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Special Issue "Calcium Phosphate in Biomedical Applications"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Patrice Laquerriere

Université de Strasbourg, 23 rue de Loess, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: CaP; bone substitute; ion substitution; drug delivery; nanoparticles; template

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last ten years, the use of calcium phosphate materials has drastically increased. They have been chemically modified (Ca/P ratio, doping, etc.), physically modified (pore size, pore structure, etc.), and many other. Many studies included in vivo and or in vivo experiments.

In the present Special Issue, we propose to edit articles that present those modifications and their application in the dentistry, orthopedic, vaccination, bacteriology, immunology, etc.

Prof. Dr. Patrice Laquerriere
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Biocompatibility and Corrosion Protection Behaviour of Hydroxyapatite Sol-Gel-Derived Coatings on Ti6Al4V Alloy
Materials 2017, 10(2), 94; doi:10.3390/ma10020094
Received: 1 December 2016 / Revised: 17 January 2017 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 24 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (10049 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this work was to prepare hydroxyapatite coatings (HAp) by a sol-gel method on Ti6Al4V alloy and to study the bioactivity, biocompatibility and corrosion protection behaviour of these coatings in presence of simulated body fluids (SBFs). Thermogravimetric/Differential Thermal Analyses (TG/DTA) and
[...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to prepare hydroxyapatite coatings (HAp) by a sol-gel method on Ti6Al4V alloy and to study the bioactivity, biocompatibility and corrosion protection behaviour of these coatings in presence of simulated body fluids (SBFs). Thermogravimetric/Differential Thermal Analyses (TG/DTA) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) have been applied to obtain information about the phase transformations, mass loss, identification of the phases developed, crystallite size and degree of crystallinity of the obtained HAp powders. Fourier Transformer Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) has been utilized for studying the functional groups of the prepared structures. The surface morphology of the resulting HAp coatings was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The bioactivity was evaluated by soaking the HAp-coatings/Ti6Al4V system in Kokubo’s Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) applying Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) spectrometry. 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Alamar blue cell viability assays were used to study the biocompatibility. Finally, the corrosion behaviour of HAp-coatings/Ti6Al4V system was researched by means of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The obtained results showed that the prepared powders were nanocrystalline HAp with little deviations from that present in the human bone. All the prepared HAp coatings deposited on Ti6Al4V showed well-behaved biocompatibility, good bioactivity and corrosion protection properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Phosphate in Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle First-Row Transition Metal Doping in Calcium Phosphate Bioceramics: A Detailed Crystallographic Study
Materials 2017, 10(1), 92; doi:10.3390/ma10010092
Received: 30 November 2016 / Revised: 6 January 2017 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 23 January 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5743 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Doped calcium phosphate bioceramics are promising materials for bone repair surgery because of their chemical resemblance to the mineral constituent of bone. Among these materials, BCP samples composed of hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) and β-TCP (Ca3
[...] Read more.
Doped calcium phosphate bioceramics are promising materials for bone repair surgery because of their chemical resemblance to the mineral constituent of bone. Among these materials, BCP samples composed of hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) and β-TCP (Ca3(PO4)2) present a mineral analogy with the nano-multi-substituted hydroxyapatite bio-mineral part of bones. At the same time, doping can be used to tune the biological properties of these ceramics. This paper presents a general overview of the doping mechanisms of BCP samples using cations from the first-row transition metals (from manganese to zinc), with respect to the applied sintering temperature. The results enable the preparation of doped synthetic BCP that can be used to tailor biological properties, in particular by tuning the release amounts upon interaction with biological fluids. Intermediate sintering temperatures stabilize the doping elements in the more soluble β-TCP phase, which favors quick and easy release upon integration in the biological environment, whereas higher sintering temperatures locate the doping elements in the weakly soluble HAp phase, enabling a slow and continuous supply of the bio-inspired properties. An interstitial doping mechanism in the HAp hexagonal channel is observed for the six investigated cations (Mn2+, Fe3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+) with specific characteristics involving a shift away from the center of the hexagonal channel (Fe3+, Co2+), cationic oxidation (Mn3+, Co3+), and also cationic reduction (Cu+). The complete crystallochemical study highlights a complex HAp doping mechanism, mainly realized by an interstitial process combined with calcium substitution for the larger cations of the series leading to potentially calcium deficient HAp. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Phosphate in Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Alloying Element Ca on the Corrosion Behavior and Bioactivity of Anodic Films Formed on AM60 Mg Alloys
Materials 2017, 10(1), 11; doi:10.3390/ma10010011
Received: 18 November 2016 / Revised: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 December 2016 / Published: 26 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (8219 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Effects of alloying element Ca on the corrosion behavior and bioactivity of films formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) on AM60 alloys were investigated. The corrosion behavior was studied by conducting electrochemical tests in 0.9% NaCl solution while the bioactivity was evaluated by
[...] Read more.
Effects of alloying element Ca on the corrosion behavior and bioactivity of films formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) on AM60 alloys were investigated. The corrosion behavior was studied by conducting electrochemical tests in 0.9% NaCl solution while the bioactivity was evaluated by soaking the specimens in simulated body fluid (SBF). Under identical anodization conditions, the PEO film thicknesses increased with increasing Ca content in the alloys, which enhanced the corrosion resistance in NaCl solution. Thicker apatite layers grew on the PEO films of Ca-containing alloys because Ca was incorporated into the PEO film and because Ca was present in the alloys. Improvement of corrosion resistance and bioactivity of the PEO-coated AM60 by alloying with Ca may be beneficial for biodegradable implant applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Phosphate in Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Strontium-Substituted Bioceramics Particles: A New Way to Modulate MCP-1 and Gro-α Production by Human Primary Osteoblastic Cells
Materials 2016, 9(12), 985; doi:10.3390/ma9120985
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 5 December 2016
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Abstract
Background: To avoid morbidity and limited availability associated with autografts, synthetic calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics were extensively developed and used as bone filling materials. Controlling their induced-inflammatory response nevertheless remained a major concern. Strontium-containing CaP ceramics were recently demonstrated for impacting cytokines’ secretion
[...] Read more.
Background: To avoid morbidity and limited availability associated with autografts, synthetic calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics were extensively developed and used as bone filling materials. Controlling their induced-inflammatory response nevertheless remained a major concern. Strontium-containing CaP ceramics were recently demonstrated for impacting cytokines’ secretion pattern of human primary monocytes. The present study focuses on the ability of strontium-containing CaP to control the human primary bone cell production of two major inflammatory and pro-osteoclastogenic mediators, namely MCP-1 and Gro-α, in response to ceramics particles. Methods: This in vitro study was performed using human primary osteoblasts in which their response to ceramics was evaluated by PCR arrays, antibody arrays were used for screening and real-time PCR and ELISA for more focused analyses. Results: Study of mRNA and protein expression highlights that human primary bone cells are able to produce these inflammatory mediators and reveal that the adjunction of CaP in the culture medium leads to their enhanced production. Importantly, the current work determines the down-regulating effect of strontium-substituted CaP on MCP-1 and Gro-α production. Conclusion: Our findings point out a new capability of strontium to modulate human primary bone cells’ communication with the immune system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Phosphate in Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication and Physical Evaluation of Gelatin-Coated Carbonate Apatite Foam
Materials 2016, 9(9), 711; doi:10.3390/ma9090711
Received: 18 June 2016 / Revised: 28 July 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 23 August 2016
PDF Full-text (13416 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbonate apatite (CO3Ap) foam has gained much attention in recent years because of its ability to rapidly replace bone. However, its mechanical strength is extremely low for clinical use. In this study, to understand the potential of gelatin-reinforced CO3Ap
[...] Read more.
Carbonate apatite (CO3Ap) foam has gained much attention in recent years because of its ability to rapidly replace bone. However, its mechanical strength is extremely low for clinical use. In this study, to understand the potential of gelatin-reinforced CO3Ap foam for bone replacement, CO3Ap foam was reinforced with gelatin and the resulting physical characteristics were evaluated. The mechanical strength increased significantly with the gelatin reinforcement. The compressive strength of gelatin-free CO3Ap foam was 74 kPa whereas that of the gelatin-reinforced CO3Ap foam, fabricated using 30 mass % gelatin solution, was approximately 3 MPa. Heat treatment for crosslinking gelatin had little effect on the mechanical strength of the foam. The gelatin-reinforced foam did not maintain its shape when immersed in a saline solution as this promoted swelling of the gelatin; however, in the same conditions, the heat-treated gelatin-reinforced foam proved to be stable. It is concluded, therefore, that heat treatment is the key to the fabrication of stable gelatin-reinforced CO3Ap foam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Phosphate in Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Specific Hydroxyapatite {001} Binding Heptapeptide by Phage Display and Its Nucleation Effect
Materials 2016, 9(8), 700; doi:10.3390/ma9080700
Received: 4 August 2016 / Revised: 12 August 2016 / Accepted: 15 August 2016 / Published: 17 August 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3986 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With recent developments of molecular biomimetics that combine genetic engineering and nanotechnology, peptides can be genetically engineered to bind specifically to inorganic components and execute the task of collagen matrix proteins. In this study, using biogenous tooth enamel as binding substrate, we identified
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With recent developments of molecular biomimetics that combine genetic engineering and nanotechnology, peptides can be genetically engineered to bind specifically to inorganic components and execute the task of collagen matrix proteins. In this study, using biogenous tooth enamel as binding substrate, we identified a new heptapeptide (enamel high-affinity binding peptide, EHBP) from linear 7-mer peptide phage display library. Through the output/input affinity test, it was found that EHBP has the highest affinity to enamel with an output/input ratio of 14.814 × 10−7, while a random peptide (RP) displayed much lower output/input ratio of 0.00035 × 10−7. This binding affinity was also verified by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis. It was found that EHBP absorbing onto the enamel surface exhibits highest normalized fluorescence intensity (5.6 ± 1.2), comparing to the intensity of EHBP to enamel longitudinal section (1.5 ± 0.9) (p < 0.05) as well as to the intensity of a low-affinity binding peptide (ELBP) to enamel (1.5 ± 0.5) (p < 0.05). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Attenuated total Reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) studies further confirmed that crystallized hydroxyapatite were precipitated in the mineralization solution containing EHBP. To better understand the nucleation effect of EHBP, EHBP was further investigated on its interaction with calcium phosphate clusters through in vitro mineralization model. The calcium and phosphate ion consumption as well as zeta potential survey revealed that EHBP might previously adsorb to phosphate (PO43−) groups and then initiate the precipitation of calcium and phosphate groups. This study not only proved the electrostatic interaction of phosphate group and the genetically engineering solid-binding peptide, but also provided a novel nucleation motif for potential applications in guided hard tissue biomineralization and regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Phosphate in Biomedical Applications)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Calcium Phosphate Bioceramics: A Review of Their History, Structure, Properties, Coating Technologies and Biomedical Applications
Materials 2017, 10(4), 334; doi:10.3390/ma10040334
Received: 11 February 2017 / Revised: 15 March 2017 / Accepted: 22 March 2017 / Published: 24 March 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (19684 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Calcium phosphate (CaP) bioceramics are widely used in the field of bone regeneration, both in orthopedics and in dentistry, due to their good biocompatibility, osseointegration and osteoconduction. The aim of this article is to review the history, structure, properties and clinical applications of
[...] Read more.
Calcium phosphate (CaP) bioceramics are widely used in the field of bone regeneration, both in orthopedics and in dentistry, due to their good biocompatibility, osseointegration and osteoconduction. The aim of this article is to review the history, structure, properties and clinical applications of these materials, whether they are in the form of bone cements, paste, scaffolds, or coatings. Major analytical techniques for characterization of CaPs, in vitro and in vivo tests, and the requirements of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and international standards from CaP coatings on orthopedic and dental endosseous implants, are also summarized, along with the possible effect of sterilization on these materials. CaP coating technologies are summarized, with a focus on electrochemical processes. Theories on the formation of transient precursor phases in biomineralization, the dissolution and reprecipitation as bone of CaPs are discussed. A wide variety of CaPs are presented, from the individual phases to nano-CaP, biphasic and triphasic CaP formulations, composite CaP coatings and cements, functionally graded materials (FGMs), and antibacterial CaPs. We conclude by foreseeing the future of CaPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Phosphate in Biomedical Applications)
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