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The Prevalence and Significance of HTLV-I/II Seroindeterminate Western Blot Patterns
Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 June 2011; in revised form: 22 July 2011 / Accepted: 23 July 2011 / Published: 2 August 2011
Abstract: Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) infects an estimated 15–20 million persons worldwide. A number of diseases have been associated with the virus including adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), HTLV-I uveitis, and HTLV-I-associated infective dermatitis. Once it was shown that there is an increased risk for developing HAM/TSP associated with blood transfusion, screening for HTLV-1 among blood banks was implemented in Japan, United States, France, and the Netherlands. This process includes detection by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) followed by a confirmatory Western blot (WB) in which recombinant proteins specific for HTLV-I Env glycoproteins are incorporated into WB strips. HTLV-I seropositive results are defined by the presence of antibodies against either gp46 or gp62/68 (both Env protein bands) and either p19, p24, or p53 (one of the gag bands). HTLV-II seropositivity is confirmed by the presence of rgp46-II. However, numerous cases have been documented in which serum samples are reactive by EIA, but an incomplete banding pattern is displayed by subsequent confirmatory WB. Although the significance of these HTLV-I/II seroindeterminates is unclear, it may suggest a much higher incidence of exposure to HTLV-I/II than previously estimated.
Keywords: HTLV-I; seroindeterminate; Western blot
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Abrams, A.; Akahata, Y.; Jacobson, S. The Prevalence and Significance of HTLV-I/II Seroindeterminate Western Blot Patterns. Viruses 2011, 3, 1320-1331.
Abrams A, Akahata Y, Jacobson S. The Prevalence and Significance of HTLV-I/II Seroindeterminate Western Blot Patterns. Viruses. 2011; 3(8):1320-1331.
Abrams, Anna; Akahata, Yoshimi; Jacobson, Steven. 2011. "The Prevalence and Significance of HTLV-I/II Seroindeterminate Western Blot Patterns." Viruses 3, no. 8: 1320-1331.