Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Energies, Volume 7, Issue 6 (June 2014), Pages 3512-4053

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-31
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle The Real-Time Optimisation of DNO Owned Storage Devices on the LV Network for Peak Reduction
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3537-3560; doi:10.3390/en7063537
Received: 27 March 2014 / Revised: 9 May 2014 / Accepted: 15 May 2014 / Published: 30 May 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (306 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Energy storage is a potential alternative to conventional network reinforcement of the low voltage (LV) distribution network to ensure the grid’s infrastructure remains within its operating constraints. This paper presents a study on the control of such storage devices, owned by distribution network
[...] Read more.
Energy storage is a potential alternative to conventional network reinforcement of the low voltage (LV) distribution network to ensure the grid’s infrastructure remains within its operating constraints. This paper presents a study on the control of such storage devices, owned by distribution network operators. A deterministic model predictive control (MPC) controller and a stochastic receding horizon controller (SRHC) are presented, where the objective is to achieve the greatest peak reduction in demand, for a given storage device specification, taking into account the high level of uncertainty in the prediction of LV demand. The algorithms presented in this paper are compared to a standard set-point controller and bench marked against a control algorithm with a perfect forecast. A specific case study, using storage on the LV network, is presented, and the results of each algorithm are compared. A comprehensive analysis is then carried out simulating a large number of LV networks of varying numbers of households. The results show that the performance of each algorithm is dependent on the number of aggregated households. However, on a typical aggregation, the novel SRHC algorithm presented in this paper is shown to outperform each of the comparable storage control techniques. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Cascaded Position-Flux Controller for an AMB System Operating at Zero Bias
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3561-3575; doi:10.3390/en7063561
Received: 20 March 2014 / Revised: 15 May 2014 / Accepted: 23 May 2014 / Published: 30 May 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1185 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
The paper reports on the implementation and the design of a controller for a fuel cell blower (FCB) with active magnetic bearings (AMBs). The cascaded position-fluxcentralized controller is comprised of a centralized position control loop and an inner flux control loop. The last
[...] Read more.
The paper reports on the implementation and the design of a controller for a fuel cell blower (FCB) with active magnetic bearings (AMBs). The cascaded position-fluxcentralized controller is comprised of a centralized position control loop and an inner flux control loop. The last one is based on state estimation without explicit flux measurements. As the position control is not dependent on the magnetic field nonlinearities, such a control structure enables operation under a zero bias. The practical working implementation of a flux control for the industrial levitated rotor is shown for the first time. The flux control gives better results than current control for both normal and zero bias operation. The system is analyzed fully, combining rotor dynamics and power amplifier analyses simultaneously. The importance of using the coil voltage in addition to current and practical treatment of the flux control is revealed. The centralized position-flux controller is compared with a state-of-the-art cascaded position-current control, which has inner current control loops. The proposed control solution with a zero bias can achieve a dynamic performance comparable that of a controller with the classical bias current. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle System for Road Vehicle Energy Optimization Using Real Time Road and Traffic Information
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3576-3598; doi:10.3390/en7063576
Received: 28 March 2014 / Revised: 9 May 2014 / Accepted: 21 May 2014 / Published: 2 June 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (466 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
Nowadays, reducing the energy and fuel consumption of road vehicles is a key issue. Different strategies have been proposed. One of them is to promote Eco-driving behaviour among drivers. Most Eco-driving tips take into account only the road stretch where the vehicle is
[...] Read more.
Nowadays, reducing the energy and fuel consumption of road vehicles is a key issue. Different strategies have been proposed. One of them is to promote Eco-driving behaviour among drivers. Most Eco-driving tips take into account only the road stretch where the vehicle is located. However, larger improvements could be achieved if information from subsequent stretches is used. The main objective of this work is to develop a system to warn the driver in real time of the optimal speed that should be maintained on every road segment in order to optimize the energy used and the fuel consumed while observing a time schedule. The system takes into account the road vertical profile, the fixed and variable speed limits and the traffic information retrieved using V2V and V2I communications. The system has been tested on real road sections with satisfactory results in fuel savings. Full article
Open AccessArticle Novel Modeling and Control Strategies for a HVAC System Including Carbon Dioxide Control
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3599-3617; doi:10.3390/en7063599
Received: 17 February 2014 / Revised: 27 April 2014 / Accepted: 20 May 2014 / Published: 2 June 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1065 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Conventional heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems have traditionally used the temperature and the humidity ratio as the quantitative indices of comfort in a room. Recently, the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has also been recognized as having an important contribution
[...] Read more.
Conventional heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems have traditionally used the temperature and the humidity ratio as the quantitative indices of comfort in a room. Recently, the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has also been recognized as having an important contribution to room comfort. This paper presents the modeling of an augmented HVAC system including CO2 concentration, and its control strategies. Because the proposed augmented HVAC system is multi-input multi-output (MIMO) and has no relative degree problem, the dynamic extension algorithm can be employed; then, a feedback linearization technique is applied. A linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) is designed to optimize control performance and to stabilize the proposed HVAC system. Simulation results are provided to validate the proposed system model, as well as its linearized control system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design and Operation 2014)
Open AccessArticle A Single Phase Doubly Grounded Semi-Z-Source Inverter for Photovoltaic (PV) Systems with Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3618-3641; doi:10.3390/en7063618
Received: 30 January 2014 / Revised: 28 March 2014 / Accepted: 16 May 2014 / Published: 3 June 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3013 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a single phase doubly grounded semi-Z-source inverter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is proposed for photovoltaic (PV) systems. This proposed system utilizes a single-ended primary inductor (SEPIC) converter as DC-DC converter to implement the MPPT algorithm for tracking the
[...] Read more.
In this paper, a single phase doubly grounded semi-Z-source inverter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is proposed for photovoltaic (PV) systems. This proposed system utilizes a single-ended primary inductor (SEPIC) converter as DC-DC converter to implement the MPPT algorithm for tracking the maximum power from a PV array and a single phase semi-Z-source inverter for integrating the PV with AC power utilities. The MPPT controller utilizes a fast-converging algorithm to track the maximum power point (MPP) and the semi-Z-source inverter utilizes a nonlinear SPWM to produce sinusoidal voltage at the output. The proposed system is able to track the MPP of PV arrays and produce an AC voltage at its output by utilizing only three switches. Experimental results show that the fast-converging MPPT algorithm has fast tracking response with appreciable MPP efficiency. In addition, the inverter shows the minimization of common mode leakage current with its ground sharing feature and reduction of the THD as well as DC current components at the output during DC-AC conversion. Full article
Open AccessArticle Importance of Fuel Cell Tests for Stability Assessment—Suitability of Titanium Diboride as an Alternative Support Material
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3642-3652; doi:10.3390/en7063642
Received: 10 February 2014 / Revised: 26 May 2014 / Accepted: 29 May 2014 / Published: 11 June 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1058 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon corrosion is a severe issue limiting the long-term stability of carbon-supported catalysts, in particular in the highly dynamic conditions of automotive applications. (Doped) oxides have been discussed as suitable alternatives to replace carbon, but often suffer from poor electron conductivity. That is
[...] Read more.
Carbon corrosion is a severe issue limiting the long-term stability of carbon-supported catalysts, in particular in the highly dynamic conditions of automotive applications. (Doped) oxides have been discussed as suitable alternatives to replace carbon, but often suffer from poor electron conductivity. That is why non-oxide ceramics, such as tungsten carbide and titanium nitride, have been discussed recently. Titanium diboride has also been proposed, due to its promising activity and stability in an aqueous electrochemical cell. In this work, Pt nanoparticles were deposited onto μm-sized TiB2 particles with improved grain size, manufactured into porous gas diffusion electrodes and tested in a realistic polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell environment. In contrast to the model studies in an aqueous electrochemical cell, in the presence of oxygen and high potentials at the cathode side of a real fuel cell, TiB2 becomes rapidly oxidized as indicated by intensely colored regions in the membrane-electrode assembly (MEA). Moreover, already the electrode manufacturing process led to the formation of titanium oxides, as shown by X-ray diffraction measurements. This demonstrates that Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) measurements in an aqueous electrochemical cell are not sufficient to prove stability of novel materials for fuel cell applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells Using AlOx and Plasma-Immersion Ion Implantation
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3653-3663; doi:10.3390/en7063653
Received: 13 March 2014 / Revised: 20 May 2014 / Accepted: 5 June 2014 / Published: 13 June 2014
PDF Full-text (858 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aluminum oxide (AlOx) and plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) were studied in relation to passivated silicon heterojunction solar cells. When aluminum oxide (AlOx) was deposited on the surface of a wafer; the electric field near the surface of wafer
[...] Read more.
Aluminum oxide (AlOx) and plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) were studied in relation to passivated silicon heterojunction solar cells. When aluminum oxide (AlOx) was deposited on the surface of a wafer; the electric field near the surface of wafer was enhanced; and the mobility of the carrier was improved; thus reducing carrier traps associated with dangling bonds. Using PIII enabled implanting nitrogen into the device to reduce dangling bonds and achieve the desired passivation effect. Depositing AlOx on the surface of a solar cell increased the short-circuit current density (Jsc); open-circuit voltage (Voc); and conversion efficiency from 27.84 mA/cm2; 0.52 V; and 8.97% to 29.34 mA/cm2; 0.54 V; and 9.68%; respectively. After controlling the depth and concentration of nitrogen by modulating the PIII energy; the ideal PIII condition was determined to be 2 keV and 10 min. As a result; a 15.42% conversion efficiency was thus achieved; and the Jsc; Voc; and fill factor were 37.78 mA/cm2; 0.55 V; and 0.742; respectively. Full article
Open AccessArticle Proof-of-Concept of a Zinc-Silver Battery for the Extraction of Energy from a Concentration Difference
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3664-3683; doi:10.3390/en7063664
Received: 24 April 2014 / Revised: 5 June 2014 / Accepted: 9 June 2014 / Published: 13 June 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (238 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
The conversion of heat into current can be obtained by a process with two stages. In the first one, the heat is used for distilling a solution and obtaining two flows with different concentrations. In the second stage, the two flows are sent
[...] Read more.
The conversion of heat into current can be obtained by a process with two stages. In the first one, the heat is used for distilling a solution and obtaining two flows with different concentrations. In the second stage, the two flows are sent to an electrochemical cell that produces current by consuming the concentration difference. In this paper, we propose such an electrochemical cell, working with water solutions of zinc chloride. The cell contains two electrodes, made respectively of zinc and silver covered by silver chloride. The operation of the cell is analogous to that of the capacitive mixing and of the “mixing entropy battery”: the electrodes are charged while dipped in the concentrated solution and discharged when dipped in the diluted solution. The cyclic operation allows us to extract a surplus of energy, at the expense of the free energy of the concentration difference. We evaluate the feasibility of such a cell for practical applications and find that a power up to 2 W per m2 of the surface of the electrodes can be achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Energy Storage—Battery and Capacitor)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Performance of a 250 kW Organic Rankine Cycle System for Off-Design Heat Source Conditions
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3684-3694; doi:10.3390/en7063684
Received: 11 April 2014 / Revised: 29 May 2014 / Accepted: 9 June 2014 / Published: 13 June 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (426 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An organic Rankine cycle system comprised of a preheater, evaporator, condenser, turbine, generator, and pump was used to study its off-design performance and the operational control strategy. R245fa was used as the working fluid. Under the design conditions, the net power output is
[...] Read more.
An organic Rankine cycle system comprised of a preheater, evaporator, condenser, turbine, generator, and pump was used to study its off-design performance and the operational control strategy. R245fa was used as the working fluid. Under the design conditions, the net power output is 243 kW and the system thermal efficiency is 9.5%. For an off-design heat source flow rate (mW), the operating pressure was controlled to meet the condition that the R245fa reached the liquid and vapor saturation states at the outlet of the preheater and the evaporator, respectively. The analytical results demonstrated that the operating pressure increased with increasing mW; a higher mW yielded better heat transfer performance of the preheater and required a smaller evaporator heat capacity, and the net power output and system thermal efficiency increased with increasing mW. For the range of mW studied here, the net power output increased by 64.0% while the total heat transfer rate increased by only 9.2%. In summary, off-design operation of the system was examined for a heat source flow rate which varied by –39.0% to +78.0% from the designed rate, resulting in –29.2% to +16.0% and –25.3% to +12.6% variations in the net power output and system thermal efficiency, respectively. Full article
Open AccessArticle Development of a Digital and Battery-Free Smart Flowmeter
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3695-3709; doi:10.3390/en7063695
Received: 14 March 2014 / Revised: 14 May 2014 / Accepted: 26 May 2014 / Published: 16 June 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1268 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To effectively manage and save energy and natural resources, the measurement and monitoring of gas/fluid flows play extremely important roles. The objective of this study was to incorporate an efficient power generation and a power management system for a commercial water flow meter
[...] Read more.
To effectively manage and save energy and natural resources, the measurement and monitoring of gas/fluid flows play extremely important roles. The objective of this study was to incorporate an efficient power generation and a power management system for a commercial water flow meter thus eliminating the usage of batteries. Three major technologies have made this possible: a low power consumption metering unit, a cog-resistance-free generator with high efficiency; and an effective methodology to extract/store energy. In this system, a new attempt and simple approach was developed to successfully extract a portion of the kinetic energy from the fluid/air, store it in a capacitor and used it efficiently. The resistance to the flow was negligible because of the very low power consumption as well as the application of the coreless generator technology. Feasibility was demonstrated through repeated experiments: for air flowing in an 11 mm diameter pipe, 18 s of energy harvesting at 10 revolution-per-second (RPS) turbine speeds generated enough power for the flowmeter to operate for 720 s with a flowrate of 20 RPS, without battery or any external power. The pipeline monitoring in remote areas such as deep sea oil drilling; geothermal power plants and even nuclear power plants could benefit greatly from this self-power metering system design. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Exponential Smoothing Approaches for Prediction in Real-Time Electricity Markets
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3710-3732; doi:10.3390/en7063710
Received: 31 March 2014 / Revised: 31 May 2014 / Accepted: 6 June 2014 / Published: 16 June 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2452 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The optimal design of offering strategies for wind power producers is commonly based on unconditional (and, hence, constant) expectation values for prices in real-time markets, directly defining their loss function in a stochastic optimization framework. This is why it may certainly be advantageous
[...] Read more.
The optimal design of offering strategies for wind power producers is commonly based on unconditional (and, hence, constant) expectation values for prices in real-time markets, directly defining their loss function in a stochastic optimization framework. This is why it may certainly be advantageous to account for the seasonal and dynamic behavior of such prices, hence translating to time-varying loss functions. With that objective in mind, forecasting approaches relying on simple models that accommodate the seasonal and dynamic nature of real-time prices are derived and analyzed. These are all based on the well-known Holt–Winters model with a daily seasonal cycle, either in its conventional form or conditioned upon exogenous variables, such as: (i) day-ahead price; (ii) system load; and (iii) wind power penetration. The superiority of the proposed approach over a number of common benchmarks is subsequently demonstrated through an empirical investigation for the Nord Pool, mimicking practical forecasting for a three-year period over 2008–2011. Full article
Open AccessArticle Sensitivity Analyses for Cross-Coupled Parameters in Automotive Powertrain Optimization
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3733-3747; doi:10.3390/en7063733
Received: 22 April 2014 / Revised: 27 May 2014 / Accepted: 4 June 2014 / Published: 17 June 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (808 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
When vehicle manufacturers are developing new hybrid and electric vehicles, modeling and simulation are frequently used to predict the performance of the new vehicles from an early stage in the product lifecycle. Typically, models are used to predict the range, performance and energy
[...] Read more.
When vehicle manufacturers are developing new hybrid and electric vehicles, modeling and simulation are frequently used to predict the performance of the new vehicles from an early stage in the product lifecycle. Typically, models are used to predict the range, performance and energy consumption of their future planned production vehicle; they also allow the designer to optimize a vehicle’s configuration. Another use for the models is in performing sensitivity analysis, which helps us understand which parameters have the most influence on model predictions and real-world behaviors. There are various techniques for sensitivity analysis, some are numerical, but the greatest insights are obtained analytically with sensitivity defined in terms of partial derivatives. Existing methods in the literature give us a useful, quantified measure of parameter sensitivity, a first-order effect, but they do not consider second-order effects. Second-order effects could give us additional insights: for example, a first order analysis might tell us that a limiting factor is the efficiency of the vehicle’s prime-mover; our new second order analysis will tell us how quickly the efficiency of the powertrain will become of greater significance. In this paper, we develop a method based on formal optimization mathematics for rapid second-order sensitivity analyses and illustrate these through a case study on a C-segment electric vehicle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle An Acceleration Slip Regulation Strategy for Four-Wheel Drive Electric Vehicles Based on Sliding Mode Control
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3748-3763; doi:10.3390/en7063748
Received: 28 January 2014 / Revised: 15 May 2014 / Accepted: 3 June 2014 / Published: 17 June 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (402 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an acceleration slip regulation (ASR) system for four-wheel drive (4WD) electric vehicles, which are driven by the front and rear axles simultaneously. The ASR control strategy includes three control modes: average distribution of inter-axle torque, optimal distribution of inter-axle torque
[...] Read more.
This paper presents an acceleration slip regulation (ASR) system for four-wheel drive (4WD) electric vehicles, which are driven by the front and rear axles simultaneously. The ASR control strategy includes three control modes: average distribution of inter-axle torque, optimal distribution of inter-axle torque and independent control of optimal slip rate, respectively, which are designed based on the torque adaptive principle of inter-axle differential and sliding mode control theory. Furthermore, in order to accurately describe the longitudinal tyre force characteristic, a slip rate calculation formula in the form of a state equation was used for solving the numerical problem posed by the traditional way. A simulation was carried out with the MATLAB/Simulink software. The simulation results show that the proposed ASR system can fully use the road friction condition, inhibit the drive-wheels from slipping, and improve the vehicle longitudinal driving stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Production of a Biofuel that Keeps the Glycerol as a Monoglyceride by Using Supported KF as Heterogeneous Catalyst
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3764-3780; doi:10.3390/en7063764
Received: 22 April 2014 / Revised: 4 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (670 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study describes the results obtained in the synthesis of a biofuel that avoids the production of glycerol by applying supported KF as alkaline heterogeneous catalyst, to generate two moles of fatty acid methyl esters and one mole of monoglyceride from one mol
[...] Read more.
This study describes the results obtained in the synthesis of a biofuel that avoids the production of glycerol by applying supported KF as alkaline heterogeneous catalyst, to generate two moles of fatty acid methyl esters and one mole of monoglyceride from one mol of triglyceride. In this respect, the selective transesterification process of sunflower oil with methanol was carried out with KF (10 wt%) supported on three different solids, Al2O3, ZnO and MgO. The standard experimental conditions employed in the heterogeneous selective methanolysis reaction were: 12 mL of sunflower oil, 2.7 mL of methanol, 0.8 g of catalyst, at 65 °C temperature and one hour of reaction time. In all cases 100% conversion was obtained, with high selectivity values, greater than 90%, and quite suitable viscosity values, 4.5–8.5 cSt. In this way, the best catalytic behavior in the first use was obtained by using Al2O3 as support. However, although in the five consecutive reuses all catalysts exhibited a continuous decrease in their catalytic activities; the lower one was for KF catalyst using MgO as support. In summary, these three KF supported catalysts are very suitable to obtain a new biofuel, similar to conventional biodiesel, applicable to diesel engines. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Solar Air Collectors for Space Heating and Ventilation Applications—Performance and Case Studies under Romanian Climatic Conditions
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3781-3792; doi:10.3390/en7063781
Received: 9 April 2014 / Revised: 12 June 2014 / Accepted: 13 June 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (567 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
Solar air collectors have various applications: on the one hand, they can be used for air heating in cold seasons; on the other hand they can be used in summer to evacuate the warm and polluted air from residential, offices, industrial, and commercial
[...] Read more.
Solar air collectors have various applications: on the one hand, they can be used for air heating in cold seasons; on the other hand they can be used in summer to evacuate the warm and polluted air from residential, offices, industrial, and commercial buildings. The paper presents experimental results of a solar collector air, under the climatic conditions of the Southeastern Europe. The relationships between the direct solar irradiation, the resulting heat flow, the air velocity at the outlet, the air flow rate, the nominal regime of the collector and the efficiency of conversion of solar energy into thermal energy are all highlighted. Thus, it was shown that after a maximum 50 min, solar air collectors, with baffles and double air passage can reach over 50% efficiency for solar irradiation of 900–1000 W/m2. The article also presents a mathematical model and the results of a computational program that allows sizing solar collectors for the transfer of air, with the purpose of improving the natural ventilation of buildings. The article is completed with case studies, sizing the area to be covered with solar collectors, to ensure ventilation of a house with two floors or for an office building. In addition, the ACH (air change per hour) coefficient was calculated and compared. Full article
Open AccessArticle Pitch Based Wind Turbine Intelligent Speed Setpoint Adjustment Algorithms
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3793-3809; doi:10.3390/en7063793
Received: 20 March 2014 / Revised: 4 June 2014 / Accepted: 12 June 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
PDF Full-text (527 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work is aimed at optimizing the wind turbine rotor speed setpoint algorithm. Several intelligent adjustment strategies have been investigated in order to improve a reward function that takes into account the power captured from the wind and the turbine speed error. After
[...] Read more.
This work is aimed at optimizing the wind turbine rotor speed setpoint algorithm. Several intelligent adjustment strategies have been investigated in order to improve a reward function that takes into account the power captured from the wind and the turbine speed error. After different approaches including Reinforcement Learning, the best results were obtained using a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)-based wind turbine speed setpoint algorithm. A reward improvement of up to 10.67% has been achieved using PSO compared to a constant approach and 0.48% compared to a conventional approach. We conclude that the pitch angle is the most adequate input variable for the turbine speed setpoint algorithm compared to others such as rotor speed, or rotor angular acceleration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Hydrodynamic Effects on Spectroscopic Water Detection in Gasoline Pipe Flow
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3810-3822; doi:10.3390/en7063810
Received: 17 February 2014 / Revised: 10 June 2014 / Accepted: 11 June 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
PDF Full-text (516 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The hydrodynamic effects on spectroscopic water detection were microscopically investigated in a gasoline pipe flow. The effects of the gasoline flow rate and the water content on the water droplet characteristics were investigated experimentally using a phase Doppler particle measurement system. The characteristics
[...] Read more.
The hydrodynamic effects on spectroscopic water detection were microscopically investigated in a gasoline pipe flow. The effects of the gasoline flow rate and the water content on the water droplet characteristics were investigated experimentally using a phase Doppler particle measurement system. The characteristics of spectral absorbance of water and gasoline were measured using a spectrophotometer to determine the optimal wavelength of the incident light for spectroscopic water detection. The effects of the droplet size on the light transmittance characteristics were calculated using the light extinction theory of Mie scattering on polydisperse particles and experimental results on the water droplet size in the gasoline flow. The measurement results of spectral absorbance showed that gasoline was almost transparent at 980 nm wavelength of light while water showed peak absorption at this wavelength, therefore, it was appropriate incident light for spectroscopic water detection. It was found that the flow conditions of the gasoline flow rate and the water content influenced the Sauter mean diameter and the volume concentration of water droplets, which influenced the light transmittance. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Optimum Peak Current Hysteresis Control for Energy Recovering Converter in CDI Desalination
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3823-3839; doi:10.3390/en7063823
Received: 28 April 2014 / Revised: 9 June 2014 / Accepted: 11 June 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (964 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Capacitive De-Ionization (CDI) is becoming a suitable alternative for desalination. The low cost of the materials required and its reduced energy consumption can be critical factors for developing this technique. CDI technology does not require a high-pressure system and the energy storage capability
[...] Read more.
Capacitive De-Ionization (CDI) is becoming a suitable alternative for desalination. The low cost of the materials required and its reduced energy consumption can be critical factors for developing this technique. CDI technology does not require a high-pressure system and the energy storage capability of CDI cells allows it to be reused in other CDI cells, thus minimizing consumption. The goal of the power stage responsible of the energy recovery is transferring the stored energy from one cell to another with the maximum possible efficiency, thus allowing the desalination process to continue. Assuming hysteresis current control is implemented at the DC/DC (direct current) converter, this paper aims to determine the optimum peak current through the inductor in each switching period with a view to maximizing overall efficiency. The geometrical parameters of the desalination cell and the NaCl concentration modify the cell electrical properties. The peak current control of the power stage should be adapted to the cell characteristics so that the efficiency behavior of the whole CDI system can be improved. The mathematical model defined in this paper allows the CDI plant automation using the peak inductor current as control variable, adapting its value to the salt concentration during the desalination process. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Batch Growth of Chlorella Vulgaris CCALA 896 versus Semi-Continuous Regimen for Enhancing Oil-Rich Biomass Productivity
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3840-3857; doi:10.3390/en7063840
Received: 10 March 2014 / Revised: 7 May 2014 / Accepted: 11 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1090 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to induce lipid accumulation in Chlorella cells by creating stressful growth conditions. Chlorella vulgaris CCALA 896 was grown under various batch growth modes in basal and modified BG-11 and Kolkwitz culture broths, using a continuous light regimen
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to induce lipid accumulation in Chlorella cells by creating stressful growth conditions. Chlorella vulgaris CCALA 896 was grown under various batch growth modes in basal and modified BG-11 and Kolkwitz culture broths, using a continuous light regimen of 150 µE/m2/s, at 30 °C. In order to perform the experiments, two indoor photobioreactor shapes were used: a cylindrical glass photobioreactor (CGPBR) with a working volume of 350 mL, and a flat glass photobioreactor (FGPBR) with a working volume of 550 mL. Stress-eliciting conditions, such as nitrogen and phosphorous starvation, were imposed in order to induce lipid accumulation. The results demonstrated that more than 56% of the lipids can be accumulated in Chlorella biomass grown under two-phase batch growth conditions. The highest biomass productivity of 0.30 g/L/d was obtained at the highest nominal dilution rate (0.167 day−1) during a semi-continuous regimen, using a modified Kolkwitz medium. During the pH-stress cycles, the amount of lipids did not increase significantly and a flocculation of Chlorella cells was noted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy for Agriculture)
Open AccessArticle Aqueous Hybrids of Silica Nanoparticles and Hydrophobically Associating Hydrolyzed Polyacrylamide Used for EOR in High-Temperature and High-Salinity Reservoirs
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3858-3871; doi:10.3390/en7063858
Received: 1 April 2014 / Revised: 19 May 2014 / Accepted: 9 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (839 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water-soluble polymers are known to be used in chemically enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, but their applications are limited in high-temperature and high-salinity oil reservoirs because of their inherent poor salt tolerance and weak thermal stability. Hydrophobic association of partially hydrolyzed polyacryamide (HAHPAM)
[...] Read more.
Water-soluble polymers are known to be used in chemically enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, but their applications are limited in high-temperature and high-salinity oil reservoirs because of their inherent poor salt tolerance and weak thermal stability. Hydrophobic association of partially hydrolyzed polyacryamide (HAHPAM) complexed with silica nanoparticles to prepare nano-hybrids is reported in this work. The rheological and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) properties of such hybrids were studied in comparison with HAHPAM under simulated high-temperature and high-salinity oil reservoir conditions (T: 85 °C; total dissolved solids: 32,868 mg∙L−1; [Ca2+] + [Mg2+]: 873 mg∙L−1). It was found that the apparent viscosity and elastic modulus of HAHPAM solutions increased with addition of silica nanoparticles, and HAHPAM/silica hybrids exhibit better shear resistance and long-term thermal stability than HAHPAM in synthetic brine. Moreover, core flooding tests show that HAHPAM/silica hybrid has a higher oil recovery factor than HAHPAM solution. Full article
Open AccessArticle Production of Ethanol and Biomass from Thin Stillage Using Food-Grade Zygomycetes and Ascomycetes Filamentous Fungi
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3872-3885; doi:10.3390/en7063872
Received: 22 April 2014 / Revised: 17 May 2014 / Accepted: 17 June 2014 / Published: 20 June 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (431 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
A starch-based ethanol facility producing 200,000 m3 ethanol/year also produces ca. 2 million m3 thin stillage, which can be used to improve the entire process. In this work, five food-grade filamentous fungi, including a Zygomycete and four Ascomycetes were successfully grown
[...] Read more.
A starch-based ethanol facility producing 200,000 m3 ethanol/year also produces ca. 2 million m3 thin stillage, which can be used to improve the entire process. In this work, five food-grade filamentous fungi, including a Zygomycete and four Ascomycetes were successfully grown in thin stillage containing 9% solids. Cultivation with Neurospora intermedia led to the production of ca. 16 g·L−1 biomass containing 56% (w/w) crude protein, a reduction of 34% of the total solids, and 5 g·L−1 additional ethanol. In an industrial ethanol production process (200,000 m3 ethanol/year), this can potentially lead to the production of 11,000 m3 extra ethanol per year. Cultivation with Aspergillus oryzae resulted in 19 g·L−1 biomass containing 48% (w/w) crude protein and the highest reduction of the thin stillage glycerol (54%) among the Ascomycetes. Cultivation with Rhizopus sp. produced up to 15 g·L−1 biomass containing 55% (w/w) crude protein. The spent thin stillage had been reduced up to 85%, 68% and 21% regarding lactic acid, glycerol and total solids, respectively. Therefore, N. intermedia, in particular, has a high potential to improve the ethanol process via production of additional ethanol and high-quality biomass, which can be considered for animal feed applications such as for fish feed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Gas Hydrate Occurrence Inferred from Dissolved Cl Concentrations and δ18O Values of Pore Water and Dissolved Sulfate in the Shallow Sediments of the Pockmark Field in Southwestern Xisha Uplift, Northern South China Sea
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3886-3899; doi:10.3390/en7063886
Received: 19 February 2014 / Revised: 26 May 2014 / Accepted: 3 June 2014 / Published: 20 June 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (832 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Deep-water pockmarks are frequently accompanied by the occurrence of massive gas hydrates in shallow sediments. A decline in pore-water Cl concentration and rise in δ18O value provide compelling evidence for the gas hydrate dissociation. Mega-pockmarks are widely scattered in the
[...] Read more.
Deep-water pockmarks are frequently accompanied by the occurrence of massive gas hydrates in shallow sediments. A decline in pore-water Cl concentration and rise in δ18O value provide compelling evidence for the gas hydrate dissociation. Mega-pockmarks are widely scattered in the southwestern Xisha Uplift, northern South China Sea (SCS). Pore water collected from a gravity-core inside of a mega-pockmark exhibits a downward Cl concentration decrease concomitant with an increase in δ18O value at the interval of 5.7–6.7 mbsf. Concentrations of Cl, Na+, and K+ mainly cluster along the seawater freshening line without distinct Na+ enrichment and K+ depletion. Thus, we infer that the pore water anomalies of Cl concentrations and δ18O values are attributed to gas hydrate dissociation instead of clay mineral dehydration. Moreover, the lower δ18O values of sulfate in the target core (C14) than those in the reference core (C9) may be associated with the equilibrium oxygen fractionation during sulfate reduction between sulfate and the relatively 18O-depleted ambient water resulting from gas hydrate formation. The gas hydrate contents are estimated to be 6%–10% and 7%–15%, respectively, according to the offset of Cl concentrations and δ18O values from the baselines. This pockmark field in southwestern Xisha Uplift is likely to be a good prospective area for the occurrence of gas hydrate in shallow sediments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Ocean Natural Gas Hydrate 2014)
Open AccessArticle Communication Network Architectures for Smart-Wind Power Farms
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3900-3921; doi:10.3390/en7063900
Received: 11 February 2014 / Revised: 28 May 2014 / Accepted: 9 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1669 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Developments in the wind power industry have enabled a new generation of wind turbines with longer blades, taller towers, higher efficiency, and lower maintenance costs due to the maturity of related technologies. Nevertheless, wind turbines are still blind machines because the control center
[...] Read more.
Developments in the wind power industry have enabled a new generation of wind turbines with longer blades, taller towers, higher efficiency, and lower maintenance costs due to the maturity of related technologies. Nevertheless, wind turbines are still blind machines because the control center is responsible for managing and controlling individual wind turbines that are turned on or off according to demand for electricity. In this paper, we propose a communication network architecture for smart-wind power farms (Smart-WPFs). The proposed architecture is designed for wind turbines to communicate directly and share sensing data in order to maximize power generation, WPF availability, and turbine efficiency. We also designed a sensor data frame structure to carry sensing data from different wind turbine parts such as the rotor, transformer, nacelle, etc. The data frame includes a logical node ID (LNID), sensor node ID (SNID), sensor type (ST), and sensor data based on the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61400-25 standard. We present an analytical model that describes upstream traffic between the wind turbines and the control center. Using a queueing theory approach, the upstream traffic is evaluated in view of bandwidth utilization and average queuing delay. The performance of the proposed network architectures are evaluated by using analytical and simulation models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Pretreatment Methods on Electrodes and SOFC Performance
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3922-3933; doi:10.3390/en7063922
Received: 29 April 2014 / Revised: 1 June 2014 / Accepted: 17 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (541 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Commercially available tapes (anode, electrolyte) and paste (cathode) were choosen to prepare anode-supported cells for solid oxide fuel cell applications. For both anode-supported cells or electrolyte-supported cells, the anode needs pretreatment to reduce NiO/YSZ to Ni/YSZ to increase its conductivity as well as
[...] Read more.
Commercially available tapes (anode, electrolyte) and paste (cathode) were choosen to prepare anode-supported cells for solid oxide fuel cell applications. For both anode-supported cells or electrolyte-supported cells, the anode needs pretreatment to reduce NiO/YSZ to Ni/YSZ to increase its conductivity as well as its catalytic characteristics. In this study, the effects of different pretreatments (open-circuit, closed-circuit) on cathode and anodes as well as SOFC performance are investigated. To investigate the influence of closed-circuit pretreatment on the NiO/YSZ anode alone, a Pt cathode is utilized as reference for comparison with the LSM cathode. The characterization of the electrical resistance, AC impedance, and SOFC performance of the resulting electrodes and/or anode-supported cell were carried out. It’s found that the influence of open-circuit pretreatment on the LSM cathode is limited. However, the influence of closed-circuit pretreatment on both the LSM cathode and NiO/YSZ anode and the resulting SOFC performance is profound. The effect of closed-circuit pretreatment on the NiO/YSZ anode is attributed to its change of electronic/pore structure as well as catalytic characteristics. With closed-circuit pretreatment, the SOFC performance improved greatly from the change of LSM cathode (and Pt reference) compared to the Ni/YSZ anode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reacting Transport Phenomena in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells)
Open AccessArticle A Systematic Method for Designing a PR Controller and Active Damping of the LCL Filter for Single-Phase Grid-Connected PV Inverters
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3934-3954; doi:10.3390/en7063934
Received: 3 March 2014 / Revised: 13 June 2014 / Accepted: 17 June 2014 / Published: 24 June 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1895 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Proportional Resonant (PR) current controller provides gains at a certain frequency (resonant frequency) and eliminates steady state errors. Therefore, the PR controller can be successfully applied to single grid-connected PV inverter current control. On the contrary, a PI controller has steady-state errors
[...] Read more.
The Proportional Resonant (PR) current controller provides gains at a certain frequency (resonant frequency) and eliminates steady state errors. Therefore, the PR controller can be successfully applied to single grid-connected PV inverter current control. On the contrary, a PI controller has steady-state errors and limited disturbance rejection capability. Compared with the L- and LC filters, the LCL filter has excellent harmonic suppression capability, but the inherent resonant peak of the LCL filter may introduce instability in the whole system. Therefore, damping must be introduced to improve the control of the system. Considering the controller and the LCL filter active damping as a whole system makes the controller design method more complex. In fact, their frequency responses may affect each other. The traditional trial-and-error procedure is too time-consuming and the design process is inefficient. This paper provides a detailed analysis of the frequency response influence between the PR controller and the LCL filter regarded as a whole system. In addition, the paper presents a systematic method for designing controller parameters and the capacitor current feedback coefficient factor of LCL filter active-damping. The new method relies on meeting the stable margins of the system. Moreover, the paper also clarifies the impact of the grid on the inverter output current. Numerical simulation and a 3 kW laboratory setup assessed the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. Full article
Open AccessArticle Investigation of a Five-Phase Dual-Rotor Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Used for Electric Vehicles
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3955-3984; doi:10.3390/en7063955
Received: 21 April 2014 / Revised: 12 June 2014 / Accepted: 17 June 2014 / Published: 24 June 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3888 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a novel five-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), which contains dual rotors and a single stator, equivalent to two five-phase motors working together. Thus, this kind of motor has the potential of good fault tolerant capability and high torque density,
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel five-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), which contains dual rotors and a single stator, equivalent to two five-phase motors working together. Thus, this kind of motor has the potential of good fault tolerant capability and high torque density, which makes it appropriate for use in electric vehicles. In view of the different connection types, the inside and outside stator windings can be driven in series or parallel, which results in the different performances of the magnetomotive force (MMF) and torque under open-circuit fault conditions. By decomposing the MMF, the reason that torque ripple increases after open-circuit faults is explained, and the relationship between MMF and torque is revealed. Then, the current control strategy is applied to adjust the open-circuit faults, and the electromagnetic analysis and MMF harmonics analysis are performed to interpret the phenomenon that the torque ripple is still larger than in the normal situation. The investigations are verified by finite element analysis results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Efficacy and Efficiency of Italian Energy Policy: The Case of PV Systems in Greenhouse Farms
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3985-4001; doi:10.3390/en7063985
Received: 14 May 2014 / Revised: 11 June 2014 / Accepted: 17 June 2014 / Published: 24 June 2014
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (589 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The production of energy from renewable sources is a form of energy production that has less impact on the environment than the traditional one. For the farmer this new form of production represents an opportunity, especially for the economic benefits that can produce,
[...] Read more.
The production of energy from renewable sources is a form of energy production that has less impact on the environment than the traditional one. For the farmer this new form of production represents an opportunity, especially for the economic benefits that can produce, both in terms of the incentives provided by the public operator and for higher revenues, deriving from the sale of energy back to the grid and/or the savings generated by self-consumed energy, that help to increase the farmer’s income. In this paper, we analyzed a case study of a farm that has realized a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system on a greenhouse. In particular, firstly the farm profitability has been estimated and subsequently, in order to assess the efficiency of the energy policy adopted by the Second Conto Energia in Italy, the minimum incentive tariff at which the entrepreneur has an economic advantage to realize a PV system has been determined. Results show that PV system relegates to a marginal role the cultivation of agricultural products compared to energy production and that government PV remuneration policies far outweigh the minimum threshold that makes the investment advantageous. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Transitions and Economic Change)
Open AccessArticle Investigation of Process Variables in the Densification of Corn Stover Briquettes
Energies 2014, 7(6), 4019-4032; doi:10.3390/en7064019
Received: 27 March 2014 / Revised: 6 June 2014 / Accepted: 17 June 2014 / Published: 24 June 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1237 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The bulk density of raw corn stover is a major limitation to its large-scale viability as a biomass feedstock. Raw corn stover has a bulk density of 50 kg/m3, which creates significant transportation costs and limits the optimization of transport logistics.
[...] Read more.
The bulk density of raw corn stover is a major limitation to its large-scale viability as a biomass feedstock. Raw corn stover has a bulk density of 50 kg/m3, which creates significant transportation costs and limits the optimization of transport logistics. Producing a densified corn stover product during harvest would reduce harvest and transportation costs, resulting in viable pathways for the use of corn stover as a biomass feedstock. This research investigated the effect of different process variables (compression pressure, moisture content, particle size, and material composition) on a densification method that produces briquettes from raw corn stover. A customized bench-scale densification system was designed to evaluate different corn stover inputs. Quality briquette production was possible using non-reduced particle sizes and low compression pressures achievable in a continuous in-field production system. At optimized bench settings, corn stover was densified to a dry bulk density of 190 kg/m3. Corn stover with a moisture content above 25%wb was not suitable for this method of bulk densification, and greater cob content had a positive effect on product quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy for Agriculture)
Open AccessArticle An Intelligent Fuzzy Logic Controller for Maximum Power Capture of Point Absorbers
Energies 2014, 7(6), 4033-4053; doi:10.3390/en7064033
Received: 13 March 2014 / Revised: 29 May 2014 / Accepted: 13 June 2014 / Published: 24 June 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (4215 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article presents an intelligent fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for controlling single-body heaving wave energy converter (WEC) or what is widely known as “Point Absorber”. The controller aims at maximizing the energy captured from the sea waves. The power take-off (PTO) limitations are
[...] Read more.
This article presents an intelligent fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for controlling single-body heaving wave energy converter (WEC) or what is widely known as “Point Absorber”. The controller aims at maximizing the energy captured from the sea waves. The power take-off (PTO) limitations are addressed implicitly in the fuzzy inference system (FIS) framework. In order to enhance the WEC power capturing bandwidth and make it less susceptible to wave environment irregularities and the system parametric uncertainties, the controller is built to have a self-configurable capability. This also eliminates the need to repeatedly run in-situ tuning procedure of the fuzzy controller or switch between several controllers based on the operating conditions. The fuzzy membership functions (MFs) are optimally tuned using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. To alleviate the computational burden associated with performing on-line optimization, the fuzzy controller is tuned at a rate significantly lower than the system sampling time. The suggested PSO-FLC has shown promising results compared with the fixed structure fuzzy logic controller (FS-FLC) and other passive control strategies. Several computer simulations were carried out to evaluate the controller effectiveness by applying different sea-states and analyzing the resultant WEC dynamics. Full article

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Review and Comparison of Power Management Approaches for Hybrid Vehicles with Focus on Hydraulic Drives
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3512-3536; doi:10.3390/en7063512
Received: 24 March 2014 / Revised: 19 May 2014 / Accepted: 20 May 2014 / Published: 27 May 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (298 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main advantage of hybrid powertrains is based on the efficient transfer of power and torque from power sources to the powertrain as well as recapturing of reversible energies without effecting the vehicle performance. The benefits of hybrid hydraulic powertrains can be better
[...] Read more.
The main advantage of hybrid powertrains is based on the efficient transfer of power and torque from power sources to the powertrain as well as recapturing of reversible energies without effecting the vehicle performance. The benefits of hybrid hydraulic powertrains can be better utilized with an appropriate power management. In this paper, different types of power management algorithms like off-line and on-line methods are briefly reviewed and classified. Finally, the algorithms are evaluated and compared. Therefore, different related criteria are evaluated and applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessReview Evaluation of the Wave Energy Conversion Efficiency in Various Coastal Environments
Energies 2014, 7(6), 4002-4018; doi:10.3390/en7064002
Received: 8 April 2014 / Revised: 11 June 2014 / Accepted: 16 June 2014 / Published: 24 June 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1543 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main objective of the present work was to assess and compare the wave power resources in various offshore and nearshore areas. From this perspective, three different groups of coastal environments were considered: the western Iberian nearshore, islands and an enclosed environment with
[...] Read more.
The main objective of the present work was to assess and compare the wave power resources in various offshore and nearshore areas. From this perspective, three different groups of coastal environments were considered: the western Iberian nearshore, islands and an enclosed environment with sea waves, respectively. Some of the most representative existent wave converters were evaluated in the analysis and a second objective was to compare their performances at the considered locations, and in this way to determine which is better suited for potential commercial exploitation. In order to estimate the electric power production expected in a certain location, the bivariate distributions of the occurrences corresponding to the sea states, defined by the significant wave height and the energy period, were constructed in each coastal area. The wave data were provided by hindcast studies performed with numerical wave models or based on measurements. The transformation efficiency of the wave energy into electricity is evaluated via the load factor and also through the capture width, defined as the ratio between the electric power estimated to be produced by each specific wave energy converters (WEC) and the expected wave power corresponding to the location considered. Finally, by evaluating these two different indicators, comparisons of the performances of three WEC types (Aqua Buoy, Pelamis and Wave Dragon) in the three different groups of coastal environments considered have been also carried out. The work provides valuable information related to the effectiveness of various technologies for the wave energy extraction that would operate in different coastal environments. Full article
Figures

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Energies Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
energies@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Energies
Back to Top