed three trials in a randomised-crossover design, consisting of continuous cycling at 70% V˙O2Peak (HIGH), 40% V˙O2Peak (LOW) or rest (CONTROL). Baseline samples were collected after an overnight fast before undertaking the 60 min exercise or rest period, followed by 30 min rest before consumption of a standardised semi-solid meal (~242 kcal). During the 2 h postprandial period, gastric emptying rate of the meal was examined using the 13C-breath test method, appetite was measured using visual analogue scales, and serum concentrations of acylated ghrelin, pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids were assessed. Subjective appetite response was not different between trials (p > 0.05). Half emptying time of the meal was 89 ± 13, 82 ± 8 and 94 ± 31 min on CONTROL, LOW and HIGH, respectively (p = 0.247). In healthy un-trained adult males, responses to exercise at intensities of 70% and 40% V˙O2Peak did not differ to a non-exercise control for measurements of subsequent gastric emptying, circulating gut hormone response or appetite. These results suggest that exercise intensity has little effect on post-exercise appetite response to a semi-solid meal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Appetite, Metabolism and Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Acute Malnutrition in Children in Cambodia Requires Both Mid Upper Arm Circumference and Weight-For-Height to Offset Gender Bias of Each Indicator
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060786
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Malnutrition remains a serious health problem in Cambodia with over 10% of children less than five years of age suffering from acute malnutrition. In addition to the presence of nutritional edema, two indicators are recommended by the World Health Organization for the diagnosis
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Malnutrition remains a serious health problem in Cambodia with over 10% of children less than five years of age suffering from acute malnutrition. In addition to the presence of nutritional edema, two indicators are recommended by the World Health Organization for the diagnosis of acute malnutrition: weight-for-height Z-scores (WHZ; with acute malnutrition defined as WHZ < −2 Z-score) and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC, with acute malnutrition defined as MUAC < 12.5 cm). Earlier, we showed that WHZ and MUAC identified different subgroups of children with acute malnutrition. To explore factors associated with both indicators of acute malnutrition, we analyzed baseline data from a longitudinal study in three provinces in Cambodia: Phnom Penh (capital, urban environment), Kratie (rural province), and Ratanakiri (hilly, rural province). Data was available for 4381 children below 30 months of age. Malnutrition rates were higher in the two rural provinces than in the capital. Although both MUAC and WHZ showed gender bias, with MUAC identifying more girls, and WHZ identifying more boys with acute malnutrition, the gender effect was strongest for MUAC. The gender bias of MUAC diminished with older age, but remained significant up to 30 months of age. Only using both MUAC and WHZ as indicators resulted in gender neutral identification of acute malnutrition. WHZ alone always identified more children with acute malnutrition than MUAC alone. In Phnom Penh, MUAC alone identified only 11% with acute malnutrition in addition to WHZ. To conclude, both MUAC and WHZ showed gender bias in this cohort of Cambodian children. In Cambodia, implementation of a MUAC-only or a WHZ-only program for the identification of acute malnutrition would be unethical as it will lead to many children remaining undiagnosed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Adequacy of Some Locally Produced Complementary Foods Marketed in Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Senegal
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060785
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
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Abstract
Adequate complementary foods are needed to help reduce the high prevalence of stunting in children in many Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs). We assessed the availability, affordability, and nutrient adequacy of imported and locally produced processed cereal-based blends (PCBBs), marketed as complementary
[...] Read more.
Adequate complementary foods are needed to help reduce the high prevalence of stunting in children in many Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs). We assessed the availability, affordability, and nutrient adequacy of imported and locally produced processed cereal-based blends (PCBBs), marketed as complementary food for young children in Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Senegal. In total, 19 local producers and 275 points of sale in the four countries were surveyed to evaluate the quantities and accessibility of PCBBs. In addition, 32 PCBBs were analysed for their nutritional composition and packaging information. The results showed that only 7 out of 32 PCBBs could be classified as nutritionally satisfactory. Access to the products was insufficient in all surveyed settings. At the points of sale, the PCBB market was dominated by imported products, even though two out of four imported PCBBs were not nutritionally satisfactory. Imported PCBBs were two to three times more expensive than locally produced PCBBs. Labelling of the PCBBs was inadequate in many aspects. Technical support should be offered to local PCBB producers to ensure the adequate formulation and supply of an appropriate vitamin and mineral premix. The development of national specific regulations on PCBB composition and labelling is strongly recommended in these countries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle TRPM6 is Essential for Magnesium Uptake and Epithelial Cell Function in the Colon
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 784; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060784
Received: 28 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
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Abstract
Intestinal magnesium (Mg) uptake is essential for systemic Mg homeostasis. Colon cells express the two highly homologous transient receptor potential melastatin type (TRPM) 6 and 7 Mg2+ channels, but their precise function and the consequences of their mutual interaction are not clear.
[...] Read more.
Intestinal magnesium (Mg) uptake is essential for systemic Mg homeostasis. Colon cells express the two highly homologous transient receptor potential melastatin type (TRPM) 6 and 7 Mg2+ channels, but their precise function and the consequences of their mutual interaction are not clear. To explore the functional role of TRPM6 and TRPM7 in the colon, we used human colon cell lines that innately express both channels and analyzed the functional consequences of genetic knocking-down, by RNA interference, or pharmacological inhibition, by NS8593, of either channel. TRPM7 silencing caused an increase in Mg2+ influx, and correspondingly enhanced cell proliferation and migration, while downregulation of TRPM6 did not affect significantly either Mg2+ influx or cell proliferation. Exposure to the specific TRPM6/7 inhibitor NS8593 reduced Mg2+ influx, and consequently cell proliferation and migration, but Mg supplementation rescued the inhibition. We propose a model whereby in colon cells the functional Mg2+ channel at the plasma membrane may consist of both TRPM7 homomers and TRPM6/7 heteromers. A different expression ratio between the two proteins may result in different functional properties. Altogether, our findings confirm that TRPM6 cannot be replaced by TRPM7, and that TRPM6/7 complexes and TRPM6/7-mediated Mg2+ influx are indispensable in human epithelial colon cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium Intake and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory and Radical Scavenging Properties of Chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia Raf.) Essential Oils
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 783; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060783
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
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Abstract
Chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia Raf.) is a widely diffused plant native from China and its fruits have a wide-spread use in confectionary and drinks. Remarkably, only little has been reported thus far on its bioactive properties, in contrast to those of the taxonomically
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Chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia Raf.) is a widely diffused plant native from China and its fruits have a wide-spread use in confectionary and drinks. Remarkably, only little has been reported thus far on its bioactive properties, in contrast to those of the taxonomically related bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso). The present study aimed to investigate potential in vitro anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging properties of chinotto essential oils (CEOs) and to establish to what extent their composition and bioactivities are dependent on maturation. Essential oil from half ripe chinotto (CEO2) reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of inflammatory genes, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264,7 macrophages. Limonene, linalool, linalyl acetate, and γ-terpinene were found to be the main components in CEO2. Moreover, CEO2 showed high radical scavenging activity measured as Trolox equivalents (TE) against both 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS). These findings show that chinotto essential oil represents a valuable part of this fruit and warrants further in vivo studies to validate its anti-inflammatory potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?)
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