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Viruses, Volume 3, Issue 8 (August 2011), Pages 1312-1531

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review, Other

Open AccessEditorial Virus Dynamics and Evolution: Bridging Scales and Disciplines
Viruses 2011, 3(8), 1432-1438; doi:10.3390/v3081432
Received: 23 July 2011 / Accepted: 8 August 2011 / Published: 16 August 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (83 KB)
Abstract
Viruses have attracted the interest of researchers from multiple disciplines and have nucleated many productive and innovative collaborations. In part, this is because viruses so intimately associate with their hosts that decoupling host and virus biology is difficult, and virus-host interactions occur at
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Viruses have attracted the interest of researchers from multiple disciplines and have nucleated many productive and innovative collaborations. In part, this is because viruses so intimately associate with their hosts that decoupling host and virus biology is difficult, and virus-host interactions occur at multiple scales, from within cells to populations, each of which is intrinsically complex. As a consequence, ecologists, population biologists, evolutionary biologists, and researchers from quantitative fields, including mathematics, statistics, physics and computer science, make significant contributions to the field of virology. Our understanding of virus dynamics and evolution has substantially benefited from these multidisciplinary efforts. It is now common to see advanced phylogenetic reconstruction methods used to determine the origins of emergent viruses, to estimate the effect of natural selection on virus populations, and to assess virus population dynamics. Mathematical and statistical models that elucidate complex virus and host interactions in time and space at the molecular and population level are appearing more regularly in virology and biomedical journals. Massive quantities of data now available due to technological innovation in imaging, increased disease surveillance efforts, and novel approaches to determine social contact structure are changing approaches to study the dynamics and evolution of viral infections in heterogeneous environments. The next decade presents exciting new opportunities and challenges for the expanding field of researchers investigating dynamics of viral infections that will lead to innovation and new insight on virus interactions in both individual hosts and in populations. The compilation of articles in this Special Issue on “Virus Dynamics and Evolution” is comprised of reviews and primary research, summarized below, that provide new perspectives on virus interactions with host organisms through the integration of empirical and computational analyses of virus at molecular, cellular, and population levels. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus Dynamics and Evolution)

Research

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Open AccessArticle Direct Inhibition of RNAse T2 Expression by the HTLV-1 Viral Protein Tax
Viruses 2011, 3(8), 1485-1500; doi:10.3390/v3081485
Received: 4 August 2011 / Accepted: 10 August 2011 / Published: 18 August 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (437 KB)
Abstract
Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is one of the primary diseases caused by Human T-cell Leukemia Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection. The virally-encoded Tax protein is believed to initiate early events in the development of this disease, as it is able to promote immortalization
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Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is one of the primary diseases caused by Human T-cell Leukemia Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection. The virally-encoded Tax protein is believed to initiate early events in the development of this disease, as it is able to promote immortalization of T-cells and transformation of other cell types. These processes may be aided by the ability of the viral protein to directly deregulate expression of specific cellular genes through interactions with numerous transcriptional regulators. To identify gene promoters where Tax is localized, we isolated Tax-DNA complexes from an HTLV-1-infected T-cell line through a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay and used the DNA to probe a CpG island microarray. A site within the RNASET2 gene was found to be occupied by Tax. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed this result, and transient expression of Tax in uninfected cells led to the recruitment of the viral protein to the promoter. This event correlated with a decrease in the level of RNase T2 mRNA and protein, suggesting that Tax represses expression of this gene. Loss of RNase T2 expression occurs in certain hematological malignancies and other forms of cancer, and RNase T2 was recently reported to function as a tumor suppressor. Consequently, a reduction in the level of RNase T2 by Tax may play a role in ATL development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in HTLV Research)

Review

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Open AccessReview The Prevalence and Significance of HTLV-I/II Seroindeterminate Western Blot Patterns
Viruses 2011, 3(8), 1320-1331; doi:10.3390/v3081320
Received: 13 June 2011 / Revised: 22 July 2011 / Accepted: 23 July 2011 / Published: 2 August 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (343 KB)
Abstract
Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) infects an estimated 15–20 million persons worldwide. A number of diseases have been associated with the virus including adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), HTLV-I uveitis, and HTLV-I-associated infective dermatitis. Once it was shown
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Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) infects an estimated 15–20 million persons worldwide. A number of diseases have been associated with the virus including adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), HTLV-I uveitis, and HTLV-I-associated infective dermatitis. Once it was shown that there is an increased risk for developing HAM/TSP associated with blood transfusion, screening for HTLV-1 among blood banks was implemented in Japan, United States, France, and the Netherlands. This process includes detection by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) followed by a confirmatory Western blot (WB) in which recombinant proteins specific for HTLV-I Env glycoproteins are incorporated into WB strips. HTLV-I seropositive results are defined by the presence of antibodies against either gp46 or gp62/68 (both Env protein bands) and either p19, p24, or p53 (one of the gag bands). HTLV-II seropositivity is confirmed by the presence of rgp46-II. However, numerous cases have been documented in which serum samples are reactive by EIA, but an incomplete banding pattern is displayed by subsequent confirmatory WB. Although the significance of these HTLV-I/II seroindeterminates is unclear, it may suggest a much higher incidence of exposure to HTLV-I/II than previously estimated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in HTLV Research)
Open AccessReview Dengue Virus and Autophagy
Viruses 2011, 3(8), 1332-1341; doi:10.3390/v3081332
Received: 17 June 2011 / Revised: 19 July 2011 / Accepted: 21 July 2011 / Published: 4 August 2011
Cited by 41 | PDF Full-text (652 KB)
Abstract
Several independent groups have published that autophagy is required for optimal RNA replication of dengue virus (DENV). Initially, it was postulated that autophagosomes might play a structural role in replication complex formation. However, cryo-EM tomography of DENV replication complexes showed that DENV replicates on
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Several independent groups have published that autophagy is required for optimal RNA replication of dengue virus (DENV). Initially, it was postulated that autophagosomes might play a structural role in replication complex formation. However, cryo-EM tomography of DENV replication complexes showed that DENV replicates on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) cisternae invaginations and not on classical autophagosomes. Recently, it was reported that autophagy plays an indirect role in DENV replication by modulating cellular lipid metabolism. DENV-induced autophagosomes deplete cellular triglycerides that are stored in lipid droplets, leading to increased β-oxidation and energy production. This is the first example of a virus triggering autophagy to modulate cellular physiology. In this review, we summarize these data and discuss new questions and implications for autophagy during DENV replication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autophagy and Viruses)
Open AccessReview Impact of the Autophagy Machinery on Hepatitis C Virus Infection
Viruses 2011, 3(8), 1342-1357; doi:10.3390/v3081342
Received: 16 June 2011 / Revised: 20 July 2011 / Accepted: 21 July 2011 / Published: 4 August 2011
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (147 KB)
Abstract
Autophagy is a cellular process that catabolizes cytoplasmic components and maintains energy homeostasis. As a stress response, the autophagy machinery interconnects a wide range of cellular pathways, enhancing the spread of certain pathogens while limiting others, and has become a highly active research
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Autophagy is a cellular process that catabolizes cytoplasmic components and maintains energy homeostasis. As a stress response, the autophagy machinery interconnects a wide range of cellular pathways, enhancing the spread of certain pathogens while limiting others, and has become a highly active research area over the past several years. Independent laboratories have recently reported that autophagy vesicles accumulate in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected cells and that autophagy proteins can function as proviral factors required for HCV replication. In this review, we summarize what is currently known about the interplay between autophagy and HCV and the possible mechanisms whereby autophagy proteins might favor HCV propagation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autophagy and Viruses)
Figures

Open AccessReview Homologous Recombination in Negative Sense RNA Viruses
Viruses 2011, 3(8), 1358-1373; doi:10.3390/v3081358
Received: 3 June 2011 / Revised: 12 July 2011 / Accepted: 22 July 2011 / Published: 4 August 2011
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (135 KB)
Abstract
Recombination is an important process that influences biological evolution at many different levels. More and more homologous recombination events have been reported among negative sense RNA viruses recently. While sporadic authentic examples indicate that homologous recombination does occur, recombination seems to be generally
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Recombination is an important process that influences biological evolution at many different levels. More and more homologous recombination events have been reported among negative sense RNA viruses recently. While sporadic authentic examples indicate that homologous recombination does occur, recombination seems to be generally rare or even absent in most negative sense RNA viruses, and most of the homologous recombination events reported in the literature were likely generated artificially due to lab contamination or inappropriate bioinformatics methods. Homologous recombination in negative sense RNA viruses should be reported with caution in the future, and only after stringent quality control efforts. Moreover, co-infection experiments should be performed to confirm whether recombination can occur. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recombination in Viruses)
Open AccessReview HTLV-1 and Innate Immunity
Viruses 2011, 3(8), 1374-1394; doi:10.3390/v3081374
Received: 23 June 2011 / Revised: 20 July 2011 / Accepted: 1 August 2011 / Published: 8 August 2011
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (749 KB)
Abstract
Innate immunity plays a critical role in the host response to a viral infection. The innate response has two main functions. First, it triggers effector mechanisms that restrict the infection. Second, it primes development of the adaptive response, which completes the elimination of
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Innate immunity plays a critical role in the host response to a viral infection. The innate response has two main functions. First, it triggers effector mechanisms that restrict the infection. Second, it primes development of the adaptive response, which completes the elimination of the pathogen or of infected cells. In vivo, HTLV-1 infects T lymphocytes that participate in adaptive immunity but also monocytes and dendritic cells that are major players in innate immunity. Herein, we will review the interplay between HTLV-1 and innate immunity. Particular emphasis is put on HTLV-1-induced alteration of type-I interferon (IFN-I) function. In vitro, the viral Tax protein plays a significant role in the alteration of IFN synthesis and signaling. Despite this, IFN-I/AZT treatment of Adult T‑cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL) patients leads to complete remission. We will discuss a model in which exogenous IFN-I could act both on the microenvironment of the T-cells to protect them from infection, and also on infected cells when combined with other drugs that lead to Tax down-regulation/degradation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in HTLV Research)
Open AccessReview Converging Strategies in Expression of Human Complex Retroviruses
Viruses 2011, 3(8), 1395-1414; doi:10.3390/v3081395
Received: 5 July 2011 / Revised: 28 July 2011 / Accepted: 28 July 2011 / Published: 11 August 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (314 KB)
Abstract
The discovery of human retroviruses in the early 1980s revealed the existence of viral-encoded non-structural genes that were not evident in previously described animal retroviruses. Based on the absence or presence of these additional genes retroviruses were classified as ‘simple’ and ‘complex’, respectively.
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The discovery of human retroviruses in the early 1980s revealed the existence of viral-encoded non-structural genes that were not evident in previously described animal retroviruses. Based on the absence or presence of these additional genes retroviruses were classified as ‘simple’ and ‘complex’, respectively. Expression of most of these extra genes is achieved through the generation of alternatively spliced mRNAs. The present review summarizes the genetic organization and expression strategies of human complex retroviruses and highlights the converging mechanisms controlling their life cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in HTLV Research)
Open AccessReview Adenovirus Recruits Dynein by an Evolutionary Novel Mechanism Involving Direct Binding to pH-Primed Hexon
Viruses 2011, 3(8), 1417-1431; doi:10.3390/v3081417
Received: 19 July 2011 / Revised: 3 August 2011 / Accepted: 6 August 2011 / Published: 12 August 2011
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (480 KB)
Abstract
Following receptor-mediated uptake into endocytic vesicles and escape from the endosome, adenovirus is transported by cytoplasmic dynein along microtubules to the perinuclear region of the cell. How motor proteins are recruited to viruses for their own use has begun to be investigated only
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Following receptor-mediated uptake into endocytic vesicles and escape from the endosome, adenovirus is transported by cytoplasmic dynein along microtubules to the perinuclear region of the cell. How motor proteins are recruited to viruses for their own use has begun to be investigated only recently. We review here the evidence for a role for dynein and other motor proteins in adenovirus infectivity. We also discuss the implications of recent studies on the mechanism of dynein recruitment to adenovirus for understanding the relationship between pathogenic and physiological cargo recruitment and for the evolutionary origins of dynein-mediated adenovirus transport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytoskeleton in Viral Infections)
Figures

Open AccessReview Cell Surface Markers in HTLV-1 Pathogenesis
Viruses 2011, 3(8), 1439-1459; doi:10.3390/v3081439
Received: 7 July 2011 / Revised: 25 July 2011 / Accepted: 8 August 2011 / Published: 16 August 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (484 KB)
Abstract
The phenotype of HTLV-1-transformed CD4+ T lymphocytes largely depends on defined viral effector molecules such as the viral oncoprotein Tax. In this review, we exemplify the expression pattern of characteristic lineage markers, costimulatory receptors and ligands of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily,
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The phenotype of HTLV-1-transformed CD4+ T lymphocytes largely depends on defined viral effector molecules such as the viral oncoprotein Tax. In this review, we exemplify the expression pattern of characteristic lineage markers, costimulatory receptors and ligands of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, cytokine receptors, and adhesion molecules on HTLV-1-transformed cells. These molecules may provide survival signals for the transformed cells. Expression of characteristic surface markers might therefore contribute to persistence of HTLV-1-transformed lymphocytes and to the development of HTLV-1-associated disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in HTLV Research)
Open AccessReview Recombination between Poliovirus and Coxsackie A Viruses of Species C: A Model of Viral Genetic Plasticity and Emergence
Viruses 2011, 3(8), 1460-1484; doi:10.3390/v3081460
Received: 2 June 2011 / Revised: 3 August 2011 / Accepted: 3 August 2011 / Published: 17 August 2011
Cited by 48 | PDF Full-text (2734 KB)
Abstract
Genetic recombination in RNA viruses was discovered many years ago for poliovirus (PV), an enterovirus of the Picornaviridae family, and studied using PV or other picornaviruses as models. Recently, recombination was shown to be a general phenomenon between different types of enteroviruses of
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Genetic recombination in RNA viruses was discovered many years ago for poliovirus (PV), an enterovirus of the Picornaviridae family, and studied using PV or other picornaviruses as models. Recently, recombination was shown to be a general phenomenon between different types of enteroviruses of the same species. In particular, the interest for this mechanism of genetic plasticity was renewed with the emergence of pathogenic recombinant circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs), which were implicated in poliomyelitis outbreaks in several regions of the world with insufficient vaccination coverage. Most of these cVDPVs had mosaic genomes constituted of mutated poliovaccine capsid sequences and part or all of the non-structural sequences from other human enteroviruses of species C (HEV-C), in particular coxsackie A viruses. A study in Madagascar showed that recombinant cVDPVs had been co-circulating in a small population of children with many different HEV-C types. This viral ecosystem showed a surprising and extensive biodiversity associated to several types and recombinant genotypes, indicating that intertypic genetic recombination was not only a mechanism of evolution for HEV-C, but an usual mode of genetic plasticity shaping viral diversity. Results suggested that recombination may be, in conjunction with mutations, implicated in the phenotypic diversity of enterovirus strains and in the emergence of new pathogenic strains. Nevertheless, little is known about the rules and mechanisms which govern genetic exchanges between HEV-C types, as well as about the importance of intertypic recombination in generating phenotypic variation. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the mechanisms of evolution of PV, in particular recombination events leading to the emergence of recombinant cVDPVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recombination in Viruses)
Open AccessReview Intracellular Events and Cell Fate in Filovirus Infection
Viruses 2011, 3(8), 1501-1531; doi:10.3390/v3081501
Received: 7 June 2011 / Revised: 9 August 2011 / Accepted: 15 August 2011 / Published: 24 August 2011
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (4936 KB)
Abstract
Marburg and Ebola viruses cause a severe hemorrhagic disease in humans with high fatality rates. Early target cells of filoviruses are monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. The infection spreads to the liver, spleen and later other organs by blood and lymph flow. A
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Marburg and Ebola viruses cause a severe hemorrhagic disease in humans with high fatality rates. Early target cells of filoviruses are monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. The infection spreads to the liver, spleen and later other organs by blood and lymph flow. A hallmark of filovirus infection is the depletion of non-infected lymphocytes; however, the molecular mechanisms leading to the observed bystander lymphocyte apoptosis are poorly understood. Also, there is limited knowledge about the fate of infected cells in filovirus disease. In this review we will explore what is known about the intracellular events leading to virus amplification and cell damage in filovirus infection. Furthermore, we will discuss how cellular dysfunction and cell death may correlate with disease pathogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of Emerging and Re-Emerging RNA Viruses)

Other

Jump to: Editorial, Research, Review

Open AccessCommentary Origin of XMRV and its Demise as a Human Pathogen Associated with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Viruses 2011, 3(8), 1312-1319; doi:10.3390/v3081312
Received: 23 June 2011 / Revised: 4 July 2011 / Accepted: 14 July 2011 / Published: 27 July 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (506 KB)
Abstract
Retroviruses are well known pathogens of mammals, birds and fish. Their potential to induce cancer in chickens was already described almost 100 years ago and murine retroviruses have been a subject of study for 50 years. The first human retroviruses, HTLV and HIV,
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Retroviruses are well known pathogens of mammals, birds and fish. Their potential to induce cancer in chickens was already described almost 100 years ago and murine retroviruses have been a subject of study for 50 years. The first human retroviruses, HTLV and HIV, were discovered more than 30 years ago, surprising researchers and physicians by the profound differences in the diseases they cause. HTLV-1 is able to induce, after decades of infection, lymphomas/leukemia or neuroimmune disorders whereas untreated HIV infection leads almost inevitably to AIDS. The recently described XMRV (xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus) appeared to possess many of the features known for HTLV and was regarded by some to be the third human retrovirus. However, recent publications by Knox et al. [1] and Paprotka et al. [2] have shed new light on this gammaretrovirus. Knox and colleagues clearly demonstrate that XMRV is absent in patients belonging to a chronic fatigue syndrome cohort who had previously been reported to be XMRV-positive [3]. This supports the growing suspicion that laboratory contamination was responsible for the postulated link between XMRV and the disease. Furthermore, Paprotka et al’s identification of XMRV’s origin and the phylogenetic analysis of known XMRV sequences are further nails in the coffin to the notion that XMRV is a clinically relevant infectious human retrovirus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Editorial)
Open AccessCorrection Correction: Okomo-Adhiambo, M. et al. Neuraminidase Inhibitor Susceptibility Testing in Human Influenza Viruses: A Laboratory Surveillance Perspective. Viruses 2010, 2, 2269-2289
Viruses 2011, 3(8), 1415-1416; doi:10.3390/v3081415
Received: 9 August 2011 / Accepted: 12 August 2011 / Published: 12 August 2011
PDF Full-text (67 KB)
Abstract
The authors would like to make the following corrections to their published paper: There was an error in calculation of IC50 fold changes for the NAI-resistant viruses reported in Table 1 of the above-mentioned paper. The corrected values are marked in the
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The authors would like to make the following corrections to their published paper: There was an error in calculation of IC50 fold changes for the NAI-resistant viruses reported in Table 1 of the above-mentioned paper. The corrected values are marked in the updated Table 1 below. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antivirals Against Influenza)

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