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Sustainability, Volume 10, Issue 2 (February 2018)

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Open AccessArticle International Alliance of Green Hotels to Reach Sustainable Competitive Advantages
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020573
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 15 February 2018 / Accepted: 18 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
Under increasing environmental pressure, hotel firms need to improve their ability to access international alliances while maintaining good performance for sustainable development. This paper uses survey data from 784 hotels running at different levels of service in China to test the hypothesis in
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Under increasing environmental pressure, hotel firms need to improve their ability to access international alliances while maintaining good performance for sustainable development. This paper uses survey data from 784 hotels running at different levels of service in China to test the hypothesis in an integrated analytical model, and the findings show that the impact of international alliances varies with different levels of green hotels. Despite operating in the same sector, hotels running at different levels of service vary their respective tactics to gain sustainable competitive advantage and achieve significantly different results. This study intends to inform hotel managers in obtaining specific performance goals by developing absorptive capacity, and by choosing the most suitable alliance for their level of operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle An Empirical Study on the Manufacturing Firm’s Strategic Choice for Sustainability in SMEs
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020572
Received: 29 January 2018 / Revised: 17 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
To survive in the current competitive, unpredictable business environment, it is significant for firms to search and enforce capabilities that lead them to adapt and cope with dynamic changes of environment for their sustainability. We try to connect operation issues with sustainability in
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To survive in the current competitive, unpredictable business environment, it is significant for firms to search and enforce capabilities that lead them to adapt and cope with dynamic changes of environment for their sustainability. We try to connect operation issues with sustainability in this paper. From the perspective of the dynamic capabilities of the firm, this study suggests a conceptual model that presents relationships among supply chain visibility, modular design, supply chain flexibility, and agility. We do not focus on the module buyer but on the small and middle-sized enterprises (SMEs). An empirical study is performed to verify the relationships proposed, using datasets collected from 232 manufacturing SMEs as module suppliers in South Korea. We used SPSS to analyze data and structural equation modeling to verify the hypotheses of the research model. The important contributions of this study are as follows. Firstly, we suggest relationships among supply chain visibilities and a modular design for supply chain flexibility and agility in sustainable performance. Secondly, we show that supply chain visibility directly leads firms to implement modular design in sustainable development. Thirdly, we verify the importance of supply chain visibility, not for module buyers, but for module suppliers by switching views in terms of SMEs’ sustainability. Lastly, this study shows that the suppliers’ modular design affects supply chain flexibility and agility, which is consistent with the findings presented in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in SMEs)
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Coordination Strategy of Regional Vertical Emission Abatement Collaboration in a Low-Carbon Environment
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020571
Received: 21 December 2017 / Revised: 7 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
This study introduces a time factor into a low-carbon context, and supposes the contamination control state of local government and the ability of polluting enterprise to abate emissions as linear increasing functions in a regional low-carbon emission abatement cooperation chain. The local government
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This study introduces a time factor into a low-carbon context, and supposes the contamination control state of local government and the ability of polluting enterprise to abate emissions as linear increasing functions in a regional low-carbon emission abatement cooperation chain. The local government effectuates and upholds the low-carbon development within the jurisdiction that is primarily seeking to transform regional economic development modes, while the polluting enterprise abates the amounts of emitted carbon in the entire period of product through simplifying production, facilitating decontamination, and adopting production technology, thus leading to less contamination. On that basis, we infer that the coordinated joint carbon reduction model and two decentralization contracts expound the dynamic coordination strategy for a regional cooperation chain in terms of vertical carbon abatement. Furthermore, feedback equilibrium strategies that are concerned with several diverse conditions are compared and analyzed. The main results show that a collaborative centralized contract is able to promote the regional low-carbon cooperation chain in order to achieve a win–win situation in both economic and environmental performance. Additionally, the optimal profits of the entire regional low-carbon cooperation channel under an integration scenario evidently outstrip that of two non-collaborative decentralization schemes. Eventually, the validity of the conclusions is verified with a case description and numerical simulation, and the sensitivity of the relevant parameters is analyzed in order to lay a theoretical foundation and thus facilitate the sustainable development of a regional low-carbon environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Why the Wind Curtailment of Northwest China Remains High
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020570
Received: 5 January 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
The total grid-connected installed capacity of wind power in northwest China has grown from 16,260 MW in 2013 to 43,290 MW in 2016; an increase of 88.7% each year. However, this region has suffered from increasingly serious wind curtailment since 2014, and the
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The total grid-connected installed capacity of wind power in northwest China has grown from 16,260 MW in 2013 to 43,290 MW in 2016; an increase of 88.7% each year. However, this region has suffered from increasingly serious wind curtailment since 2014, and the wind curtailment amount accounts for nearly a half of China’s total. The wind curtailment rate of Gansu Province, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in this area has increased and remains high. This paper constructs an analytical model to explore the reasons of the high wind curtailment of these three provinces from the four aspects of the wind power supply capacity, demand, grid transmission capacity, power system flexibility and market mechanism and laws. The results show that the relationship between the wind energy distribution and supply and the local load is incompatible, which is the source causing the high wind curtailment in northwest China. On the one hand, the game between the local government and developers has driven the development of wind power bases. On the other hand, the electricity sector is growing slowly and oversupply of electricity is seen in many areas of China. The wind power grid of northwest China not only faces limit of grid transmission capacity, but also constraint of insufficient flexibility of the electricity system. Presently, China has not set up a market mechanism and subsidy mechanism for the peak load adjustment, thus the thermal power companies lack motivation to voluntarily adjust the peak load. Moreover, the regional segregation and market barriers are also obstacles for the wind power outward transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power System and Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle The Difficulty of Climate Change Adaptation in Manufacturing Firms: Developing an Action-Theoretical Perspective on the Causality of Adaptive Inaction
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020569
Received: 5 January 2018 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
Climate change induces various risks for supply chains of manufacturing firms. However, surveys have suggested that only a minority of firms conducts strategic adaptations, which we define as anticipatory and target-oriented action with the purpose of increasing resilience to climate change. While several
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Climate change induces various risks for supply chains of manufacturing firms. However, surveys have suggested that only a minority of firms conducts strategic adaptations, which we define as anticipatory and target-oriented action with the purpose of increasing resilience to climate change. While several barrier-centered studies have investigated the causality of non-adaptation in industry, the examined barriers are often not problem-specific. Furthermore, it has been shown that even in cases when managers perceive no barriers to adaptation at all, strategic adaptations may still not be conducted. On this background, the present analysis focuses on the logic of adaptive inaction, which we conceive, in particular, as inaction with regard to strategic adaptations. Adopting an action-theoretical perspective, the study examines (a) which aspects may shape the rationality of adaptive inaction among managers, (b) which more condensed challenges of conducting strategic adaptations emerge for managers, and (c) how the theoretical propositions can be tested. For this purpose, the study employs an exploratory approach. Thus, hypotheses on such aspects are explored, which may shape the rationality of adaptive inaction among managers. Subsequently, predictions are inferred from the theoretical propositions, which allow testing their empirical relevance. Methodologically, the hypotheses are explored by reexamining existing explanatory approaches from literature based on a set of pretheoretical assumptions, which include notions of bounded rationality. As a result, the study proposes 13 aspects which may constrain managers in conducting adaptations in such a way, which serves the economic utility of the firm. By condensing these aspects, 4 major challenges for managers are suggested: the challenges of (a) conducting long-term adaptations, of (b) conducting adaptations at an early point in time, of (c) conducting adaptations despite uncertain effects of the measures, and of (d) conducting adaptations despite cross-tier dependencies in supply chains. Finally, the study shows how the propositions can be tested and outlines a research agenda based on the developed theoretical suggestions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Circular Economy, Ethical Funds, and Engineering Projects)
Open AccessArticle Three-Stage Data Envelopment Analysis of Agricultural Water Use Efficiency: A Case Study of the Heihe River Basin
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020568
Received: 3 December 2017 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 19 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
Aiming to inspect the water use-related situation in the Heihe River Basin, we used a three-stage data envelopment analysis to examine agricultural water use efficiency (WUE) and related issues in the Heihe River Basin from 2004 to 2012. This method calculates technical efficiency
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Aiming to inspect the water use-related situation in the Heihe River Basin, we used a three-stage data envelopment analysis to examine agricultural water use efficiency (WUE) and related issues in the Heihe River Basin from 2004 to 2012. This method calculates technical efficiency (TE), pure technical efficiency (PTE), and scale efficiency (SE). Results show that water use-related efficiency varies according to scale. TE and SE decreased in the study area, while PTE increased. This means that the effects of pure technology on improving overall technology are very limited, and scale adjustment is vitally important to the agricultural production area in the Heihe River Basin. The results provide recommendations for decision-makers to plan the efficient use of water resources in arid and semiarid areas; in addition, this method will contribute to calculations of water use-related efficiency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sustainability, Transformational Leadership, and Social Entrepreneurship
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020567
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 17 February 2018 / Accepted: 19 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
This article examines the extent to which culturally endorsed transformational leadership theories (CLTs) and the sustainability of society, both considered societal level institutional indicators, impact the emergence of social entrepreneurship. Using 107,738 individual-level responses from 27 countries for the year 2009 obtained from
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This article examines the extent to which culturally endorsed transformational leadership theories (CLTs) and the sustainability of society, both considered societal level institutional indicators, impact the emergence of social entrepreneurship. Using 107,738 individual-level responses from 27 countries for the year 2009 obtained from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) survey, and supplementing with country-level data obtained from Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) and Sustainability Society Foundation (SSF), our findings from multilevel analysis show that transformational CLTs and sustainability conditions of society positively influence the likelihood of individuals becoming social entrepreneurs. Further, the effectiveness of transformational CLTs matters more for social entrepreneurship when the sustainability of society is low, which suggests the interaction between cultural leadership styles and societal sustainability. This article contributes to comparative entrepreneurship research by introducing strong cultural antecedents of social entrepreneurship in transformational CLTs and societal sustainability. We discuss various implications and limitations of our study, and we suggest directions for future research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Europe 2020 Implementation as Driver of Economic Performance and Competitiveness. Panel Analysis of CEE Countries
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020566
Received: 16 January 2018 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
The Europe 2020 strategy is the EU strategy for sustainable and inclusive growth, for fighting the structural weaknesses of the European economies, and for improving their competitiveness. In this paper, we determined the most important ratios of the Europe 2020 Strategy impacting on
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The Europe 2020 strategy is the EU strategy for sustainable and inclusive growth, for fighting the structural weaknesses of the European economies, and for improving their competitiveness. In this paper, we determined the most important ratios of the Europe 2020 Strategy impacting on economic performance expressed as the growth of the GDP per capita, and on economic competitiveness expressed as the share of the countries’ exports in total world exports for some selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries (Poland, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Romania) using co-integration tests and OLS panel estimations with a dataset between 2004 (after four of these selected countries acceded to EU) and 2015 (the latest available data for all the ratios we used in our analysis). Our findings show that the tertiary level of education is the most important factor, positively correlated with both endogenous variables mentioned above. Other important factors for achieving the economic performance and competitiveness goals are the school dropout ratio, the share of renewable energy in final energy consumption, and the employment rate. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Economic Determinants of Bioenergy Trade Intensity in the EU-28: A Co-Integration Approach
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020565
Received: 9 December 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
This paper examines the dynamic effect of the economic determinants on bilateral trade intensity of the European Union (EU) region’s bioenergy industry outputs. The authors adopt the panel co-integration model approach to estimate annual trade intensity data of the EU-28 countries’ bioenergy industry
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This paper examines the dynamic effect of the economic determinants on bilateral trade intensity of the European Union (EU) region’s bioenergy industry outputs. The authors adopt the panel co-integration model approach to estimate annual trade intensity data of the EU-28 countries’ bioenergy industry outputs from 1990 to 2013. This study investigated the long-term influence of the rate of real exchange, gross domestic product (GDP), and export price on the trade intensity of bioenergy industry applying fully modified oriented least square (FMOLS), dummy oriented least square (DOLS), and pooled mean group (PMG) models. In the current study, the findings boost the empirical validity of the panel co-integration model through FMOLS, indicating that depreciation has improved the trade intensity. This study has further investigated, through the causality test, a distinct set of countries. FMOLS estimation does find proof of the long run improvement of trade intensity. Thus, the result shows that the gross domestic product (GDP) and the real exchange rate have a positive and noteworthy influence on the EU-28 region trade intensity of the bioenergy industry. Moreover, the export price affects negatively and significantly the trade intensity of the bioenergy industry in the EU-28 countries. Full article
Open AccessArticle Supplier Selection Study under the Respective of Low-Carbon Supply Chain: A Hybrid Evaluation Model Based on FA-DEA-AHP
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020564
Received: 8 February 2018 / Revised: 18 February 2018 / Accepted: 20 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
With the development of global environment and social economy, it is an indispensable choice for enterprises to achieve sustainable growth through developing low-carbon economy and constructing low-carbon supply chain. Supplier is the source of chain, thus selecting excellent low-carbon supplier is the foundation
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With the development of global environment and social economy, it is an indispensable choice for enterprises to achieve sustainable growth through developing low-carbon economy and constructing low-carbon supply chain. Supplier is the source of chain, thus selecting excellent low-carbon supplier is the foundation of establishing efficient low-carbon supply chain. This paper presents a novel hybrid model for supplier selection integrated factor analysis (FA), data envelopment analysis (DEA), with analytic hierarchy process (AHP), namely FA-DEA-AHP. First, an evaluation index system is built, incorporating product level, qualification, cooperation ability, and environmental competitiveness. FA is utilized to extract common factors from the 18 pre-selected indicators. Then, DEA is applied to establish the pairwise comparison matrix and AHP is employed to rank these low-carbon suppliers comprehensively and calculate the validity of the decision-making units. Finally, an experiment study with seven cement suppliers in a large industrial enterprise is carried out in this paper. The results reveal that the proposed technique can not only select effective suppliers, but also realize a comprehensive ranking. This research has enriched the methodology of low-carbon supplier evaluation and selection, as well as owns theoretical value in exploring the coordinated development of low-carbon supply chain to some extent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Supply Chain System Design and Optimization)
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Open AccessArticle Using Toponyms to Analyze the Endangered Manchu Language in Northeast China
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020563
Received: 12 January 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 16 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
UNESCO has classified Manchu in Northeast China as a critically endangered language. Toponyms can act as carriers of languages and can be preserved for a long time. The Manchu language was the national language in the Qing Dynasty, and there are many Manchu
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UNESCO has classified Manchu in Northeast China as a critically endangered language. Toponyms can act as carriers of languages and can be preserved for a long time. The Manchu language was the national language in the Qing Dynasty, and there are many Manchu place names in Northeast China that serve as “living heritages” that retain traces of ancient local cultures. We studied Manchu and other related ethnic place names in Northeast China by integrating spatial statistical measures using geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze the endangered languages in the region. The objective was to explore not only the distribution of ethnic toponyms within a relevant historical context but also the environmental factors associated with the endangered Manchu languages. This study reveals that the distributions of ethnic groups and languages can be revealed by the Sinification of ethnic toponyms in Northeast China. The evolution of spatial patterns of toponyms shows the interactive process between Manchus and Han Chinese. The Manchu language is endangered by the influences of Han Chinese migrants on the original culture, as reflected by crops and the distances to the nearest roads, which are indicators of farming culture and accessibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Heritage Conservation and Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Sustainability Assessment of Out-of-Home Meals: Potentials and Challenges of Applying the Indicator sets NAHGAST Meal-Basic and NAHGAST Meal-Pro
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020562
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 15 February 2018 / Accepted: 19 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
Nutrition is responsible for about 30% of global natural resource use. In order to limit the negative impact the nutritional sector has on the environment and on society, the consumption and processing of foodstuffs with assumed low negative impact is an important topic
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Nutrition is responsible for about 30% of global natural resource use. In order to limit the negative impact the nutritional sector has on the environment and on society, the consumption and processing of foodstuffs with assumed low negative impact is an important topic in the effort of sustainable development. In professional kitchens, clearly defined indicators assessing the impact of business activities are needed in this effort. The research and development in the NAHGAST project provides groundwork that could be of important assistance in this effort. Two versions of an assessment tool, with indicators of different complexity (NAHGAST Meal-Basic and NAHGAST Meal-Pro), were developed that can be used by kitchen professionals to determine the sustainability performance of their products—the offered meal. An informed selection of indicators, and a discussion of what processes and impacts this indicator relates to in the wider context, are essential and are discussed in this paper. Furthermore, in the selection of indicators for the purpose of our research certain criteria were considered simultaneously: (1) Communicability—What information an indicator can communicate and how comprehensible this information is for different actors; (2) Feasibility and data availability—Whether there is sufficient data for an indicator to be included and whether it is realistic for companies to integrate this indicator in their daily work practice; and (3) Scientific relevance—Whether the indicator is relevant for sustainability efforts on a larger scale and for related discussions in the scientific community. Insights related to these considerations are valuable for future developments in sustainability assessment in out-of-home gastronomy. The tool has been used to evaluate a number of dishes and results are deemed meaningful. However, assessments must not be understood as an accurate measurement but as an approximation of the sustainability of meals. At the level of individual indicators, they allow a detailed analysis and targeted optimization of recipes, while the aggregated results in the form of labels can be communicated well to customers. However, deficiencies and challenges, as discovered in the application phase of the project, demonstrate research gaps in the wider context. Finally, further steps for an integration of the tool in company processes and remaining options for companies to adjust the tool are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
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Open AccessArticle Climate Change Mitigation Potential of Wood Use in Civil Engineering in Japan Based on Life-Cycle Assessment
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020561
Received: 2 December 2017 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
Throughout its life-cycle, wood contributes to climate change mitigation through carbon storage and material and energy substitution. Focusing on wood use for piles, check dams, paved walkways, guardrails, and noise barriers, we quantified the nationwide potential for climate change mitigation in civil engineering
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Throughout its life-cycle, wood contributes to climate change mitigation through carbon storage and material and energy substitution. Focusing on wood use for piles, check dams, paved walkways, guardrails, and noise barriers, we quantified the nationwide potential for climate change mitigation in civil engineering in Japan through 2050. To assess mitigation potential, we examined life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are avoided by storing carbon in wood and forests, substituting wooden materials for non-wooden materials (cement, concrete, steel, and asphalt), and substituting processing residue and waste wood salvaged from defunct civil engineering structures for fossil fuels (heavy oil). Our projections suggest that there will be a maximum potential domestic log volume of 6.80 million m3/year available for civil engineering use in Japan in 2050, and that it would be possible to produce this volume while increasing Japan’s forest resources over the long term. A maximum nationwide avoided GHG emissions potential of 9.63 million t-CO2eq/year could be achieved in 2050, which is equivalent to 0.7% of Japan’s current GHG emissions. The breakdown of avoided emissions is 73%, 19%, and 8% for carbon storage, material substitution, and energy substitution, respectively, with the greatest contributions coming from carbon storage through the use of log piles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Life Cycle Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle Ex-Ante Impact Assessment of Sustainability Information–The Directive 2014/95
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020560
Received: 29 December 2017 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 18 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
Directive 2014/95, in force since 2017, is the first European step that requires undertakings to provide mandatory non-financial information. The regulation concerns sustainability information, such as environmental, social, and employee information, human rights, and anti-corruption and bribery matters, and the disclosure of diversity
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Directive 2014/95, in force since 2017, is the first European step that requires undertakings to provide mandatory non-financial information. The regulation concerns sustainability information, such as environmental, social, and employee information, human rights, and anti-corruption and bribery matters, and the disclosure of diversity policies for board members. According to the theoretical framework of Integrated Assessment (IA), the study aims to examine the expected impact of the Directive within the analysis of empirical evidence before the mandatory approach. This allows, on the regulatory side, evaluation of the quality of the regulation, therefore, whether the law achieves its policy objectives (i.e., if it fills the gap in the sustainability disclosure) and, on the firms’ side, to identify where companies have to invest to meet the legal requirements. The oil and gas sector is chosen as a sample for the study, because it is one of the most advanced sectors in sustainability disclosure, and if the regulation could impact on this sector, it would be the same for less-informed ones. The findings reveal a fair level of completeness of non-financial information, however, there are some areas that have to be improved to achieve the requirements of the Directive. The results also show the presence of overlap between financial and sustainability reports. In conclusion, the quality of regulation is good because it will also increase sustainability disclosure in an advanced sector, such as oil and gas, even if there is an open point on the location of information; companies in this sector will have to invest more in environmental and employee information in future years to comply with the Directive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle A Tale of North and South: Balanced and Sustainable Development of Primary Education in Ningxia, China
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020559
Received: 25 January 2018 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 19 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
Education is the driving force of social development, while regional differences have restricted the balance of educational development. This paper provides a political and geospatial analysis of regional inequality across the province from 1990–2015 under a comparative spatiotemporal conceptual framework. Great differences in
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Education is the driving force of social development, while regional differences have restricted the balance of educational development. This paper provides a political and geospatial analysis of regional inequality across the province from 1990–2015 under a comparative spatiotemporal conceptual framework. Great differences in terms of the distribution and dynamic changes in primary school were found between southern and the northern Ningxia. The southern region has a large number of primary schools with a sharp reduction in these numbers, especially in recent years, while the north has a small but stable number of schools. Spatial accessibility analyses revealed that due to the imbalance between the south and the north, the spatial accessibility of the southern region is much worse than that of the northern region. Our study found the imbalance in the number and spatial distribution of primary schools in the north and south of Ningxia was formed because of multiple factors of policy, geography, and social-economy. The government has pursued a policy of promoting education fairness. However, neglecting differences between north and south, on the contrary, has brought negative effects to the south, worsened the educational environment, and increased education inequities. Our case study in the Ningxia district demonstrates that this research can provide a practical basis for the formulation of policies to guide the rational planning of primary education in Ningxia and/or other similar areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cross-Sector Social Partnerships for Social Change: The Roles of Non-Governmental Organizations
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 558; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020558
Received: 23 December 2017 / Revised: 5 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
Complex social and environmental issues call for broader collaboration across different sectors so as to instigate transformative social change. While previous scholars have emphasized the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in facilitating social change, they have not provided a nuanced assessment of NGOs’
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Complex social and environmental issues call for broader collaboration across different sectors so as to instigate transformative social change. While previous scholars have emphasized the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in facilitating social change, they have not provided a nuanced assessment of NGOs’ different roles. We use the Poverty and Employment Precarity in Southern Ontario (PEPSO) research partnership as a study case and explore NGO partners’ different roles in a large cross-sector social partnership (CSSP). By interviewing 12 NGO partners and 4 non-NGO partners involved in the PEPSO research partnership, our research results show that NGOs primarily have 10 roles in a CSSP. They include enabling roles such as consultant, capacity builder, analyst, and funder; coordinating roles such as broker and communicator; and facilitating roles such as initiator, leader, advocate, and monitor. These roles allow NGOs to fulfil their duties to make substantial contributions to a CSSP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Analysis and Evaluation of the Largest 500 Family Firms’ Websites through PLS-SEM Technique
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 557; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020557
Received: 25 January 2018 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 21 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
As few studies relate the technical aspects of a corporate website to a firm’s turnover, this paper aims to examine how the quality of a corporate website influences social networks and the company’s turnover in large family firms. The moderating and mediating effect
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As few studies relate the technical aspects of a corporate website to a firm’s turnover, this paper aims to examine how the quality of a corporate website influences social networks and the company’s turnover in large family firms. The moderating and mediating effect of social networks on the relationships between website quality and turnover are also tested. In addition, the paper performs a multigroup analysis to analyze the differences between family businesses with low and high family ownership concentration. The sample used in the study, the largest 500 family firms’ websites around the globe extracted from The Global Family Business Index compiled by the University of St. Gallen, were analyzed using partial least squares–structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The results indicate that both the direct and indirect effect of website quality on turnover and the moderating effect of social networks in the relationship between website quality and turnover were negative and significant. The multigroup analysis reveals some significant differences between both groups. The study contributes to the evaluation of website literature by exploring a new sector of application: family businesses. Moreover, the largest family firms should improve their presence in social networks to increase their sales. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Moderated Mediation Model for Board Diversity and Corporate Performance in ASEAN Countries
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020556
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 12 November 2017 / Accepted: 30 November 2017 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
Despite the major investigations in prior studies for direct links among board diversity and corporate performance, the literature has not covered many indirect associations among them. This article analyzes the association between board diversity (gender and foreigner) and corporate performance by focusing on
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Despite the major investigations in prior studies for direct links among board diversity and corporate performance, the literature has not covered many indirect associations among them. This article analyzes the association between board diversity (gender and foreigner) and corporate performance by focusing on the mediating role of corporate social responsibility reporting (CSRR) and the moderated mediation role of South East Asian (ASEAN) countries through new institutional theory, which consists of legitimacy and institutional theories. According to a sample of 264 corporates from all industries by using GRI G3 guideline from 2011 to 2013, we found that foreign and gender diversity have partial and full mediation effects in ASEAN countries. The main conclusion of the current article indicates that board diversity affects directly with corporate performance and indirectly with CSRR through moderated path analysis. The implications are valuable for academics, managers, and policy makers who are interested to determine the impact of intervening variables on the board diversity and corporate performance relationship in ASEAN countries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Farmers’ Perceptions and Factors Influencing the Adoption of No-Till Conservation Agriculture by Small-Scale Farmers in Zashuke, KwaZulu-Natal Province
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020555
Received: 6 November 2017 / Revised: 29 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
The adoption of conservation agriculture among small-scale farmers is still low despite the proven economic and environmental benefits of the technology. This study was conducted in Ingwe Municipality in Kwa-Zashuke, Ward 8, in KwaZulu-Natal province. The main aim of the study was to
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The adoption of conservation agriculture among small-scale farmers is still low despite the proven economic and environmental benefits of the technology. This study was conducted in Ingwe Municipality in Kwa-Zashuke, Ward 8, in KwaZulu-Natal province. The main aim of the study was to determine the factors that influence the adoption of no-till conservation agriculture (CA) in the study area and to explore farmers’ perceptions of no-till CA and the impact of no-till CA on maize yield. A quantitative approach employing a cross-sectional design was used to gather data. Stratified random sampling was employed and a total of 185 small-scale farmers (97 adopters and 88 non-adopters) were sampled. Data analysis was done through descriptive and inferential statistics and econometric modeling using the logistic regression model. Findings show that farmers’ positive perceptions were positively correlated with higher maize yields. While an increase in extension visits, age, education and farmers’ positive perceptions significantly increased the likelihood of a farmer adopting no-till CA, an increase in land size was negatively related to no-till CA adoption. The findings confirm the important role of extension in the promotion of no-till CA, particularly the intensity of the extension services. The study recommends a deliberate effort by all stakeholders to promote the participation of young people in farming and tailor-make current no-till CA programs to suit the illiterate households. The capacity of extension programs to adequately support farmers should be enhanced through improvements in extension services. There is also need to change people’s mindsets and the way they view no-till CA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
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Open AccessArticle The Macroeconomic Determinants of International Casino Travel: Evidence from South Korea’s Top Four Inbound Markets
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020554
Received: 4 January 2018 / Revised: 10 February 2018 / Accepted: 16 February 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
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Abstract
This study investigates the macroeconomic determinants behind the number of foreign visitors to Korean casinos arriving from major source countries, namely Japan, Mainland China, Hong Kong SAR and Taiwan. Using monthly data from 2006 to 2016, we utilized a Structural Vector Autoregression (SVAR)
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This study investigates the macroeconomic determinants behind the number of foreign visitors to Korean casinos arriving from major source countries, namely Japan, Mainland China, Hong Kong SAR and Taiwan. Using monthly data from 2006 to 2016, we utilized a Structural Vector Autoregression (SVAR) model to investigate the dynamic effects of macroeconomic factors on the number of casino visitors. Estimation results supported the conclusion that visitors from Japan and Mainland China—who account for approximately three quarters of the total number of foreign casino visitors—were affected by macroeconomic or financial indicators such as changes in oil prices, exports and exchange rates (Japan), exports and short-term interest rates (Mainland China). In contrast, visitors from Hong Kong SAR did not seem to be influenced by any of these factors. We also found that the MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) outbreak in Korea in 2015 had a significant adverse effect on casino visitors from all regions. Implications and suggestions for future studies are provided along with the results of this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainability of Culture and Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle Distributed Complementary Control Research of Wind Turbines in Two Offshore Wind Farms
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020553
Received: 28 January 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
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Abstract
In order to stabilize the fluctuation of wind power and maintain a stable power output, a complementary control idea is proposed. This idea aims to make the output power from two wind farms complement each other. This study proposes a distributed control strategy
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In order to stabilize the fluctuation of wind power and maintain a stable power output, a complementary control idea is proposed. This idea aims to make the output power from two wind farms complement each other. This study proposes a distributed control strategy to solve the complementary control problem of wind turbines in two offshore wind farms on the basis of the Hamiltonian energy theory. The proposed control strategy not only ensures synchronization for wind turbines in the same farm but also keeps the combined output power of the two wind farms stable. First, through the Hamiltonian realization, the single-machine model of a wind turbine is transformed into a port-controlled Hamiltonian system with dissipation (PCHD). Subsequently, the Hamiltonian energy control law is developed on the basis of the energy-shaping method to adjust the Hamiltonian energy function. The complementary control of the two wind farms is designed to synchronize the wind turbines within an individual wind farm and keep the combined output of the two wind farms stable. Furthermore, the complementary control strategy is modified to address the communication delay between the two wind farms by incorporating time delay into the control problem. Finally, the effectiveness of the distributed complementary control has been verified via simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Dynamic Evolution of Regional Discrepancies in Carbon Emissions from Agricultural Land Utilization: Evidence from Chinese Provincial Data
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020552
Received: 4 January 2018 / Revised: 30 January 2018 / Accepted: 12 February 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
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Abstract
Agricultural land, as an important carbon source, has produced about 20% of carbon dioxide globally. The calculation and spatial-temporal distribution of carbon emissions resulting from agricultural land utilization (ALU) has attracted a great deal of attention from scholars. Most of the existing literature
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Agricultural land, as an important carbon source, has produced about 20% of carbon dioxide globally. The calculation and spatial-temporal distribution of carbon emissions resulting from agricultural land utilization (ALU) has attracted a great deal of attention from scholars. Most of the existing literature widely agrees that China’s carbon emissions from ALU showed significant regional discrepancies, but rarely pays attention to the evolutionary characteristics of the discrepancies. This study calculated the total carbon emissions from ALU based on six kinds of carbon emissions sources in the 31 provinces of mainland China, which showed obviously different characteristics in terms of their abundances of agricultural land resources, relative scarcities of production factors, levels of science and technology and economic prosperity. We then analyzed the evolutionary process and characteristics of regional discrepancies in carbon emissions from ALU at the national level and regional level with the method of kernel density estimation. The key results demonstrated the following: (1) The carbon emissions from ALU in the whole country and the eastern, central and western regions of China have increased sharply during the study period. From 2000 to 2015, the carbon emissions from ALU in the whole of China, the eastern region, central region, and western region were increased by 2626.11 (104 tons), 441.32 (104 tons), 1054.45 (104 tons), and 1130.3 (104 tons), respectively, with an average annual growth rate of 2.75%, 1.29%, 3%, and 4.35%, respectively; (2) The scale of carbon emissions from ALU showed significant spatial disparities at the regional and inter-provincial levels. From 2000 to 2015, the central region had the highest carbon emissions from ALU, while the eastern and western regions had the second and third highest carbon emissions; (3) The distribution curves of carbon emissions from ALU in the whole country and each region all moved in the right direction gradually during the study period, and the width of the curves increased, indicating the regional discrepancies of carbon emissions from ALU was expanding at different spatial scales. Distribution curves of carbon emissions from ALU in the eastern, central and western regions all showed a “multi-polar” differentiation phenomenon in 2000, while presented a “tri-polar”, “bipolar” and “multi-polar” division in 2015, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
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Open AccessArticle The Responses of Plant Leaf CO2/H2O Exchange and Water Use Efficiency to Drought: A Meta-Analysis
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020551
Received: 27 December 2017 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 19 February 2018 / Published: 21 February 2018
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Abstract
Persistent drought severely inhibits plant growth and productivity, which negatively affects terrestrial primary productivity worldwide. Therefore, it is important to investigate the impacts of drought on plant leaf CO2/H2O exchange and water use efficiency. This study assessed the responses
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Persistent drought severely inhibits plant growth and productivity, which negatively affects terrestrial primary productivity worldwide. Therefore, it is important to investigate the impacts of drought on plant leaf CO2/H2O exchange and water use efficiency. This study assessed the responses of net photosynthesis (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration (Tr), and instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE) to drought based on a worldwide meta-analysis of 112 published studies. The results demonstrated that drought decreased Pn, Tr, and Gs significantly and differently among different moderators. C4 plants had smaller Pn reduction than C3 plants, which gives C4 plants an advantage in Pn. But their WUE decreased under drought conditions, indicating a great flexibility in C4 WUE. Annual herbs sacrificed WUE (−6.2%) to maintain efficient Pn. Perennial herbs took a different strategy in response to drought with an increased WUE (25.1%). Deciduous tree species displayed a greater increase in WUE than conifers and evergreen species. Additionally, Gs had a significant correlation with Pn and Tr, but an insignificant correlation with WUE, which could be because WUE is affected by other factors (e.g., air flow, CO2 concentration, and relative humidity). These findings have significant implications for understanding the worldwide effects of drought on plant leaf CO2/H2O exchange and water use efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impacts of Climate Change on Hydrology, Water Quality and Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Efficiency of Limestone Powder in Concrete and the Effects on the Environment
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020550
Received: 16 January 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 18 February 2018 / Published: 21 February 2018
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Abstract
The major environmental impact of concrete comes from the CO2 emissions, produced during the cement manufacturing process. The main goal of this research project is to evaluate the efficiency of limestone powder as a partial cement replacement, in order to reduce energy
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The major environmental impact of concrete comes from the CO2 emissions, produced during the cement manufacturing process. The main goal of this research project is to evaluate the efficiency of limestone powder as a partial cement replacement, in order to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions. This study utilizes limestone powders, with different particle sizes, to replace a portion of Portland cement using various ratios. Due to the dilution effect when partially replacing cement, there is a reduction in the concrete’s physical properties. To assess the dilution effect, a modification to Féret’s equation is used to calculate an efficiency factor for the limestone powder when compared to cement. To measure the environmental impact, a life cycle assessment is conducted on concrete made with limestone powder combined with cement. This allows for an evaluation of the various cement/limestone powder ratios that will maximize the environmental benefit, with minimal reduction in concrete strength. Additional microstructural analysis using petrographic examination was completed to provide a visual understanding of the distribution of the limestone particles within the cement paste. The results indicate that the efficiency of limestone powder in partially replacing cement can be achieved by particle packing and particle distribution in the concrete and the benefits of emission reductions exceed the loss in compressive strength when higher levels of limestone powder is used to replace cement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Selected Method and Tools for Performance Measurement in the Green Supply Chain—Survey Analysis in Poland
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020549
Received: 8 January 2018 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 21 February 2018
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Abstract
The methods and tools for the performance measurement and evaluation of the green supply chain management are very important elements for the construction and function of this type of supply chain. The result is a presentation of the considerations underlying a very general
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The methods and tools for the performance measurement and evaluation of the green supply chain management are very important elements for the construction and function of this type of supply chain. The result is a presentation of the considerations underlying a very general model, which presents some selected tools, but no breakdown of individual industries. The considerations undertaken are important and have scientific added value as usually in practice, a very large number of tools are used to assess the supply chain, which are not always correlated or adapted to the specificity of the chain. It is worth pointing out which of the already used or completely new tools and methods will be most useful for assessing the green supply chain. The structure of the paper covers the theoretical and empirical. It includes an introduction, our goals and hypotheses, state of the art, methodology, empirical findings, and discussion. We present the definitional differences between green and sustainable supply chains and focus on the selection and identification of methods for the framework model for evaluating the green supply chain. In the next step, the theoretical and selected method and tools were compared to a survey of Poland. On the basis of the survey, we present the findings and discussions found in this area. The main methodology used includes a literature review, a survey analysis using a questionnaire and statistical tools. The survey was carried out in 2015 in sample organizations in Poland. The research results showed that organizations were aware of the environmental elements of measuring and assessing the supply chain from an environmental point of view, but their use depended on many factors: the area, size of the organization, or the industry. If certain boundary conditions are met and the organizations are aware of the essence of environmental aspects in the chain, then they are applying green measures to the supply chain. These findings provide a glimpse into the measurement system and show that organizations still have yet to understand the essence of green and sustainable performance measurement, the meaning of its application, and the benefits it brings. However, traditional measurement still plays a large role, so it is important to reflect on how to convince organizations to pay more attention to environmental aspects, while at the same time applying a green supply chain assessment model. These results are a framework in which to start building a green supply chain assessment model. The empirical research aimed to answer the question of whether theoretical and sustainable management tools have already played a role in perceiving and assessing the green supply chain. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperEditorial Regional Cooperation for the Sustainable Development and Management in Northeast Asia
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020548
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 7 February 2018 / Accepted: 15 February 2018 / Published: 21 February 2018
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Abstract
The Northeast Asian countries are the most pro-active regions in the world to take on the challenges of sustainable development. With this background, there has been an annual series of Sustainable Asia Conferences (SAC) which date back to the first inaugural meeting in
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The Northeast Asian countries are the most pro-active regions in the world to take on the challenges of sustainable development. With this background, there has been an annual series of Sustainable Asia Conferences (SAC) which date back to the first inaugural meeting in 2009. This special issue consists of selected papers from the SAC 2017, held in Nanjing, China, from 23–25 June. With ten years of accumulated experience, SAC became one of the leading international conferences for presenting innovative or fundamental advances in sustainable development issues for Asia. Over time, SAC introduced more performance-oriented approaches to handle the feasibility of the sustainable development solutions. In this special issue, most of the papers focused on the precise and accurate sustainable governance mechanism in harmonizing economic development with a healthier life, while enhancing the quality of all standards of living. The majority of papers in this special issue also deal with two important pillars of the sustainable development: regional cooperation and regulatory effectiveness. This special edition will propose unique implications and feasible or workable suggestions against global warming and environmental degradation. Full article
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Open AccessReview Life Cycle Sustainability Evaluations of Bio-based Value Chains: Reviewing the Indicators from a Swedish Perspective
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020547
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 15 February 2018 / Published: 20 February 2018
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Abstract
Policymakers worldwide are promoting the use of bio-based products as part of sustainable development. Nonetheless, there are concerns that the bio-based economy may undermine the sustainability of the transition, e.g., from the overexploitation of biomass resources and indirect impacts of land use. Adequate
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Policymakers worldwide are promoting the use of bio-based products as part of sustainable development. Nonetheless, there are concerns that the bio-based economy may undermine the sustainability of the transition, e.g., from the overexploitation of biomass resources and indirect impacts of land use. Adequate assessment methods with a broad systems perspective are thus required in order to ensure a transition to a sustainable, bio-based economy. We review the scientifically published life cycle studies of bio-based products in order to investigate the extent to which they include important sustainability indicators. To define which indicators are important, we refer to established frameworks for sustainability assessment, and include an Open Space workshop with academics and industrial experts. The results suggest that there is a discrepancy between the indicators that we found to be important, and the indicators that are frequently included in the studies. This indicates a need for the development and dissemination of improved methods in order to model several important environmental impacts, such as: water depletion, indirect land use change, and impacts on ecosystem quality and biological diversity. The small number of published social life cycle assessments (SLCAs) and life cycle sustainability assessments (LCSAs) indicate that these are still immature tools; as such, there is a need for improved methods and more case studies. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Ontology-Underpinned Emergency Response System for Water Pollution Accidents
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020546
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 17 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 20 February 2018
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Abstract
With the unceasing development and maturation of environment geographic information system, the response to water pollution accidents has been digitalized through the combination of monitoring sensors, management servers, and application software. However, most of these systems only achieve the basic and general geospatial
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With the unceasing development and maturation of environment geographic information system, the response to water pollution accidents has been digitalized through the combination of monitoring sensors, management servers, and application software. However, most of these systems only achieve the basic and general geospatial data management and functional process tasks by adopting mechanistic water-quality models. To satisfy the sustainable monitoring and real-time emergency response application demand of the government and public users, it is a hotspot to study how to make the water pollution information being semantic and make the referred applications intelligent. Thus, the architecture of the ontology-underpinned emergency response system for water pollution accidents is proposed in this paper. This paper also makes a case study for usability testing of the water ontology models, and emergency response rules through an online water pollution emergency response system. The system contributes scientifically to the safety and sustainability of drinking water by providing emergency response and decision-making to the government and public in a timely manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methodological Advances in Research on Sustainable Ecosystems)
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Open AccessArticle Theoretical Availability versus Practical Accessibility: The Critical Role of Metadata Management in Open Data Portals
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 545; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020545
Received: 26 December 2017 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 15 February 2018 / Published: 19 February 2018
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Abstract
As a consequence of policies such as the EU Public Sector Initiative, authorities across Europe have been moving towards providing free access to a wide range of statistical data and in particular geodata. From the diverse end-users’ perspective (general public, interest groups, students,
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As a consequence of policies such as the EU Public Sector Initiative, authorities across Europe have been moving towards providing free access to a wide range of statistical data and in particular geodata. From the diverse end-users’ perspective (general public, interest groups, students, other authorities, etc.), access to data requires specific knowledge, methods, and guidance in identifying and using the relevant content. Metadata are a key concept for the description and classification of data and thus also for ensuring their long-term value. We analyze the European Data Portal as well as one national metadatabase (Austrian Data Portal) with regard to aspects such as data search functionality, keyword consistency, spatial referencing, data format and data license information. In both cases, we found extensive inconsistencies and conceptual weaknesses that heavily limit the practical accessibility. The mere presence of metadata is no indicator for the usability of the data. We argue for a better definition and structuring of the interface between the numerous data providers and the metadatabases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Broadcasting and Telecommunications Industries in the Convergence Age: Toward a Sustainable Public-Centric Public Interest
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020544
Received: 12 January 2018 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 19 February 2018
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Abstract
The emergence of new digital technologies, such as the Internet and new business models such as over-the-top (OTT) operators that utilize them, has transformed the media and broadcasting industries. As advanced technologies and business models are adopted, convergence between the broadcasting and telecommunication
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The emergence of new digital technologies, such as the Internet and new business models such as over-the-top (OTT) operators that utilize them, has transformed the media and broadcasting industries. As advanced technologies and business models are adopted, convergence between the broadcasting and telecommunication (“telecom”) sectors has become a common business practice. Using the South Korean case study of a failed acquisition attempt of CJ HelloVision by SK Telecom, this research identifies the three essential features (economic, sociocultural, and industrial structure issues) related to convergence in the broadcasting and media industries. Further, this study reveals the potential consequences of convergence to the public, industry, and society, and offers critical implications for future policy direction. Finally, this study suggests the need for a change in the policy direction in the age of convergence in the broadcasting and media industries. In addition, it calls for the importance of a public-centric public benefit. Social and consumer welfare, and not profit or industrial growth, should dictate the public interest orientation in the broadcasting and media industries. Therefore, the meaning of public interest in broadcasting and media should not be limited in the industrial context of media; rather, it should consider the access to service by the public, the condition of consumption, and its consequences in the perspective of social and consumer welfare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Digital Environment)
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