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Sustainability, Volume 6, Issue 2 (February 2014), Pages 474-1106

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Open AccessArticle Identification of Dried Native Chili Markets in the International Tourism Sector in Peru: An Open-Ended Contingent Valuation Study
Sustainability 2014, 6(2), 1093-1106; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6021093
Received: 1 December 2013 / Revised: 13 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (181 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many native chili varieties are becoming extinct due to the lack of economic incentives for farmers to their continued cultivation in Peru. A potential high value pro-poor market for selling native chilies is the international tourism segment. The objectives of this research were
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Many native chili varieties are becoming extinct due to the lack of economic incentives for farmers to their continued cultivation in Peru. A potential high value pro-poor market for selling native chilies is the international tourism segment. The objectives of this research were to assess the acceptability of the potential introduction of dried native chilies in the international tourism segment by identifying the motivations for buying dried chilies as souvenirs, and then by evaluating the factors influencing the price premiums’ magnitudes related to different label information conditions, such as information about the farmer community, traditional cooking recipes, organic certification, and Fairtrade certification. A face-to-face survey was conducted with 200 international tourists at the airport in Cuzco, Peru. The data were analyzed using a probit and tobit models with sample selection. The results suggest that dried native chilies would have a relatively good acceptance among international tourists. About 62% of the respondents indicated they would buy dried native chilies, and of them, 62%–74% would pay an average price premium ranging from S/1.16–1.58 for different label information conditions. Nevertheless specific marketing campaigns should be designed for different types of international tourists in order to maximize the economic benefits for small-holder farmers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reframing Sustainable Tourism)
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Open AccessArticle The Built Environment and Walking Activity of the Elderly: An Empirical Analysis in the Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China
Sustainability 2014, 6(2), 1076-1092; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6021076
Received: 24 January 2014 / Revised: 16 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (933 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Policies and interventions involving the built environment have become a promising opportunity for the promotion of walking as a sustainable transportation mode. Among voluminous literature, few studies were found that examined the association between the built environment and walking among the elderly in
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Policies and interventions involving the built environment have become a promising opportunity for the promotion of walking as a sustainable transportation mode. Among voluminous literature, few studies were found that examined the association between the built environment and walking among the elderly in China. This study investigated the relationship between the built environment and the walking activity of the elderly based on data collected in Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China. The results suggest that abundant sidewalks, dense bus stops, easily accessible commercial establishments, and ample green land space are potentially effective to enhance walking among the elderly, albeit to varied degrees. The compact urban form, which is considered as walkability in the western context, may not necessarily play a positive role in Zhongshan’s context. The findings provide insights into the policy-making to promote sustainable transportation modes and the design of interventions on health promotion of the elderly in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
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Open AccessArticle Agronomic Management under Organic Farming May Affect the Bioactive Compounds of Lentil (Lens culinaris L.) and Grass Pea (Lathyrus communis L.)?
Sustainability 2014, 6(2), 1059-1075; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6021059
Received: 6 December 2013 / Revised: 13 February 2014 / Accepted: 19 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (739 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A two year field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of three row and eight row seeding on the total phenolic compound (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), hydrolyzed (HTC) and condensed tannin (CTC), antioxidant activity (ABTS assay), protein content and soluble
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A two year field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of three row and eight row seeding on the total phenolic compound (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), hydrolyzed (HTC) and condensed tannin (CTC), antioxidant activity (ABTS assay), protein content and soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) in the extracts of lentil (Lens culinaris L.) and grass pea (Lathyrus communis L.) cultivated under organic farming. The aim of this study was to determine whether row spacing used for seeding in organic farming systems for lentil and grass pea is a suitable method to increase the accumulation of antioxidant compounds in these crops. Grass pea showed the highest mean SDF and protein while lentil varieties showed the greatest and significant content of all of the antioxidant compounds. In lentil, there were increases in TPC (52%), HTC (73%), TFC (85%) and CTC (41%), passing from three rows to eight rows, while in grass pea, the increases were lower, and only significant for TFC and CTC (37%, 13% respectively). In both lentils and grass pea, the highest correlation coefficient was between TPC and HTC, which indicates that the HTC includes the predominant phenolic compounds in lentil as well as in grass pea (r = 0.98, 0.71 p < 0.001, respectively). Regardless of legume species, TPC, HTC, TFC and CTC showed significant (p < 0.001) and linear correlations with the ABTS assay. These data confirm the key role of row spacing for the improvement of the antioxidant properties of lentil in organic farming; moreover, they hint at the major responsiveness and adaptation of lentil to environmental stimulus with respect to grass pea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Farming and a Systems Approach to Sustainable Agroecosystems)
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Total Risk on Non-Target Organisms in Fungicide Application for Agricultural Sustainability
Sustainability 2014, 6(2), 1046-1058; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6021046
Received: 16 November 2013 / Revised: 5 February 2014 / Accepted: 9 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (619 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In Turkey, in 2010, the amount of pesticide (active ingredient; a.i.) used in agriculture was about 23,000 metric tons, of which approximately 32% was fungicides. In 2012, 14 a.i. were used for fungus control in wheat cultivation areas in Adana province, Turkey. These
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In Turkey, in 2010, the amount of pesticide (active ingredient; a.i.) used in agriculture was about 23,000 metric tons, of which approximately 32% was fungicides. In 2012, 14 a.i. were used for fungus control in wheat cultivation areas in Adana province, Turkey. These a.i. were: azoxystrobin, carbendazim, difenoconazole, epoxiconazole, fluquinconazole, prochloraz, propiconazole, prothioconazole, pyraclostrobin, spiroxamine, tebuconazole, thiophanate-methyl, triadimenol, and trifloxystrobin. In this study, the potential risk of a.i. on non-target organisms in fungicide application of wheat cultivation was assessed by The Pesticide Occupational and Environmental Risk (POCER) indicators. In this study, the highest human health risk was for fluquinconazole (Exceedence Factor (EF) 1.798 for human health), whereas the fungicide with the highest environmental risk was propiconazole (EF 2.000 for the environment). For non-target organisms, the highest potential risk was determined for propiconazole when applied at 0.1250 kg a.i. ha-1 (EF 2.897). The lowest total risk was for azoxystrobin when applied at 0.0650 kg a.i. ha-1 (EF 0.625). Full article
Open AccessCommunication Understanding the Causality between Carbon Dioxide Emission, Fossil Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in Developed Countries: An Empirical Study
Sustainability 2014, 6(2), 1037-1045; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6021037
Received: 30 January 2014 / Revised: 12 February 2014 / Accepted: 13 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (692 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Issues on climate change have been recognized as serious challenges for regional sustainable development both at a global and local level. Given the background that most of the artificial carbon emissions are resulted from the energy consumption sector and the energy is also
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Issues on climate change have been recognized as serious challenges for regional sustainable development both at a global and local level. Given the background that most of the artificial carbon emissions are resulted from the energy consumption sector and the energy is also the key element resource for economic development, this paper investigated the relationship between CO2 emission, fossil energy consumption, and economic growth in the period 1970–2008 of nine European countries, based on the approach of Granger Causality Test, followed by the risk analysis on impacts of CO2 reduction to local economic growth classified by the indicator of causality degree. The results show that there are various feedback causal relationships between carbon emission, energy consumption and economic growth, with both unidirectional and dual-directional Granger causality. The impact of reducing CO2 emission to economic growth varies between countries as well. Full article
Open AccessArticle Following Gandhi: Social Entrepreneurship as A Non-Violent Way of Communicating Sustainability Challenges
Sustainability 2014, 6(2), 1018-1036; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6021018
Received: 18 November 2013 / Revised: 13 February 2014 / Accepted: 14 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (601 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the context of the Rio Earth Summit numerous international regimes, national policies and organizational guidelines have appeared that help translate the normative demands of sustainable development into political reality. The implementation of these instruments, however, often runs into difficulties or fails entirely.
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In the context of the Rio Earth Summit numerous international regimes, national policies and organizational guidelines have appeared that help translate the normative demands of sustainable development into political reality. The implementation of these instruments, however, often runs into difficulties or fails entirely. An example is the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), a progressive approach for the conservation of freshwater that is very unlikely to be implemented by 2015, the target year. We examine in this paper how a recent variation of Gandhian non-violent communication within social entrepreneurship suggests one way to deal with this challenge. Non-violent communication, rooted in Gandhian social action, has long been part of environmental politics. It has undergone a new variation as a mode of communication in the hands of social entrepreneurship initiatives that address urgent social and environmental issues with new, practical ideas. In the conceptual part of this paper, we outline our approach to sustainability, non-violent communication and social entrepreneurship. In a further part, we present data from a trans-disciplinary experiment to illustrate and critically discuss social entrepreneurship as a mode of sustainability communication. The experiment looked at, which is based on French social entrepreneur Roberto Epple’s idea of a Big Jump, is a collaborative campaign that invites young people to take action for water conservation in the context of the WFD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Communication for and about Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Conservation and Use of Genetic Resources of Underutilized Crops in the Americas—A Continental Analysis
Sustainability 2014, 6(2), 980-1017; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6020980
Received: 2 December 2013 / Revised: 7 February 2014 / Accepted: 7 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1258 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Latin America is home to dramatically diverse agroecological regions which harbor a high concentration of underutilized plant species, whose genetic resources hold the potential to address challenges such as sustainable agricultural development, food security and sovereignty, and climate change. This paper examines the
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Latin America is home to dramatically diverse agroecological regions which harbor a high concentration of underutilized plant species, whose genetic resources hold the potential to address challenges such as sustainable agricultural development, food security and sovereignty, and climate change. This paper examines the status of an expert-informed list of underutilized crops in Latin America and analyses how the most common features of underuse apply to these. The analysis pays special attention to if and how existing international policy and legal frameworks on biodiversity and plant genetic resources effectively support or not the conservation and sustainable use of underutilized crops. Results show that not all minor crops are affected by the same degree of neglect, and that the aspects under which any crop is underutilized vary greatly, calling for specific analyses and interventions. We also show that current international policy and legal instruments have so far provided limited stimulus and funding for the conservation and sustainable use of the genetic resources of these crops. Finally, the paper proposes an analytical framework for identifying and evaluating a crop’s underutilization, in order to define the most appropriate type and levels of intervention (international, national, local) for improving its status. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Oil Consumption, CO2 Emission, and Economic Growth: Evidence from the Philippines
Sustainability 2014, 6(2), 967-979; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6020967
Received: 26 November 2013 / Revised: 20 January 2014 / Accepted: 14 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (622 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper attempts to investigate the short- and long-run causality issues among oil consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in the Philippines by using time series techniques and annual data for the period 1965–2012. Tests for unit root, co-integration, and Granger-causality tests
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This paper attempts to investigate the short- and long-run causality issues among oil consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in the Philippines by using time series techniques and annual data for the period 1965–2012. Tests for unit root, co-integration, and Granger-causality tests based on an error-correction model are presented. Three important findings emerge from the investigation. First, there is bi-directional causality between oil consumption and economic growth, which suggests that the Philippines should endeavor to overcome the constraints on oil consumption to achieve economic growth. Second, bi-directional causality between oil consumption and CO2 emissions is found, which implies that the Philippines needs to improve efficiency in oil consumption in order not to increase CO2 emissions. Third, uni-directional causality running from CO2 emissions to economic growth is detected, which means that growth can continue without increasing CO2 emissions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Emergy-Based City’s Sustainability and Decoupling Assessment: Indicators, Features and Findings
Sustainability 2014, 6(2), 952-966; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6020952
Received: 2 January 2014 / Revised: 11 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (898 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Decoupling human well-being and local economic growth from resources consumption and environmental degradation has been recognized as a common vision to meet global sustainability. This paper taking Shenyang city as studied case aims to measure the decoupling process by proposing a set of
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Decoupling human well-being and local economic growth from resources consumption and environmental degradation has been recognized as a common vision to meet global sustainability. This paper taking Shenyang city as studied case aims to measure the decoupling process by proposing a set of new emergy-based and efficiency-oriented indicators. Decoupling process was verified in period of 1995–2010, and five new indicators including economic efficiency, the environmental pressure, the emergy-based five-year yield efficiency, the investment cost for decoupling, and the job-opportunities cost for decoupling were developed and applied. The results indicate that decoupling in Shenyang shows an erratic appearance, the trajectory of economic growth, and environmental pressure show absolute decoupling, while that of economic growth and resources utilization shows frequentative bending; emergy-based economic efficiency has been improved and the environmental pressure decreased along with the economic growth but the relative job cost per unit remains almost at the same level. However, this isolated and methodology-oriented case study provided the open-mind understandings to policy-making, thus, a wider scale comparison between different cities should be carried out for more knowledge mining. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment in Sustainable Development)
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Open AccessArticle Integrating Stakeholder Preferences and GIS-Based Multicriteria Analysis to Identify Forest Landscape Restoration Priorities
Sustainability 2014, 6(2), 935-951; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6020935
Received: 5 April 2013 / Revised: 25 January 2014 / Accepted: 11 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1736 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A pressing question that arises during the planning of an ecological restoration process is: where to restore first? Answering this question is a complex task; it requires a multidimensional approach to consider economic constrains and the preferences of stakeholders. Being the problem of
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A pressing question that arises during the planning of an ecological restoration process is: where to restore first? Answering this question is a complex task; it requires a multidimensional approach to consider economic constrains and the preferences of stakeholders. Being the problem of spatial nature, it may be explored effectively through Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) performed in a Geographical Information System (GIS) environment. The proposed approach is based on the definition and weighting of multiple criteria for evaluating land suitability. An MCDA-based methodology was used to identify priority areas for Forest Landscape Restoration in the Upper Mixtec region, Oaxaca (Mexico), one of the most degraded areas of Latin America. Socioeconomic and environmental criteria were selected and evaluated. The opinions of four different stakeholder groups were considered: general public, academic, Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and governmental officers. The preferences of these groups were spatially modeled to identify their priorities. The final result was a map that identifies the most preferable sites for restoration, where resources and efforts should be concentrated. MCDA proved to be a very useful tool in collective planning, when alternative sites have to be identified and prioritized to guide the restoration work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Terrestrial Ecosystem Restoration)
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Open AccessArticle Tales of the Suburbs?—The Social Sustainability Agenda in Sweden through Literary Accounts
Sustainability 2014, 6(2), 913-934; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6020913
Received: 1 July 2013 / Revised: 23 December 2013 / Accepted: 11 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (754 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sustainable development has become increasingly influential. In light of environmental concerns, the social dimension of sustainability is now encompassing a growing number of concerns. Together with more traditional hard concepts, including basic needs, equity, and employment, soft themes, such as greater wellbeing, are
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Sustainable development has become increasingly influential. In light of environmental concerns, the social dimension of sustainability is now encompassing a growing number of concerns. Together with more traditional hard concepts, including basic needs, equity, and employment, soft themes, such as greater wellbeing, are becoming significant. The present paper compares qualitatively these theoretical themes with the concrete, lived experiences of inhabitants within deprived suburbs. To do so, a framework for understanding social sustainability is proposed, and then applied to analyze three literary accounts of residents within Swedish suburbs. The three accounts are analyzed through the lens of critical discourse analysis. The results indicate that employment and functional infrastructures did not prevent the stigmatization of these residential areas. Important social and cultural segregations are occurring, supported by the physical organization of urban space. Using biographical accounts incorporates subjective and emotional perspectives usually left aside in the context of urban development. These allow a better understanding of the complex realities of these suburbs and could therefore help urban developers to better grasp the complex and predominantly culturally oriented set of challenges confronting the establishment of socially sustainable communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Sustainability: Theory, Practice, Problems and Prospects)
Open AccessArticle Institutionalizing Strong Sustainability: A Rawlsian Perspective
Sustainability 2014, 6(2), 894-912; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6020894
Received: 17 October 2013 / Revised: 12 February 2014 / Accepted: 13 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (481 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The article aims to provide some ethical orientation on how sustainability might be actualized by institutions. Since institutionalization is about rules and organization, it presupposes ideas and concepts by which institutions can be substantiated. After outlining terminology, the article deals with underlying ethical
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The article aims to provide some ethical orientation on how sustainability might be actualized by institutions. Since institutionalization is about rules and organization, it presupposes ideas and concepts by which institutions can be substantiated. After outlining terminology, the article deals with underlying ethical and conceptual problems which are highly relevant for any suggestions concerning institutionalization. These problems are: (a) the ethical scope of the sustainability perspective (natural capital, poverty, sentient animals), (b) the theory of justice on which ideas about sustainability are built (capability approach, Rawlsianism), and (c) the favored concept of sustainability (weak, intermediate, and strong sustainability). These problems are analyzed in turn. As a result, a Rawlsian concept of rule-based strong sustainability is proposed. The specific problems of institutionalization are addressed by applying Rawls’s concept of branches. The article concludes with arguments in favor of three transnational duties which hold for states that have adopted Rawlsian strong sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Institutional Change)
Open AccessArticle Corporate Social Responsibility and Competitiveness within SMEs of the Fashion Industry: Evidence from Italy and France
Sustainability 2014, 6(2), 872-893; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6020872
Received: 30 December 2013 / Revised: 29 January 2014 / Accepted: 11 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (659 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Our paper analyses the link between the adoption of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and competitiveness performance among small and medium enterprises operating in the fashion industry. The study refers to a sample of 213 SMEs (Small and Medium sized Enterprises) located in Italy
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Our paper analyses the link between the adoption of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and competitiveness performance among small and medium enterprises operating in the fashion industry. The study refers to a sample of 213 SMEs (Small and Medium sized Enterprises) located in Italy and France and is based on a correlation analysis between competitiveness variables and the CSR practice adopted. The results show a significant correlation with regard to the innovation process, both from the technical and the organizational point of view, and the intangible performances. On the other hand, another competitiveness macro-category, which is the market performance (measured as demand trend, turnover and business attraction), presents deceptive results, although a positive correlation with the adoption of market-oriented CSR practice emerges. The study is explorative and represents a relevant basis to future studies concerning the nature of the emerged co-relations. Full article
Open AccessArticle Perspectives and Attitudes of Forest Products Industry Companies on the Chain of Custody Certification: A Case Study From Turkey
Sustainability 2014, 6(2), 857-871; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6020857
Received: 27 December 2013 / Revised: 10 February 2014 / Accepted: 11 February 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (728 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The perspectives and attitudes of the companies of the forest products industry operating in the fields of solid wood products, pulp, paper and paperboard products, engineered wood products and furniture manufacturing in Turkey on the chain of custody certification system and certified forest
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The perspectives and attitudes of the companies of the forest products industry operating in the fields of solid wood products, pulp, paper and paperboard products, engineered wood products and furniture manufacturing in Turkey on the chain of custody certification system and certified forest products were investigated. Within this scope, face-to-face interviews were conducted with the managers or owners of 177 companies. The data were obtained by using the questionnaire technique. The research methods included descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance and the Duncan test. As a result, it was detected that there are differences in the perspectives and attitudes towards the chain of custody certification system of the companies operating in the four main branches of the forest products industry in Turkey. It was revealed by this survey that chain of custody (CoC) certification was known mostly by the companies operating in pulp, paper and paperboard companies. The certification most demanded is the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) CoC certification, with a share of 15%; and Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC) CoC is demanded by 2% of companies. Full article
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Open AccessReview Sustainable Treatment of Aquaculture Effluents—What Can We Learn from the Past for the Future?
Sustainability 2014, 6(2), 836-856; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6020836
Received: 23 December 2013 / Revised: 24 January 2014 / Accepted: 8 February 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
Cited by 35 | PDF Full-text (1210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many aquaculture systems generate high amounts of wastewater containing compounds such as suspended solids, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. Today, aquaculture is imperative because fish demand is increasing. However, the load of waste is directly proportional to the fish production. Therefore, it is
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Many aquaculture systems generate high amounts of wastewater containing compounds such as suspended solids, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. Today, aquaculture is imperative because fish demand is increasing. However, the load of waste is directly proportional to the fish production. Therefore, it is necessary to develop more intensive fish culture with efficient systems for wastewater treatment. A number of physical, chemical and biological methods used in conventional wastewater treatment have been applied in aquaculture systems. Constructed wetlands technology is becoming more and more important in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) because wetlands have proven to be well-established and a cost-effective method for treating wastewater. This review gives an overview about possibilities to avoid the pollution of water resources; it focuses initially on the use of systems combining aquaculture and plants with a historical review of aquaculture and the treatment of its effluents. It discusses the present state, taking into account the load of pollutants in wastewater such as nitrates and phosphates, and finishes with recommendations to prevent or at least reduce the pollution of water resources in the future. Full article
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