A correction was published on 1 July 2014, see Energies 2014, 7(7), 4199-4201.

Energies 2014, 7(6), 3872-3885; doi:10.3390/en7063872
Article

Production of Ethanol and Biomass from Thin Stillage Using Food-Grade Zygomycetes and Ascomycetes Filamentous Fungi

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Received: 22 April 2014; in revised form: 17 May 2014 / Accepted: 17 June 2014 / Published: 20 June 2014
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: A starch-based ethanol facility producing 200,000 m3 ethanol/year also produces ca. 2 million m3 thin stillage, which can be used to improve the entire process. In this work, five food-grade filamentous fungi, including a Zygomycete and four Ascomycetes were successfully grown in thin stillage containing 9% solids. Cultivation with Neurospora intermedia led to the production of ca. 16 g·L−1 biomass containing 56% (w/w) crude protein, a reduction of 34% of the total solids, and 5 g·L−1 additional ethanol. In an industrial ethanol production process (200,000 m3 ethanol/year), this can potentially lead to the production of 11,000 m3 extra ethanol per year. Cultivation with Aspergillus oryzae resulted in 19 g·L−1 biomass containing 48% (w/w) crude protein and the highest reduction of the thin stillage glycerol (54%) among the Ascomycetes. Cultivation with Rhizopus sp. produced up to 15 g·L−1 biomass containing 55% (w/w) crude protein. The spent thin stillage had been reduced up to 85%, 68% and 21% regarding lactic acid, glycerol and total solids, respectively. Therefore, N. intermedia, in particular, has a high potential to improve the ethanol process via production of additional ethanol and high-quality biomass, which can be considered for animal feed applications such as for fish feed.
Keywords: Ascomycetes; biomass; ethanol; protein; thin stillage; Zygomycetes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ferreira, J.A.; Lennartsson, P.R.; Taherzadeh, M.J. Production of Ethanol and Biomass from Thin Stillage Using Food-Grade Zygomycetes and Ascomycetes Filamentous Fungi. Energies 2014, 7, 3872-3885.

AMA Style

Ferreira JA, Lennartsson PR, Taherzadeh MJ. Production of Ethanol and Biomass from Thin Stillage Using Food-Grade Zygomycetes and Ascomycetes Filamentous Fungi. Energies. 2014; 7(6):3872-3885.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ferreira, Jorge A.; Lennartsson, Patrik R.; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J. 2014. "Production of Ethanol and Biomass from Thin Stillage Using Food-Grade Zygomycetes and Ascomycetes Filamentous Fungi." Energies 7, no. 6: 3872-3885.

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