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Converging Strategies in Expression of Human Complex Retroviruses
Department of Oncology and Surgical Sciences, University of Padova, Via Gattamelata 64, I-35128 Padova, Italy
Istituto Oncologico Veneto-IRCCS, I-35128 Padova, Italy
These authors contributed equally.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 July 2011; in revised form: 28 July 2011 / Accepted: 28 July 2011 / Published: 11 August 2011
Abstract: The discovery of human retroviruses in the early 1980s revealed the existence of viral-encoded non-structural genes that were not evident in previously described animal retroviruses. Based on the absence or presence of these additional genes retroviruses were classified as ‘simple’ and ‘complex’, respectively. Expression of most of these extra genes is achieved through the generation of alternatively spliced mRNAs. The present review summarizes the genetic organization and expression strategies of human complex retroviruses and highlights the converging mechanisms controlling their life cycles.
Keywords: HTLV-1; Rex; leukemia
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MDPI and ACS Style
Cavallari, I.; Rende, F.; D'Agostino, D.M.; Ciminale, V. Converging Strategies in Expression of Human Complex Retroviruses. Viruses 2011, 3, 1395-1414.
Cavallari I, Rende F, D'Agostino DM, Ciminale V. Converging Strategies in Expression of Human Complex Retroviruses. Viruses. 2011; 3(8):1395-1414.
Cavallari, Ilaria; Rende, Francesca; D'Agostino, Donna M.; Ciminale, Vincenzo. 2011. "Converging Strategies in Expression of Human Complex Retroviruses." Viruses 3, no. 8: 1395-1414.