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Special Issue "Reacting Transport Phenomena in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells"

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A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jinliang Yuan

Department of Energy Sciences, Lund University, Box 118, S 221 00 Lund, Sweden
Website | E-Mail
Interests: fuel cells; hydrogen production; heat and mass transfer; catalytic reactions; modeling; CFD; multi-scale

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is considered to play a significant role in future energy systems for various applications. However, significant research is needed for manufacturing cost reduction and performance improvement.
Multi-physics and -phase transport processes of reactants/products, heat, and charges are strongly coupled with various reactions, which are inter-linked and determine SOFC electrode design, structure/ configuration selection, and cell operation. This special issue will highlight current research activities and development. The issue will focus on understanding and analyzing transport phenomena that are coupled with chemical reactions. One of this issue’s major objectives is to provide state-of-art information on both experimental and theoretic analysis methods and progress. Relevant topics include catalytic reactions in three-phase boundaries and transport processes, as well as their couplings in SOFCs.

Prof. Dr. Jinliang Yuan
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • heat and mass transfer
  • charge transfer
  • electrochemical reactions
  • reforming reactions
  • porous materials
  • electrode
  • anode
  • cathode
  • measurement
  • modeling
  • macroscopic
  • microscopic
  • multi-scale
  • CFD

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Modeling Analysis of Bi-Layer Ni-(ZrO2)x(Y2O3)1−x Anodes for Anode-Supported Intermediate Temperature-Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
Energies 2014, 7(9), 5647-5674; doi:10.3390/en7095647
Received: 26 June 2014 / Revised: 1 August 2014 / Accepted: 1 August 2014 / Published: 28 August 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1160 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Intermediate temperature-solid oxide fuel cell (IT-SOFC) Ni-(ZrO2)x(Y2O3)1−x (Ni-YSZ) anodes formed by two layers, with different thicknesses and morphologies, offer the possibility of obtaining adequate electrochemical performance coupled to satisfactory mechanical properties. We investigate
[...] Read more.
Intermediate temperature-solid oxide fuel cell (IT-SOFC) Ni-(ZrO2)x(Y2O3)1−x (Ni-YSZ) anodes formed by two layers, with different thicknesses and morphologies, offer the possibility of obtaining adequate electrochemical performance coupled to satisfactory mechanical properties. We investigate bi-layered Ni-YSZ anodes from a modeling point of view. The model includes reaction kinetics (Butler-Volmer equation), mass transport (Dusty-Gas model), and charge transport (Ohm’s law), and allows to gain an insight into the distribution of the electrochemical reaction within the electrode. Additionally, the model allows to evaluate a reciprocal overall electrode resistance 1/Rp ≈ 6 S·cm−2 for a bi-layer electrode formed by a 10 µm thick active layer (AL) composed of 0.25 µm radius Ni and YSZ particles (34% vol. Ni), coupled to a 700 µm thick support layer (SL) formed by 0.5 µm radius Ni and YSZ particles (50% vol. Ni), and operated at a temperature of 1023 K. Simulation results compare satisfactorily to literature experimental data. The model allows to investigate, in detail, the effect of morphological and geometric parameters on the various sources of losses, which is the first step for an optimized electrode design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reacting Transport Phenomena in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Modeling and Analysis of Transport Processes and Efficiency of Combined SOFC and PEMFC Systems
Energies 2014, 7(9), 5502-5522; doi:10.3390/en7095502
Received: 20 May 2014 / Revised: 12 August 2014 / Accepted: 19 August 2014 / Published: 25 August 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (6114 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A hybrid fuel cell system (~10 kWe) for an average family house including heating is proposed. The investigated system comprises a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) on top of a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC). Hydrogen produced from the off-gases of the SOFC
[...] Read more.
A hybrid fuel cell system (~10 kWe) for an average family house including heating is proposed. The investigated system comprises a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) on top of a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC). Hydrogen produced from the off-gases of the SOFC can be fed directly to the PEFC. Simulations for the proposed system were conducted using different fuels. Here, results for natural gas (NG), dimethyl ether (DME) and ethanol as a fuel are presented and analysed. Behaviour of the proposed system is further investigated by comparing the effects of key factors such as utilisation factor, operating conditions, oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) ratios and fuel preheating effects on these fuels. The combined system improves the overall electrical conversion efficiency compared with standalone PEFC or SOFC systems. For the combined SOFC and PEFC system, the overall power production was increased by 8%–16% and the system efficiency with one of the fuels is found to be 12% higher than that of the standalone SOFC system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reacting Transport Phenomena in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells)
Open AccessArticle Electrical Performance and Carbon Deposition Differences between the Bi-Layer Interconnector and Conventional Straight Interconnector Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
Energies 2014, 7(7), 4601-4613; doi:10.3390/en7074601
Received: 20 May 2014 / Revised: 7 July 2014 / Accepted: 16 July 2014 / Published: 22 July 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1020 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon deposition considered in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) model may be influenced by the operating voltage, inlet water/methane ratio, working temperature and pressure, inlet molar fraction of fuel and so on. The effects of these parameters in a planar SOFC implementing
[...] Read more.
Carbon deposition considered in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) model may be influenced by the operating voltage, inlet water/methane ratio, working temperature and pressure, inlet molar fraction of fuel and so on. The effects of these parameters in a planar SOFC implementing a novel bi-layer interconnector are not well understood. This paper is focused on the numerical study of carbon deposition and electrical performance of a bi-layer interconnector planar SOFC. The results illustrate that the electrical performance of the bi-layer interconnector SOFC is 11% higher than that of the conventional straight interconnector SOFC with initial state. After 120 days of operation, the electrical performance of the bi-layer interconnector SOFC has a slight decrease and more carbon deposit because of the increased electrochemical reaction rate. However, these differences minimize if higher operating voltages are involved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reacting Transport Phenomena in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Modeling of Proton-Conducting Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Fueled with Syngas
Energies 2014, 7(7), 4381-4396; doi:10.3390/en7074381
Received: 25 April 2014 / Revised: 27 June 2014 / Accepted: 3 July 2014 / Published: 9 July 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1319 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with proton conducting electrolyte (H-SOFCs) are promising power sources for stationary applications. Compared with other types of fuel cells, one distinct feature of SOFC is their fuel flexibility. In this study, a 2D model is developed to investigate
[...] Read more.
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with proton conducting electrolyte (H-SOFCs) are promising power sources for stationary applications. Compared with other types of fuel cells, one distinct feature of SOFC is their fuel flexibility. In this study, a 2D model is developed to investigate the transport and reaction in an H-SOFC fueled with syngas, which can be produced from conventional natural gas or renewable biomass. The model fully considers the fluid flow, mass transfer, heat transfer and reactions in the H-SOFC. Parametric studies are conducted to examine the physical and chemical processes in H-SOFC with a focus on how the operating parameters affect the H-SOFC performance. It is found that the presence of CO dilutes the concentration of H2, thus decreasing the H-SOFC performance. With typical syngas fuel, adding H2O cannot enhance the performance of the H-SOFC, although water gas shift reaction can facilitate H2 production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reacting Transport Phenomena in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Pretreatment Methods on Electrodes and SOFC Performance
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3922-3933; doi:10.3390/en7063922
Received: 29 April 2014 / Revised: 1 June 2014 / Accepted: 17 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (541 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Commercially available tapes (anode, electrolyte) and paste (cathode) were choosen to prepare anode-supported cells for solid oxide fuel cell applications. For both anode-supported cells or electrolyte-supported cells, the anode needs pretreatment to reduce NiO/YSZ to Ni/YSZ to increase its conductivity as well as
[...] Read more.
Commercially available tapes (anode, electrolyte) and paste (cathode) were choosen to prepare anode-supported cells for solid oxide fuel cell applications. For both anode-supported cells or electrolyte-supported cells, the anode needs pretreatment to reduce NiO/YSZ to Ni/YSZ to increase its conductivity as well as its catalytic characteristics. In this study, the effects of different pretreatments (open-circuit, closed-circuit) on cathode and anodes as well as SOFC performance are investigated. To investigate the influence of closed-circuit pretreatment on the NiO/YSZ anode alone, a Pt cathode is utilized as reference for comparison with the LSM cathode. The characterization of the electrical resistance, AC impedance, and SOFC performance of the resulting electrodes and/or anode-supported cell were carried out. It’s found that the influence of open-circuit pretreatment on the LSM cathode is limited. However, the influence of closed-circuit pretreatment on both the LSM cathode and NiO/YSZ anode and the resulting SOFC performance is profound. The effect of closed-circuit pretreatment on the NiO/YSZ anode is attributed to its change of electronic/pore structure as well as catalytic characteristics. With closed-circuit pretreatment, the SOFC performance improved greatly from the change of LSM cathode (and Pt reference) compared to the Ni/YSZ anode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reacting Transport Phenomena in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells)
Open AccessArticle Optimization of the Interconnect Ribs for a Cathode-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
Energies 2014, 7(1), 295-313; doi:10.3390/en7010295
Received: 6 November 2013 / Revised: 30 December 2013 / Accepted: 2 January 2014 / Published: 10 January 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (794 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A comprehensive mathematical model of the performance of the cathode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with syngas fuel is presented. The model couples the intricate interdependency between the ionic conduction, electronic conduction, gas transport, the electrochemical reaction processes in the functional layers and
[...] Read more.
A comprehensive mathematical model of the performance of the cathode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with syngas fuel is presented. The model couples the intricate interdependency between the ionic conduction, electronic conduction, gas transport, the electrochemical reaction processes in the functional layers and on the electrode/electrolyte interfaces, methane steam reforming (MSR) and the water gas shift reaction (WGSR). The validity of the mathematical model is demonstrated by the excellent agreement between the numerical and experimental I-V curves. The effect of anode rib width and cathode rib width on gas diffusion and cell performance is examined. The results show conclusively that the cell performance is strongly influenced by the rib width. Furthermore, the anode optimal rib width is smaller than that for cathode, which is contrary to anode-supported SOFC. Finally, the formulae for the anode and cathode optimal rib width are given, which provide an easy to use guidance for the broad SOFC engineering community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reacting Transport Phenomena in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells)
Open AccessArticle Mathematical Modeling Analysis and Optimization of Key Design Parameters of Proton-Conductive Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
Energies 2014, 7(1), 173-190; doi:10.3390/en7010173
Received: 19 November 2013 / Revised: 20 December 2013 / Accepted: 24 December 2013 / Published: 7 January 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (856 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A proton-conductive solid oxide fuel cell (H-SOFC) has the advantage of operating at higher temperatures than a PEM fuel cell, but at lower temperatures than a SOFC. This study proposes a mathematical model for an H-SOFC in order to simulate the performance and
[...] Read more.
A proton-conductive solid oxide fuel cell (H-SOFC) has the advantage of operating at higher temperatures than a PEM fuel cell, but at lower temperatures than a SOFC. This study proposes a mathematical model for an H-SOFC in order to simulate the performance and optimize the flow channel designs. The model analyzes the average mass transfer and species’ concentrations in flow channels, which allows the determination of an average concentration polarization in anode and cathode gas channels, the proton conductivity of electrolyte membranes, as well as the activation polarization. An electrical circuit for the current and proton conduction is applied to analyze the ohmic losses from an anode current collector to a cathode current collector. The model uses relatively less amount of computational time to find the V-I curve of the fuel cell, and thus it can be applied to compute a large amount of cases with different flow channel dimensions and operating parameters for optimization. The modeling simulation results agreed satisfactorily with the experimental results from literature. Simulation results showed that a relatively small total width of flow channel and rib, together with a small ratio of the rib’s width versus the total width, are preferable for obtaining high power densities and thus high efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reacting Transport Phenomena in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells)
Open AccessArticle Three-Dimensional CFD Modeling of Transport Phenomena in a Cross-Flow Anode-Supported Planar SOFC
Energies 2014, 7(1), 80-98; doi:10.3390/en7010080
Received: 22 November 2013 / Revised: 18 December 2013 / Accepted: 23 December 2013 / Published: 31 December 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1049 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed for an anode-supported planar SOFC from the Chinese Academy of Science Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering (NIMTE). The simulation results of the developed model are in good agreement with
[...] Read more.
In this study, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed for an anode-supported planar SOFC from the Chinese Academy of Science Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering (NIMTE). The simulation results of the developed model are in good agreement with the experimental data obtained under the same conditions. With the simulation results, the distribution of temperature, flow velocity and the gas concentrations through the cell components and gas channels is presented and discussed. Potential and current density distributions in the cell and overall fuel utilization are also presented. It is also found that the temperature gradients exist along the length of the cell, and the maximum value of the temperature for the cross-flow is at the outlet region of the cell. The distribution of the current density is uneven, and the maximum current density is located at the interfaces between the channels, ribs and the electrodes, the maximum current density result in a large over-potential and heat source in the electrodes, which is harmful to the overall performance and working lifespan of the fuel cells. A new type of flow structure should be developed to make the current flow be more evenly distributed and promote most of the TPB areas to take part in the electrochemical reactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reacting Transport Phenomena in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells)

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