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Materials 2016, 9(8), 687; doi:10.3390/ma9080687

Synthesis and Characterization of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Supported Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI/rGO) Composites Used for Pb(II) Removal

1
Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Information Systems of Mountainous Areas and Protection of Ecological Environment, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001, China
2
Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Biqiong Chen and Marco Morreale
Received: 20 June 2016 / Revised: 21 July 2016 / Accepted: 8 August 2016 / Published: 12 August 2016
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Abstract

Reduced graphene oxide-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI/rGO) composites were prepared by chemical deposition method and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, N2-sorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Operating parameters for the removal process of Pb(II) ions, such as temperature (20–40 °C), pH (3–5), initial concentration (400–600 mg/L) and contact time (20–60 min), were optimized using a quadratic model. The coefficient of determination (R2 > 0.99) obtained for the mathematical model indicates a high correlation between the experimental and predicted values. The optimal temperature, pH, initial concentration and contact time for Pb(II) ions removal in the present experiment were 21.30 °C, 5.00, 400.00 mg/L and 60.00 min, respectively. In addition, the Pb(II) removal by nZVI/rGO composites was quantitatively evaluated by using adsorption isotherms, such as Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, of which Langmuir isotherm gave a better correlation, and the calculated maximum adsorption capacity was 910 mg/g. The removal process of Pb(II) ions could be completed within 50 min, which was well described by the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Therefore, the nZVI/rGO composites are suitable as efficient materials for the advanced treatment of Pb(II)-containing wastewater. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pb(II) ions; nanoscale zero-valent iron; graphene; removal; response surface methodology Pb(II) ions; nanoscale zero-valent iron; graphene; removal; response surface methodology
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fan, M.; Li, T.; Hu, J.; Cao, R.; Wu, Q.; Wei, X.; Li, L.; Shi, X.; Ruan, W. Synthesis and Characterization of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Supported Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI/rGO) Composites Used for Pb(II) Removal. Materials 2016, 9, 687.

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