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Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 931; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070931

Aqueous Extract of Pepino (Solanum muriactum Ait) Leaves Ameliorate Lipid Accumulation and Oxidative Stress in Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

1
Department of Nutrition, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec. 1, Jianguo N. Road, Taichung City 40201, Taiwan
2
Department of Medical Laboratory and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec. 1, Jianguo N. Road, Taichung City 40201, Taiwan
3
Department of Clinical Laboratory, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, No. 110, Sec. 1, Jianguo N. Road, Taichung City 40201, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemicals in Health and Disease)
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Abstract

Chronic alcohol intake leads to alcoholic fatty liver. The pathogenesis of alcoholic fatty liver is related to abnormal lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, endotoxins, and cytokines. Solanum muricatum Ait. (Pepino) is a plant food commonly cultivated in the Penghu island, Taiwan. Previous studies indicated that the aqueous extract of pepino was able to attenuate diabetic progression via its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the mechanisms of the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of pepino leaf in preventing alcoholic fatty liver remain unknown. In this study, Lieber–DeCarli ethanol-containing liquid diet was used to induce alcoholic hepatic injury in C57BL/6 mice. The hepatoprotective effects and the related mechanisms of aqueous extract of pepino leaf (AEPL) were examined. Our results showed that 2% AEPL treatments protected the liver from ethanol-induced injury through reducing serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) (all p < 0.05). AEPL had the effects in improving the ethanol-induced lipid accumulation in mice under histological examination. Molecular data indicated that the anti-lipid accumulation effect of AEPL might be mediated via inducing hepatic levels of phospho-adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (p-AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α, and reducing the expressions of hepatic lipogenic enzymes, including sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) (all p < 0.05). AEPL also decreased hepatic levels of thiobarbituric acid relative substances (TBARS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-6, as well as the expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) (all p < 0.05). Moreover, AEPL significantly elevated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione (GSH) content compared to the ethanol-fed group (all p < 0.05). Our present study suggests that AEPL could protect the liver against ethanol-induced oxidative injury and lipid accumulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: aqueous extract of pepino leaf; alcoholic fatty liver disease; anti-inflammation; oxidative stress; functional foods aqueous extract of pepino leaf; alcoholic fatty liver disease; anti-inflammation; oxidative stress; functional foods
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Hsu, J.-Y.; Lin, H.-H.; Hsu, C.-C.; Chen, B.-C.; Chen, J.-H. Aqueous Extract of Pepino (Solanum muriactum Ait) Leaves Ameliorate Lipid Accumulation and Oxidative Stress in Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Nutrients 2018, 10, 931.

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