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Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 941; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070941

Suboptimal Iodine Status and Low Iodine Knowledge in Young Norwegian Women

1
Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, OsloMet—Oslo Metropolitan University, 0310 Oslo, Norway
2
Division of Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 0403 Oslo , Norway
3
Institute of Marine Research (IMR), P.O. Box 1870 Nordnes, 5817 Bergen, Norway
4
Faculty of Education, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, 5063 Bergen, Norway, Eli.Kristin.Aadland@hvl.no
5
Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas 1433, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
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Abstract

Previous studies have documented mild to moderate iodine deficiency in pregnant and lactating women in Norway. This study focused on non-pregnant young women because their future children may be susceptible to the adverse effects of iodine deficiency. We assessed urinary iodine concentration (UIC), iodine intake from food and supplements, and iodine knowledge in 403 non-pregnant women, mainly students, aged 18–30 years. Iodine concentration was measured in spot urine samples analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and iodine intake was calculated from a self-reported food frequency questionnaire. Knowledge about iodine was collected through the self-administered, paper-based questionnaire. Median (p25–p75) UIC was 75 (42–130) µg/L and 31% had UIC < 50 µg/L. Habitual iodine intake was 100 (69–136) µg/day. In multiple regression models, supplemental iodine, use of thyroid medication, and iodine intake from food were positively associated with UIC, while vegetarian practice was negatively associated, explaining 16% of the variance. Approximately 40% of the young women had low iodine knowledge score and no differences were found between women in different study programs. Young women in Norway are mild to moderately iodine-deficient, and public health strategies are needed to improve and secure adequate iodine status. View Full-Text
Keywords: iodine status; young women; pre-pregnancy; iodine deficiency; iodine intake; urinary iodine concentration; knowledge on iodine; Norway iodine status; young women; pre-pregnancy; iodine deficiency; iodine intake; urinary iodine concentration; knowledge on iodine; Norway
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Henjum, S.; Brantsæter, A.L.; Kurniasari, A.; Dahl, L.; Aadland, E.K.; Gjengedal, E.L.F.; Birkeland, S.; Aakre, I. Suboptimal Iodine Status and Low Iodine Knowledge in Young Norwegian Women. Nutrients 2018, 10, 941.

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