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Materials, Volume 9, Issue 8 (August 2016)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) In recent years, the increased use of semiconductor nanocrystals in many applications has been [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of Injection Molding Parameters for HDPE/TiO2 Nanocomposites Fabrication with Multiple Performance Characteristics Using the Taguchi Method and Grey Relational Analysis
Materials 2016, 9(8), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9080710
Received: 17 July 2016 / Revised: 16 August 2016 / Accepted: 17 August 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (900 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The current study presents an investigation on the optimization of injection molding parameters of HDPE/TiO2 nanocomposites using grey relational analysis with the Taguchi method. Four control factors, including filler concentration (i.e., TiO2), barrel temperature, residence time and holding time, were
[...] Read more.
The current study presents an investigation on the optimization of injection molding parameters of HDPE/TiO2 nanocomposites using grey relational analysis with the Taguchi method. Four control factors, including filler concentration (i.e., TiO2), barrel temperature, residence time and holding time, were chosen at three different levels of each. Mechanical properties, such as yield strength, Young’s modulus and elongation, were selected as the performance targets. Nine experimental runs were carried out based on the Taguchi L9 orthogonal array, and the data were processed according to the grey relational steps. The optimal process parameters were found based on the average responses of the grey relational grades, and the ideal operating conditions were found to be a filler concentration of 5 wt % TiO2, a barrel temperature of 225 °C, a residence time of 30 min and a holding time of 20 s. Moreover, analysis of variance (ANOVA) has also been applied to identify the most significant factor, and the percentage of TiO2 nanoparticles was found to have the most significant effect on the properties of the HDPE/TiO2 nanocomposites fabricated through the injection molding process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Material Parameters for the Simulation of Acoustic Absorption of Fouled Sintered Fiber Felts
Materials 2016, 9(8), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9080709
Received: 30 May 2016 / Revised: 25 July 2016 / Accepted: 5 August 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2601 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As a reaction to the increasing noise pollution, caused by the expansion of airports close to residential areas, porous trailing edges are investigated to reduce the aeroacoustic noise produced by flow around the airframe. Besides mechanical and acoustical investigations of porous materials, the
[...] Read more.
As a reaction to the increasing noise pollution, caused by the expansion of airports close to residential areas, porous trailing edges are investigated to reduce the aeroacoustic noise produced by flow around the airframe. Besides mechanical and acoustical investigations of porous materials, the fouling behavior of promising materials is an important aspect to estimate the performance in long-term use. For this study, two sintered fiber felts were selected for a long-term fouling experiment where the development of the flow resistivity and accumulation of dirt was observed. Based on 3D structural characterizations obtained from X-ray tomography of the initial materials, acoustic models (Biot and Johnson–Champoux–Allard) in the frame of the transfer matrix method were applied to the sintered fiber felts. Flow resistivity measurements and the measurements of the absorption coefficient in an impedance tube are the basis for a fouling model for sintered fiber felts. The contribution will conclude with recommendations concerning the modeling of pollution processes of porous materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustic Waves in Advanced Materials)
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Open AccessArticle A New Superhard Phase and Physical Properties of ZrB3 from First-Principles Calculations
Materials 2016, 9(8), 703; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9080703
Received: 25 July 2016 / Revised: 11 August 2016 / Accepted: 15 August 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (7787 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Using the first-principles particle swarm optimization algorithm for crystal structural prediction, we have predicted a novel monoclinic C2/m structure for ZrB3, which is more energetically favorable than the previously proposed FeB3-, TcP3-, MoB3-,
[...] Read more.
Using the first-principles particle swarm optimization algorithm for crystal structural prediction, we have predicted a novel monoclinic C2/m structure for ZrB3, which is more energetically favorable than the previously proposed FeB3-, TcP3-, MoB3-, WB3-, and OsB3-type structures in the considered pressure range. The new phase is mechanically and dynamically stable, as confirmed by the calculations of its elastic constants and phonon dispersion curve. The calculated large shear modulus (227 GPa) and high hardness (42.2 GPa) show that ZrB3 within the monoclinic phase is a potentially superhard material. The analyses of the electronic density of states and chemical bonding reveal that the strong B–B and B–Zr covalent bonds are attributed to its high hardness. By the quasi-harmonic Debye model, the heat capacity, thermal expansion coefficient and Grüneisen parameter of ZrB3 are also systemically investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Multiscale Modeling and Simulation in Materials Science)
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Open AccessArticle Study on the Impact Resistance of Bionic Layered Composite of TiC-TiB2/Al from Al-Ti-B4C System
Materials 2016, 9(8), 708; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9080708
Received: 23 June 2016 / Revised: 16 August 2016 / Accepted: 17 August 2016 / Published: 20 August 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (11331 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mechanical property and impact resistance mechanism of bionic layered composite was investigated. Due to light weight and high strength property, white clam shell was chosen as bionic model for design of bionic layered composite. The intercoupling model between hard layer and soft layer
[...] Read more.
Mechanical property and impact resistance mechanism of bionic layered composite was investigated. Due to light weight and high strength property, white clam shell was chosen as bionic model for design of bionic layered composite. The intercoupling model between hard layer and soft layer was identical to the layered microstructure and hardness tendency of the white clam shell, which connected the bionic design and fabrication. TiC-TiB2 reinforced Al matrix composites fabricated from Al-Ti-B4C system with 40 wt. %, 50 wt. % and 30 wt. % Al contents were treated as an outer layer, middle layer and inner layer in hard layers. Pure Al matrix was regarded as a soft layer. Compared with traditional homogenous Al-Ti-B4C composite, bionic layered composite exhibited high mechanical properties including flexural strength, fracture toughness, compressive strength and impact toughness. The intercoupling effect of layered structure and combination model of hard and soft played a key role in high impact resistance of the bionic layered composite, proving the feasibility and practicability of the bionic model of a white clam shell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Membrane Functionalization with Hyperbranched Polymers
Materials 2016, 9(8), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9080706
Received: 14 July 2016 / Revised: 10 August 2016 / Accepted: 15 August 2016 / Published: 20 August 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1807 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polymer membranes have been modified with hyperbranched polymers with the aim to generate a high density of hydrophilic functional groups at the membrane surface. For this purpose hyperbranched polymers containing amino, alcohol, and carboxylic acid end groups were used for membrane modification, respectively.
[...] Read more.
Polymer membranes have been modified with hyperbranched polymers with the aim to generate a high density of hydrophilic functional groups at the membrane surface. For this purpose hyperbranched polymers containing amino, alcohol, and carboxylic acid end groups were used for membrane modification, respectively. Thus, surface potential and charges were changed significantly to result in attractive or repulsive interactions towards three different proteins (albumin, lysozyme, myoglobin) that were used to indicate membrane fouling properties. Our studies demonstrated that hydrophilization alone is not effective for avoiding membrane fouling when charged proteins are present. In contrast, electrostatic repulsion seems to be a general key factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Porous Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Coating and Patterning Functional Materials for Large Area Electrofluidic Arrays
Materials 2016, 9(8), 707; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9080707
Received: 12 June 2016 / Revised: 5 August 2016 / Accepted: 15 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3616 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Industrialization of electrofluidic devices requires both high performance coating laminates and efficient material utilization on large area substrates. Here we show that screen printing can be effectively used to provide homogeneous pin-hole free patterned amorphous fluoropolymer dielectric layers to provide both the insulating
[...] Read more.
Industrialization of electrofluidic devices requires both high performance coating laminates and efficient material utilization on large area substrates. Here we show that screen printing can be effectively used to provide homogeneous pin-hole free patterned amorphous fluoropolymer dielectric layers to provide both the insulating and fluidic reversibility required for devices. Subsequently, we over-coat photoresist using slit coating on this normally extremely hydrophobic layer. In this way, we are able to pattern the photoresist by conventional lithography to provide the chemical contrast required for liquids dosing by self-assembly and highly-reversible electrofluidic switching. Materials, interfacial chemistry, and processing all contribute to the provision of the required engineered substrate properties. Coating homogeneity as characterized by metrology and device performance data are used to validate the methodology, which is well-suited for transfer to high volume production in existing LCD cell-making facilities. Full article
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Open AccessAddendum Addendum: Bassan, J.C.; et al. Immobilization of Trypsin in Lignocellulosic Waste Material to Produce Peptides with Bioactive Potential from Whey Protein. Materials 2016, 9(5), 357
Materials 2016, 9(8), 705; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9080705
Received: 11 August 2016 / Revised: 15 August 2016 / Accepted: 15 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
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Abstract
The authors would like to add the following sentence to the “Acknowledgments” section of their article [1]:[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Hybrid Effect Evaluation of Steel Fiber and Carbon Fiber on the Performance of the Fiber Reinforced Concrete
Materials 2016, 9(8), 704; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9080704
Received: 10 April 2016 / Revised: 20 July 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 18 August 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (799 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fiber reinforcement is an important method to enhance the performance of concrete. In this study, the compressive test and impact test were conducted, and then the hybrid effect between steel fiber (SF) and carbon fiber (CF) was evaluated by employing the hybrid effect
[...] Read more.
Fiber reinforcement is an important method to enhance the performance of concrete. In this study, the compressive test and impact test were conducted, and then the hybrid effect between steel fiber (SF) and carbon fiber (CF) was evaluated by employing the hybrid effect index. Compressive toughness and impact toughness of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC), carbon fiber reinforced concrete (CFRC) and hybrid fiber reinforced concrete (HFRC) were explored at steel fiber volume fraction 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and carbon fiber 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%. Results showed that the addition of steel fiber and carbon fiber can increase the compressive strength. SF, CF and the hybridization between them could increase the compressive toughness significantly. The impact test results showed that as the volume of fiber increased, the impact number of the first visible crack and the ultimate failure also increased. The improvement of toughness mainly lay in improving the crack resistance after the first crack. Based on the test results, the positive hybrid effect of steel fiber and carbon fiber existed in hybrid fiber reinforced concrete. The relationship between the compressive toughness and impact toughness was also explored. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Improvement in the Tensile Bond Strength between 3Y-TZP Ceramic and Enamel by Surface Treatments
Materials 2016, 9(8), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9080702
Received: 26 July 2016 / Revised: 12 August 2016 / Accepted: 15 August 2016 / Published: 18 August 2016
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Abstract
This study examined the effects of 3 mol % yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (3Y-TZP) ceramic surface treatments on the tensile bond strength and surface characteristics of enamel. To measure the tensile bond strength, the 3Y-TZP and tooth specimens were manufactured in a mini-dumbbell
[...] Read more.
This study examined the effects of 3 mol % yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (3Y-TZP) ceramic surface treatments on the tensile bond strength and surface characteristics of enamel. To measure the tensile bond strength, the 3Y-TZP and tooth specimens were manufactured in a mini-dumbbell shape and divided into four groups based on the type of 3Y-TZP surface treatment: polishing (P), 110 µm alumina sandblasting (S), 110 µm alumina sandblasting combined with selective infiltration etching (SS), and 110 µm alumina sandblasting combined with MDP (10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate)-containing silane primer (SP). After surface treatment, the surface roughness, wettability, and surface changes were examined, and the tensile bond strength was measured. The mean values (from lowest to highest) for tensile bond strength (MPa) were as follows: P, 8.94 ± 2.30; S, 21.33 ± 2.00; SS, 26.67 ± 4.76; and SP, 31.74 ± 2.66. Compared to the P group, the mean surface roughness was significantly increased, and the mean contact angle was significantly decreased, while wettability was increased in the other groups. Therefore, surface treatment with 110 µm alumina sandblasting and MDP-containing silane primer is suitable for clinical applications, as it considerably improves the bond strength between 3Y-TZP and enamel. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Mechanical and Bactericidal Properties of Cement Mortars Containing Waste Glass Aggregate and Nanomaterials
Materials 2016, 9(8), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9080701
Received: 11 July 2016 / Revised: 7 August 2016 / Accepted: 10 August 2016 / Published: 18 August 2016
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (3701 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The recycling of waste glass is a major problem for municipalities worldwide. The problem concerns especially colored waste glass which, due to its low recycling rate as result of high level of impurity, has mostly been dumped into landfills. In recent years, a
[...] Read more.
The recycling of waste glass is a major problem for municipalities worldwide. The problem concerns especially colored waste glass which, due to its low recycling rate as result of high level of impurity, has mostly been dumped into landfills. In recent years, a new use was found for it: instead of creating waste, it can be recycled as an additive in building materials. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of manufacturing sustainable and self-cleaning cement mortars with use of commercially available nanomaterials and brown soda-lime waste glass. Mechanical and bactericidal properties of cement mortars containing brown soda-lime waste glass and commercially available nanomaterials (amorphous nanosilica and cement containing nanocrystalline titanium dioxide) were analyzed in terms of waste glass content and the effectiveness of nanomaterials. Quartz sand is replaced with brown waste glass at ratios of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% by weight. Study has shown that waste glass can act as a successful replacement for sand (up to 100%) to produce cement mortars while nanosilica is incorporated. Additionally, a positive effect of waste glass aggregate for bactericidal properties of cement mortars was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Specific Hydroxyapatite {001} Binding Heptapeptide by Phage Display and Its Nucleation Effect
Materials 2016, 9(8), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9080700
Received: 4 August 2016 / Revised: 12 August 2016 / Accepted: 15 August 2016 / Published: 17 August 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3986 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With recent developments of molecular biomimetics that combine genetic engineering and nanotechnology, peptides can be genetically engineered to bind specifically to inorganic components and execute the task of collagen matrix proteins. In this study, using biogenous tooth enamel as binding substrate, we identified
[...] Read more.
With recent developments of molecular biomimetics that combine genetic engineering and nanotechnology, peptides can be genetically engineered to bind specifically to inorganic components and execute the task of collagen matrix proteins. In this study, using biogenous tooth enamel as binding substrate, we identified a new heptapeptide (enamel high-affinity binding peptide, EHBP) from linear 7-mer peptide phage display library. Through the output/input affinity test, it was found that EHBP has the highest affinity to enamel with an output/input ratio of 14.814 × 10−7, while a random peptide (RP) displayed much lower output/input ratio of 0.00035 × 10−7. This binding affinity was also verified by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis. It was found that EHBP absorbing onto the enamel surface exhibits highest normalized fluorescence intensity (5.6 ± 1.2), comparing to the intensity of EHBP to enamel longitudinal section (1.5 ± 0.9) (p < 0.05) as well as to the intensity of a low-affinity binding peptide (ELBP) to enamel (1.5 ± 0.5) (p < 0.05). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Attenuated total Reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) studies further confirmed that crystallized hydroxyapatite were precipitated in the mineralization solution containing EHBP. To better understand the nucleation effect of EHBP, EHBP was further investigated on its interaction with calcium phosphate clusters through in vitro mineralization model. The calcium and phosphate ion consumption as well as zeta potential survey revealed that EHBP might previously adsorb to phosphate (PO43−) groups and then initiate the precipitation of calcium and phosphate groups. This study not only proved the electrostatic interaction of phosphate group and the genetically engineering solid-binding peptide, but also provided a novel nucleation motif for potential applications in guided hard tissue biomineralization and regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Phosphate in Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Transverse Crack Detection in 3D Angle Interlock Glass Fibre Composites Using Acoustic Emission
Materials 2016, 9(8), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9080699
Received: 31 May 2016 / Revised: 4 August 2016 / Accepted: 12 August 2016 / Published: 16 August 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (6056 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In addition to manufacturing cost and production rates, damage resistance has become a major issue for the composites industry. Three-dimensional (3D) woven composites have superior through-thickness properties compared to two-dimensional (2D) laminates, for example, improved impact damage resistance, high interlaminar fracture toughness and
[...] Read more.
In addition to manufacturing cost and production rates, damage resistance has become a major issue for the composites industry. Three-dimensional (3D) woven composites have superior through-thickness properties compared to two-dimensional (2D) laminates, for example, improved impact damage resistance, high interlaminar fracture toughness and reduced notch sensitivity. The performance of 3D woven preforms is dependent on the fabric architecture, which is determined by the binding pattern. For this study, angle interlock (AI) structures with through-thickness binding were manufactured. The AI cracking simulation shows that the transverse component is the one that leads to transverse matrix cracking in the weft yarn under tensile loading. Monitoring of acoustic emission (AE) during mechanical loading is an effective tool in the study of damage processes in glass fiber-reinforced composites. Tests were performed with piezoelectric sensors bonded on a tensile specimen acting as passive receivers of AE signals. An experimental data has been generated which was useful to validate the multi-physics finite element method (MP-FEM), providing insight into the damage behaviour of novel 3D AI glass fibre composites. MP-FEM and experimental data showed that transverse crack generated a predominant flexural mode A0 and also a less energetic extensional mode S0. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustic Waves in Advanced Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Fatigue Property of Open-Hole Steel Plates Influenced by Bolted Clamp-up and Hole Fabrication Methods
Materials 2016, 9(8), 698; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9080698
Received: 1 July 2016 / Revised: 8 August 2016 / Accepted: 8 August 2016 / Published: 16 August 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (10069 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Steel plates with open holes are commonly used in structural assemblies. The fatigue properties of such details are influenced by bolted clamp-up and hole fabrication methods. The fracture surface, stiffness degradation and fatigue life of test specimens are investigated in detail and compared
[...] Read more.
Steel plates with open holes are commonly used in structural assemblies. The fatigue properties of such details are influenced by bolted clamp-up and hole fabrication methods. The fracture surface, stiffness degradation and fatigue life of test specimens are investigated in detail and compared with the contemporary test data. The analysis results show that the presence of draglines greatly influences the fatigue crack initiation at the open-hole cut by laser. The bolted clamp-up condition greatly enhances the stiffness and the fatigue life of the open-hole details. A discussion is also made from a comparison with the referred fatigue life of hole fabrication details, such as the influence of plate thickness and plasma cutting, drilling and oxy-fuel gas cutting, with the details studied herein. This work could enhance the understanding of the fatigue property and design of such details. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Tailorable Burning Behavior of Ti14 Alloy by Controlling Semi-Solid Forging Temperature
Materials 2016, 9(8), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9080697
Received: 29 June 2016 / Revised: 9 August 2016 / Accepted: 12 August 2016 / Published: 16 August 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4386 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Semi-solid processing (SSP) is a popular near-net-shape forming technology for metals, while its application is still limited in titanium alloy mainly due to its low formability. Recent works showed that SSP could effectively enhance the formability and mechanical properties of titanium alloys. The
[...] Read more.
Semi-solid processing (SSP) is a popular near-net-shape forming technology for metals, while its application is still limited in titanium alloy mainly due to its low formability. Recent works showed that SSP could effectively enhance the formability and mechanical properties of titanium alloys. The processing parameters such as temperature and forging rate/ratio, are directly correlated with the microstructure, which endow the alloy with different chemical and physical properties. Specifically, as a key structural material for the advanced aero-engine, the burn resistant performance is a crucial requirement for the burn resistant titanium alloy. Thus, this work aims to assess the burning behavior of Ti14, a kind of burn resistant alloy, as forged at different semi-solid forging temperatures. The burning characteristics of the alloy are analyzed by a series of burning tests with different burning durations, velocities, and microstructures of burned sample. The results showed that the burning process is highly dependent on the forging temperature, due to the fact that higher temperatures would result in more Ti2Cu precipitate within grain and along grain boundaries. Such a microstructure hinders the transport of oxygen in the stable burning stage through the formation of a kind of oxygen isolation Cu-enriched layer under the burn product zone. This work suggests that the burning resistance of the alloy can be effectively tuned by controlling the temperature during the semi-solid forging process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Metallurgy of High Performance Alloys)
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Open AccessArticle Nature of the Electrochemical Properties of Sulphur Substituted LiMn2O4 Spinel Cathode Material Studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
Materials 2016, 9(8), 696; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9080696
Received: 14 June 2016 / Revised: 29 July 2016 / Accepted: 9 August 2016 / Published: 16 August 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2757 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, nanostructured LiMn2O4 (LMO) and LiMn2O3.99S0.01 (LMOS1) spinel cathode materials were comprehensively investigated in terms of electrochemical properties. For this purpose, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements as a function of state of charge
[...] Read more.
In this work, nanostructured LiMn2O4 (LMO) and LiMn2O3.99S0.01 (LMOS1) spinel cathode materials were comprehensively investigated in terms of electrochemical properties. For this purpose, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements as a function of state of charge (SOC) were conducted on a representative charge and discharge cycle. The changes in the electrochemical performance of the stoichiometric and sulphur-substituted lithium manganese oxide spinels were examined, and suggested explanations for the observed dependencies were given. A strong influence of sulphur introduction into the spinel structure on the chemical stability and electrochemical characteristic was observed. It was demonstrated that the significant improvement in coulombic efficiency and capacity retention of lithium cell with LMOS1 active material arises from a more stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. Based on EIS studies, the Li ion diffusion coefficients in the cathodes were estimated, and the influence of sulphur on Li+ diffusivity in the spinel structure was established. The obtained results support the assumption that sulphur substitution is an effective way to promote chemical stability and the electrochemical performance of LiMn2O4 cathode material. Full article
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