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Sustainability 2014, 6(2), 967-979; doi:10.3390/su6020967
Article

Oil Consumption, CO2 Emission, and Economic Growth: Evidence from the Philippines

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Received: 26 November 2013; in revised form: 20 January 2014 / Accepted: 14 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
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Abstract: This paper attempts to investigate the short- and long-run causality issues among oil consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in the Philippines by using time series techniques and annual data for the period 1965–2012. Tests for unit root, co-integration, and Granger-causality tests based on an error-correction model are presented. Three important findings emerge from the investigation. First, there is bi-directional causality between oil consumption and economic growth, which suggests that the Philippines should endeavor to overcome the constraints on oil consumption to achieve economic growth. Second, bi-directional causality between oil consumption and CO2 emissions is found, which implies that the Philippines needs to improve efficiency in oil consumption in order not to increase CO2 emissions. Third, uni-directional causality running from CO2 emissions to economic growth is detected, which means that growth can continue without increasing CO2 emissions.
Keywords: oil consumption; CO2 emissions; economic growth; Granger-causality; Philippines oil consumption; CO2 emissions; economic growth; Granger-causality; Philippines
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lim, K.-M.; Lim, S.-Y.; Yoo, S.-H. Oil Consumption, CO2 Emission, and Economic Growth: Evidence from the Philippines. Sustainability 2014, 6, 967-979.

AMA Style

Lim K-M, Lim S-Y, Yoo S-H. Oil Consumption, CO2 Emission, and Economic Growth: Evidence from the Philippines. Sustainability. 2014; 6(2):967-979.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lim, Kyoung-Min; Lim, Seul-Ye; Yoo, Seung-Hoon. 2014. "Oil Consumption, CO2 Emission, and Economic Growth: Evidence from the Philippines." Sustainability 6, no. 2: 967-979.


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