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Mar. Drugs, Volume 13, Issue 1 (January 2015), Pages 1-696

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Marine Drugs in 2014
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 267-275; doi:10.3390/md13010267
Received: 7 January 2015 / Accepted: 7 January 2015 / Published: 7 January 2015
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Abstract
The editors of Marine Drugs would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2014:[...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Marine-Derived Quorum-Sensing Inhibitory Activities Enhance the Antibacterial Efficacy of Tobramycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 1-28; doi:10.3390/md13010001
Received: 27 October 2014 / Accepted: 15 December 2014 / Published: 24 December 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1421 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Bacterial epiphytes isolated from marine eukaryotes were screened for the production of quorum sensing inhibitory compounds (QSIs). Marine isolate KS8, identified as a Pseudoalteromonas sp., was found to display strong quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) activity against acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-based reporter strains Chromobacterium
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Bacterial epiphytes isolated from marine eukaryotes were screened for the production of quorum sensing inhibitory compounds (QSIs). Marine isolate KS8, identified as a Pseudoalteromonas sp., was found to display strong quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) activity against acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-based reporter strains Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 and CV026. KS8 supernatant significantly reduced biofilm biomass during biofilm formation (−63%) and in pre-established, mature P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms (−33%). KS8 supernatant also caused a 0.97-log reduction (−89%) and a 2-log reduction (−99%) in PAO1 biofilm viable counts in the biofilm formation assay and the biofilm eradication assay respectively. The crude organic extract of KS8 had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 mg/mL against PAO1 but no minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was observed over the concentration range tested (MBC > 16 mg/mL). Sub-MIC concentrations (1 mg/mL) of KS8 crude organic extract significantly reduced the quorum sensing (QS)-dependent production of both pyoverdin and pyocyanin in P. aeruginosa PAO1 without affecting growth. A combinatorial approach using tobramycin and the crude organic extract at 1 mg/mL against planktonic P. aeruginosa PAO1 was found to increase the efficacy of tobramycin ten-fold, decreasing the MIC from 0.75 to 0.075 µg/mL. These data support the validity of approaches combining conventional antibiotic therapy with non-antibiotic compounds to improve the efficacy of current treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-infective Agents)
Open AccessArticle Marine Compound Xyloketal B Reduces Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 29-47; doi:10.3390/md13010029
Received: 10 September 2014 / Accepted: 11 December 2014 / Published: 24 December 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (942 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy causes neurodegeneration and brain injury, leading to sensorimotor dysfunction. Xyloketal B is a novel marine compound isolated from a mangrove fungus Xylaria species (no. 2508) with unique antioxidant effects. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanism of xyloketal
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Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy causes neurodegeneration and brain injury, leading to sensorimotor dysfunction. Xyloketal B is a novel marine compound isolated from a mangrove fungus Xylaria species (no. 2508) with unique antioxidant effects. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanism of xyloketal B on oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced neuronal cell death in mouse primary cortical culture and on hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal mice in vivo. We found that xyloketal B reduced anoxia-induced neuronal cell death in vitro, as well as infarct volume in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury model in vivo. Furthermore, xyloketal B improved functional behavioral recovery of the animals following hypoxic-ischemic insult. In addition, xyloketal B significantly decreased calcium entry, reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells, reduced the levels of cleaved caspase-3 and Bax proteins, and increased the level of Bcl-2 protein after the hypoxic-ischemic injury. Our findings indicate that xyloketal B is effective in models of hypoxia-ischemia and thus has potential as a treatment for hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Full article
Open AccessArticle Intestinal Absorption of Fucoidan Extracted from the Brown Seaweed, Cladosiphon okamuranus
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 48-64; doi:10.3390/md13010048
Received: 29 September 2014 / Accepted: 11 December 2014 / Published: 25 December 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1186 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the absorption of fucoidan through the intestinal tract. Fucoidan (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/mL) was added to Transwell inserts containing Caco-2 cells. The transport of fucoidan across Caco-2 cells increased in a dose-dependent
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine the absorption of fucoidan through the intestinal tract. Fucoidan (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/mL) was added to Transwell inserts containing Caco-2 cells. The transport of fucoidan across Caco-2 cells increased in a dose-dependent manner up to 1.0 mg/mL. It reached a maximum after 1 h and then rapidly decreased. In another experiment, rats were fed standard chow containing 2% fucoidan for one or two weeks. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that fucoidan accumulated in jejunal epithelial cells, mononuclear cells in the jejunal lamina propria and sinusoidal non-parenchymal cells in the liver. Since we previously speculated that nitrosamine may enhance the intestinal absorption of fucoidan, its absorption was estimated in rats administered N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN) in their drinking water. Rats were fed 0.2% fucoidan chow (BBN + 0.2% fucoidan rats), 2% fucoidan chow (BBN + 2% fucoidan rats) and standard chow for eight weeks. The uptake of fucoidan through the intestinal tract seemed to be low, but was measurable by our ELISA method. Fucoidan-positive cells were abundant in the small intestinal mucosa of BBN + 2% fucoidan rats. Most fucoidan-positive cells also stained positive for ED1, suggesting that fucoidan was incorporated into intestinal macrophages. The uptake of fucoidan by Kupffer cells was observed in the livers of BBN + 2% fucoidan rats. In conclusion, the absorption of fucoidan through the small intestine was demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication Augmenting Anti-Cancer Natural Products with a Small Molecule Adjuvant
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 65-75; doi:10.3390/md13010065
Received: 1 August 2014 / Accepted: 17 December 2014 / Published: 26 December 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (538 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Aquatic microbes produce diverse secondary metabolites with interesting biological activities. Cytotoxic metabolites have the potential to become lead compounds or drugs for cancer treatment. Many cytotoxic compounds, however, show undesirable toxicity at higher concentrations. Such undesirable activity may be reduced or eliminated by
[...] Read more.
Aquatic microbes produce diverse secondary metabolites with interesting biological activities. Cytotoxic metabolites have the potential to become lead compounds or drugs for cancer treatment. Many cytotoxic compounds, however, show undesirable toxicity at higher concentrations. Such undesirable activity may be reduced or eliminated by using lower doses of the cytotoxic compound in combination with another compound that modulates its activity. Here, we have examined the cytotoxicity of four microbial metabolites [ethyl N-(2-phenethyl) carbamate (NP-1), Euglenophycin, Anabaenopeptin, and Glycolipid 652] using three in vitro cell lines [human breast cancer cells (MCF-7), mouse neuroblastoma cells (N2a), and rat pituitary epithelial cells (GH4C1)]. The compounds showed variable cytotoxicity, with Euglenophycin displaying specificity for N2a cells. We have also examined the modulatory power of NP-1 on the cytotoxicity of the other three compounds and found that at a permissible concentration (125 µg/mL), NP-1 sensitized N2a and MCF-7 cells to Euglenophycin and Glycolipid 652 induced cytotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Marine Toxins)
Open AccessArticle Sulfated Galactofucan from the Brown Alga Saccharina latissima—Variability of Yield, Structural Composition and Bioactivity
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 76-101; doi:10.3390/md13010076
Received: 16 September 2014 / Accepted: 17 December 2014 / Published: 26 December 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (796 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (SP) from brown algae exhibit a wide range of bioactivities and are, therefore, considered promising candidates for health-supporting and medicinal applications. A critical issue is their availability in high, reproducible quality. The aim of the present study was to
[...] Read more.
The fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (SP) from brown algae exhibit a wide range of bioactivities and are, therefore, considered promising candidates for health-supporting and medicinal applications. A critical issue is their availability in high, reproducible quality. The aim of the present study was to fractionate and characterize the SP extracted from Saccharina latissima (S.l.-SP) harvested from two marine habitats, the Baltic Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, in May, June and September. The fractionation of crude S.l.-SP by anion exchange chromatography including analytical investigations revealed that S.l.-SP is composed of a homogeneous fraction of sulfated galactofucan (SGF) and a mixture of low-sulfated, uronic acid and protein containing heteropolysaccharides. Furthermore, the results indicated that S.l. growing at an intertidal zone with high salinity harvested at the end of the growing period delivered the highest yield of S.l.-SP with SGF as the main fraction (67%). Its SGF had the highest degree of sulfation (0.81), fucose content (86.1%) and fucose/galactose ratio (7.8) and was most active (e.g., elastase inhibition: IC50 0.21 μg/mL). Thus, S.l. from the North Atlantic harvested in autumn proved to be more appropriate for the isolation of S.l.-SP than S.l. from the Baltic Sea and S.l. harvested in spring, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that habitat and harvest time of brown algae should be considered as factors influencing the yield as well as the composition and thus also the bioactivity of their SP. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Profiling (HPLC-NMR & HPLC-MS), Isolation, and Identification of Bioactive Meroditerpenoids from the Southern Australian Marine Brown Alga Sargassum paradoxum
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 102-127; doi:10.3390/md13010102
Received: 7 November 2014 / Accepted: 15 December 2014 / Published: 29 December 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (962 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A phytochemical investigation of a southern Australian marine brown alga, Sargassum paradoxum, resulted in the isolation and identification of four new (5, 9, 10, and 15) and nine previously reported (1, 2, 6
[...] Read more.
A phytochemical investigation of a southern Australian marine brown alga, Sargassum paradoxum, resulted in the isolation and identification of four new (5, 9, 10, and 15) and nine previously reported (1, 2, 68, and 1114) bioactive meroditerpenoids. HPLC-NMR and HPLC-MS were central to the identification of a new unstable compound, sargahydroquinal (9), and pivotal in the deconvolution of eight (1, 2, 57, and 1012) other meroditerpenoids. In particular, the complete characterization and identification of the two main constituents (1 and 2) in the crude dichloromethane extract was achieved using stop-flow HPLC-NMR and HPLC-MS. This study resulted in the first acquisition of gHMBCAD NMR spectra in the stop-flow HPLC-NMR mode for a system solely equipped with a 60 μL HPLC-NMR flow cell without the use of a cold probe, microcoil, or any pre-concentration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle New Ikarugamycin Derivatives with Antifungal and Antibacterial Properties from Streptomyces zhaozhouensis
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 128-140; doi:10.3390/md13010128
Received: 13 November 2014 / Accepted: 16 December 2014 / Published: 29 December 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (619 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A bioassay guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract from culture broths of the strain Streptomyces zhaozhouensis CA-185989 led to the isolation of three new polycyclic tetramic acid macrolactams (13) and four known compounds. All the new compounds were
[...] Read more.
A bioassay guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract from culture broths of the strain Streptomyces zhaozhouensis CA-185989 led to the isolation of three new polycyclic tetramic acid macrolactams (13) and four known compounds. All the new compounds were structurally related to the known Streptomyces metabolite ikarugamycin (4). Their structural elucidation was accomplished using a combination of electrospray-time of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF MS) and 1D and 2D NMR analyses. Compounds 13 showed antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Microbes)
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Open AccessArticle Does the Use of Chitosan Contribute to Oxalate Kidney Stone Formation?
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 141-158; doi:10.3390/md13010141
Received: 19 June 2014 / Accepted: 30 October 2014 / Published: 29 December 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (886 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chitosan is widely used in the biomedical field due its chemical and pharmacological properties. However, intake of chitosan results in renal tissue accumulation of chitosan and promotes an increase in calcium excretion. On the other hand, the effect of chitosan on the formation
[...] Read more.
Chitosan is widely used in the biomedical field due its chemical and pharmacological properties. However, intake of chitosan results in renal tissue accumulation of chitosan and promotes an increase in calcium excretion. On the other hand, the effect of chitosan on the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (CaOx) has not been described. In this work, we evaluated the antioxidant capacity of chitosan and its interference in the formation of CaOx crystals in vitro. Here, the chitosan obtained commercially had its identity confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy. In several tests, this chitosan showed low or no antioxidant activity. However, it also showed excellent copper-chelating activity. In vitro, chitosan acted as an inducer mainly of monohydrate CaOx crystal formation, which is more prevalent in patients with urolithiasis. We also observed that chitosan modifies the morphology and size of these crystals, as well as changes the surface charge of the crystals, making them even more positive, which can facilitate the interaction of these crystals with renal cells. Chitosan greatly influences the formation of crystals in vitro, and in vivo analyses should be conducted to assess the risk of using chitosan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Marine Chitin and Chitosan) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Total Synthesis of Gobiusxanthin Stereoisomers and Their Application to Determination of Absolute Configurations of Natural Products: Revision of Reported Absolute Configuration of Epigobiusxanthin
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 159-172; doi:10.3390/md13010159
Received: 4 December 2014 / Accepted: 22 December 2014 / Published: 30 December 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (693 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
(3R)-Gobiusxanthin stereoisomers (1ad) were synthesized by stereoselective Wittig reaction of the (3R)-C15-acetylenic tri-n-butylphosphonium salt 7 with C25-apocarotenal stereoisomers 5a,b and 14a,b bearing four kinds of
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(3R)-Gobiusxanthin stereoisomers (1ad) were synthesized by stereoselective Wittig reaction of the (3R)-C15-acetylenic tri-n-butylphosphonium salt 7 with C25-apocarotenal stereoisomers 5a,b and 14a,b bearing four kinds of 3,6-dihydroxy-ε-end groups. The validity of the reported stereochemistry of gobiusxanthin was demonstrated by the fact that the reported spectral data of natural gobiusxanthin were in agreement with those of synthetic (3R,3'S,6'R)-gobiusxanthin (1a). On the other hand, the reported CD spectral data of natural epigobiusxanthin, which has been assigned as (3R,3'R,6'R)-isomer (3'-epigobiusxanthin), were identical with those of synthetic (3R,3'S,6'S)-isomer 1d (6'-epigobiusxanthin) rather than those of the corresponding synthetic 3'-epi-isomer 1b. It was found that the stereochemistry at C3-position has little effect on the shape of their CD spectra. Thus, in order to reinforce the validity of the absolute configurations at C3-position of natural specimens, (3S,3'S,6'R)- and (3S,3'S,6'S)-stereoisomers 1e and 1f were also synthesized and a HPLC analytical method for four stereoisomers was established by using a column carrying a chiral stationary phase. The HPLC analysis has proven that the stereochemistry of the natural epigobiusxanthin is 3R,3'S,6'S. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Enantiopure Reversed Structured Ether Lipids of the 1-O-Alkyl-sn-2,3-diacylglycerol Type
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 173-201; doi:10.3390/md13010173
Received: 22 October 2014 / Accepted: 17 December 2014 / Published: 7 January 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (640 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This report describes the synthesis of reversed structured 1-O-alkyl-2,3-diacyl-sn-glycerols (DAGEs) possessing a pure saturated even number fatty acid (C6:0–C16:0) at the sn-2 position along with a pure EPA or DHA located at the terminal sn-3 position of
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This report describes the synthesis of reversed structured 1-O-alkyl-2,3-diacyl-sn-glycerols (DAGEs) possessing a pure saturated even number fatty acid (C6:0–C16:0) at the sn-2 position along with a pure EPA or DHA located at the terminal sn-3 position of the glycerol backbone of chimyl, batyl and selachyl alcohols. These adducts were synthesized by a highly efficient two-step chemoenzymatic process involving an immobilized Candida antarctica lipase to introduce pure EPA and DHA activated as oxime esters exclusively to the sn-3 terminal position of enantiopure chimyl, batyl and selachyl alcohols in excellent yields. The saturated fatty acids were subsequently incorporated to the remaining sn-2 position of the resulting 3-monoacylglyceryl ethers (3-MAGEs) using EDAC coupling agent in the presence of DMAP in very high to excellent yields (85%–98%). No losses of enantiomeric composition were observed during these processes. The multiple utilities of the resulting focused library of reversed structured DAGEs are discussed including how such compounds may possibly be utilized within the pharmaceutical area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis around Marine Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Statistical Research on the Bioactivity of New Marine Natural Products Discovered during the 28 Years from 1985 to 2012
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 202-221; doi:10.3390/md13010202
Received: 25 September 2014 / Accepted: 22 December 2014 / Published: 7 January 2015
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (1100 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Every year, hundreds of new compounds are discovered from the metabolites of marine organisms. Finding new and useful compounds is one of the crucial drivers for this field of research. Here we describe the statistics of bioactive compounds discovered from marine organisms from
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Every year, hundreds of new compounds are discovered from the metabolites of marine organisms. Finding new and useful compounds is one of the crucial drivers for this field of research. Here we describe the statistics of bioactive compounds discovered from marine organisms from 1985 to 2012. This work is based on our database, which contains information on more than 15,000 chemical substances including 4196 bioactive marine natural products. We performed a comprehensive statistical analysis to understand the characteristics of the novel bioactive compounds and detail temporal trends, chemical structures, species distribution, and research progress. We hope this meta-analysis will provide useful information for research into the bioactivity of marine natural products and drug development. Full article
Open AccessArticle Chitosan in Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery: Focus on Local Vaginal Therapy
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 222-236; doi:10.3390/md13010222
Received: 30 October 2014 / Accepted: 25 December 2014 / Published: 7 January 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (393 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mucoadhesive drug therapy destined for localized drug treatment is gaining increasing importance in today’s drug development. Chitosan, due to its known biodegradability, bioadhesiveness and excellent safety profile offers means to improve mucosal drug therapy. We have used chitosan as mucoadhesive polymer to develop
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Mucoadhesive drug therapy destined for localized drug treatment is gaining increasing importance in today’s drug development. Chitosan, due to its known biodegradability, bioadhesiveness and excellent safety profile offers means to improve mucosal drug therapy. We have used chitosan as mucoadhesive polymer to develop liposomes able to ensure prolonged residence time at vaginal site. Two types of mucoadhesive liposomes, namely the chitosan-coated liposomes and chitosan-containing liposomes, where chitosan is both embedded and surface-available, were made of soy phosphatidylcholine with entrapped fluorescence markers of two molecular weights, FITC-dextran 4000 and 20,000, respectively. Both liposomal types were characterized for their size distribution, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and the in vitro release profile, and compared to plain liposomes. The proof of chitosan being both surface-available as well as embedded into the liposomes in the chitosan-containing liposomes was found. The capability of the surface-available chitosan to interact with the model porcine mucin was confirmed for both chitosan-containing and chitosan-coated liposomes implying potential mucoadhesive behavior. Chitosan-containing liposomes were shown to be superior in respect to the simplicity of preparation, FITC-dextran load, mucoadhesiveness and in vitro release and are expected to ensure prolonged residence time on the vaginal mucosa providing localized sustained release of entrapped model substances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Marine Chitin and Chitosan) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle New Meroterpenoids from the Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus flavipes AIL8 Derived from the Mangrove Plant Acanthus ilicifolius
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 237-248; doi:10.3390/md13010237
Received: 26 August 2014 / Accepted: 22 December 2014 / Published: 7 January 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (603 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Four new meroterpenoids (25), along with three known analogues (1, 6, and 7) were isolated from mangrove plant Acanthus ilicifolius derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavipes. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by NMR and
[...] Read more.
Four new meroterpenoids (25), along with three known analogues (1, 6, and 7) were isolated from mangrove plant Acanthus ilicifolius derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavipes. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS analysis, the configurations were assigned by CD data, and the stereochemistry of 1 was confirmed by X-ray crystallography analysis. A possible biogenetic pathway of compounds 17 was also proposed. All compounds were evaluated for antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Terpenoids of Marine Origin)
Open AccessArticle LC-MS-Based Metabolomics Study of Marine Bacterial Secondary Metabolite and Antibiotic Production in Salinispora arenicola
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 249-266; doi:10.3390/md13010249
Received: 26 September 2014 / Accepted: 29 December 2014 / Published: 7 January 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2855 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
An LC-MS-based metabolomics approach was used to characterise the variation in secondary metabolite production due to changes in the salt content of the growth media as well as across different growth periods (incubation times). We used metabolomics as a tool to investigate the
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An LC-MS-based metabolomics approach was used to characterise the variation in secondary metabolite production due to changes in the salt content of the growth media as well as across different growth periods (incubation times). We used metabolomics as a tool to investigate the production of rifamycins (antibiotics) and other secondary metabolites in the obligate marine actinobacterial species Salinispora arenicola, isolated from Great Barrier Reef (GBR) sponges, at two defined salt concentrations and over three different incubation periods. The results indicated that a 14 day incubation period is optimal for the maximum production of rifamycin B, whereas rifamycin S and W achieve their maximum concentration at 29 days. A “chemical profile” link between the days of incubation and the salt concentration of the growth medium was shown to exist and reliably represents a critical point for selection of growth medium and harvest time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics - Applications in Marine Natural Products Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Penicibrocazines A–E, Five New Sulfide Diketopiperazines from the Marine-Derived Endophytic Fungus Penicillium brocae
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 276-287; doi:10.3390/md13010276
Received: 6 December 2014 / Accepted: 25 December 2014 / Published: 7 January 2015
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (771 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Five new sulfide diketopiperazine derivatives, namely, penicibrocazines A–E (15), along with a known congener (6), were isolated and identified from the culture extract of Penicillium brocae MA-231, an endophytic fungus obtained from the fresh tissue of the
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Five new sulfide diketopiperazine derivatives, namely, penicibrocazines A–E (15), along with a known congener (6), were isolated and identified from the culture extract of Penicillium brocae MA-231, an endophytic fungus obtained from the fresh tissue of the marine mangrove plant Avicennia marina. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by detailed interpretation of NMR and mass spectroscopic data and the structures of compounds 1 and 3 were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All these compounds were examined for cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities. Compounds 26 exhibited antimicrobial activity against some of the tested strains with MIC values ranging from 0.25 to 64 μg/mL. Full article
Open AccessArticle Araguspongine C Induces Autophagic Death in Breast Cancer Cells through Suppression of c-Met and HER2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 288-311; doi:10.3390/md13010288
Received: 13 November 2014 / Accepted: 25 December 2014 / Published: 8 January 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1410 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Receptor tyrosine kinases are key regulators of cellular growth and proliferation. Dysregulations of receptor tyrosine kinases in cancer cells may promote tumorigenesis by multiple mechanisms including enhanced cell survival and inhibition of cell death. Araguspongines represent a group of macrocyclic oxaquinolizidine alkaloids isolated
[...] Read more.
Receptor tyrosine kinases are key regulators of cellular growth and proliferation. Dysregulations of receptor tyrosine kinases in cancer cells may promote tumorigenesis by multiple mechanisms including enhanced cell survival and inhibition of cell death. Araguspongines represent a group of macrocyclic oxaquinolizidine alkaloids isolated from the marine sponge Xestospongia species. This study evaluated the anticancer activity of the known oxaquinolizidine alkaloids araguspongines A, C, K and L, and xestospongin B against breast cancer cells. Araguspongine C inhibited the proliferation of multiple breast cancer cell lines in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, araguspongine C-induced autophagic cell death in HER2-overexpressing BT-474 breast cancer cells was characterized by vacuole formation and upregulation of autophagy markers including LC3A/B, Atg3, Atg7, and Atg16L. Araguspongine C-induced autophagy was associated with suppression of c-Met and HER2 receptor tyrosine kinase activation. Further in-silico docking studies and cell-free Z-LYTE assays indicated the potential of direct interaction between araguspongine C and the receptor tyrosine kinases c-Met and HER2 at their kinase domains. Remarkably, araguspongine C treatment resulted in the suppression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling cascade in breast cancer cells undergoing autophagy. Induction of autophagic death in BT-474 cells was also associated with decreased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor upon treatment with effective concentration of araguspongine C. In conclusion, results of this study are the first to reveal the potential of araguspongine C as an inhibitor to receptor tyrosine kinases resulting in the induction of autophagic cell death in breast cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Compounds and Cancer) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Preparation of Photocrosslinked Fish Elastin Polypeptide/Microfibrillated Cellulose Composite Gels with Elastic Properties for Biomaterial Applications
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 338-353; doi:10.3390/md13010338
Received: 14 November 2014 / Accepted: 26 December 2014 / Published: 9 January 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1418 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Photocrosslinked hydrogels reinforced by microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) were prepared from a methacrylate-functionalized fish elastin polypeptide and MFC dispersed in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). First, a water-soluble elastin peptide with a molecular weight of ca. 500 g/mol from the fish bulbus arteriosus was polymerized by N
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Photocrosslinked hydrogels reinforced by microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) were prepared from a methacrylate-functionalized fish elastin polypeptide and MFC dispersed in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). First, a water-soluble elastin peptide with a molecular weight of ca. 500 g/mol from the fish bulbus arteriosus was polymerized by N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC), a condensation reagent, and then modified with 2-isocyanatoethyl methacrylate (MOI) to yield a photocrosslinkable fish elastin polypeptide. The product was dissolved in DMSO and irradiated with UV light in the presence of a radical photoinitiator. We obtained hydrogels successfully by substitution of DMSO with water. The composite gel with MFC was prepared by UV irradiation of the photocrosslinkable elastin polypeptide mixed with dispersed MFC in DMSO, followed by substitution of DMSO with water. The tensile test of the composite gels revealed that the addition of MFC improved the tensile properties, and the shape of the stress–strain curve of the composite gel became more similar to the typical shape of an elastic material with an increase of MFC content. The rheology measurement showed that the elastic modulus of the composite gel increased with an increase of MFC content. The cell proliferation test on the composite gel showed no toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Preparative Separation of Sulfur-Containing Diketopiperazines from Marine Fungus Cladosporium sp. Using High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography in Stepwise Elution Mode
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 354-365; doi:10.3390/md13010354
Received: 14 October 2014 / Accepted: 1 January 2015 / Published: 9 January 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (804 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successively applied to the separation of three sulfur-containing diketopiperazines (DKPs) (including two new compounds cladosporin A (1) and cladosporin B (3), and a known compound haematocin (2)) from a marine fungus Cladosporium
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High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successively applied to the separation of three sulfur-containing diketopiperazines (DKPs) (including two new compounds cladosporin A (1) and cladosporin B (3), and a known compound haematocin (2)) from a marine fungus Cladosporium sp. The two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at (1:1:1:1, v/v) and (2:1:2:1, v/v), in stepwise elution mode, was used for HSCCC. The preparative HSCCC separation was performed on 300 mg of crude sample yielding 26.7 mg of compound 3 at a purity of over 95%, 53.6 mg of a mixture of compounds 1 and 2, which was further separated by preparative-HPLC yielding 14.3 mg of compound 1 and 25.4 mg of compound 2 each at a purity of over 95%. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods. The sulfur-containing DKPs suppressed the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. The present work represents the first application of HSCCC in the efficient preparation of marine fungal natural products. Full article
Open AccessArticle Asperlones A and B, Dinaphthalenone Derivatives from a Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus sp. 16-5C
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 366-378; doi:10.3390/md13010366
Received: 26 November 2014 / Accepted: 23 December 2014 / Published: 13 January 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (710 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Racemic dinaphthalenone derivatives, (±)-asperlone A (1) and (±)-asperlone B (2), and two new azaphilones, 6′-hydroxy-(R)-mitorubrinic acid (3) and purpurquinone D (4), along with four known compounds, (−)-mitorubrinic acid (5), (−)-mitorubrin (
[...] Read more.
Racemic dinaphthalenone derivatives, (±)-asperlone A (1) and (±)-asperlone B (2), and two new azaphilones, 6′-hydroxy-(R)-mitorubrinic acid (3) and purpurquinone D (4), along with four known compounds, (−)-mitorubrinic acid (5), (−)-mitorubrin (6), purpurquinone A (7) and orsellinic acid (8), were isolated from the cultures of Aspergillus sp. 16-5C. The structures were elucidated using comprehensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR spectra and the structures of 1 further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, while the absolute configuration of 3 and 4 were determined by comparing their optical rotation and CD with those of the literature, respectively. Compounds 1, 2 and 6 exhibited potent inhibitory effects against Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein tyrosine phosphatase B (MptpB) with IC50 values of 4.24 ± 0.41, 4.32 ± 0.60 and 3.99 ± 0.34 μM, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Microbes)
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Open AccessArticle Combination of Trabectedin and Gemcitabine for Advanced Soft Tissue Sarcomas: Results of a Phase I Dose Escalating Trial of the German Interdisciplinary Sarcoma Group (GISG)
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 379-388; doi:10.3390/md13010379
Received: 26 November 2014 / Accepted: 24 December 2014 / Published: 13 January 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (380 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Evaluation of the potential efficacy and safety of combination therapies for advanced soft tissue sarcomas (STS) has increased substantially after approval of trabectedin and pazopanib. Trabectedin's introduction in Europe in 2007 depended mainly on its activity in so-called L-sarcomas (liposarcoma and leiomyosarcoma);
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Background: Evaluation of the potential efficacy and safety of combination therapies for advanced soft tissue sarcomas (STS) has increased substantially after approval of trabectedin and pazopanib. Trabectedin's introduction in Europe in 2007 depended mainly on its activity in so-called L-sarcomas (liposarcoma and leiomyosarcoma); combination of trabectedin with other chemotherapies used in STS seems of particular interest. Methods: We initiated within the German Interdisciplinary Sarcoma Group (GISG) a phase I dose escalating trial evaluating the combination of trabectedin and gemcitabine in patients with advanced and/or metastatic L-sarcomas (GISG-02; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01426633). Patients were treated with increasing doses of trabectedin and gemcitabine. The primary endpoint was to determine the maximum tolerated dose. Results: Five patients were included in the study. Two patients were treated on dose level 1 comprising trabectedin 0.9 mg/m2 on day 1 and gemcitabine 700 mg/m2 on days 1 + 8, every 3 weeks. Due to dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) in both patients (elevated transaminases and thrombocytopenia), an additional three patients were treated on dose level −1 with trabectedin 0.7 mg/m2 plus gemcitabine 700 mg/m2. Of these three patients, two demonstrated another DLT; therefore, the trial was stopped and none of the dose levels could be recommended for phase II testing. Conclusion: The GISG-02 phase I study was stopped with the conclusion that the combination of gemcitabine and trabectedin is generally not recommended for the treatment of patients with advanced and/or metastatic leiomyosarcoma or liposarcoma. Also, this phase I study strongly supports the necessity for careful evaluation of combination therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Compounds and Cancer) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Ophiobolin O Isolated from Aspergillus ustus Induces G1 Arrest of MCF-7 Cells through Interaction with AKT/GSK3β/Cyclin D1 Signaling
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 431-443; doi:10.3390/md13010431
Received: 9 May 2014 / Accepted: 26 November 2014 / Published: 16 January 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1174 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ophiobolin O is a member of ophiobolin family, which has been proved to be a potent anti-tumor drug candidate for human breast cancer. However, the anti-tumor effect and the mechanism of ophiobolin O remain unclear. In this study, we further verified ophiobolin O-induced
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Ophiobolin O is a member of ophiobolin family, which has been proved to be a potent anti-tumor drug candidate for human breast cancer. However, the anti-tumor effect and the mechanism of ophiobolin O remain unclear. In this study, we further verified ophiobolin O-induced G1 phase arrest in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, and found that ophiobolin O reduced the phosphorylation level of AKT and GSK3β, and induced down-regulation of cyclin D1. The inverse docking (INVDOCK) analysis indicated that ophiobolin O could bind to GSK3β, and GSK3β knockdown abolished cyclin D1 degradation and G1 phase arrest. Pre-treatment with phosphatase inhibitor sodium or thovanadate halted dephosphorylation of AKT and GSK3β, and blocked ophiobolin O-induced G1 phase arrest. These data suggest that ophiobolin O may induce G1 arrest in MCF-7 cells through interaction with AKT/GSK3β/cyclin D1 signaling. In vivo, ophiobolin O suppressed tumor growth and showed little toxicity in mouse xenograft models. Overall, these findings provide theoretical basis for the therapeutic use of ophiobolin O. Full article
Open AccessArticle Isolation and Assessment of the in Vitro Anti-Tumor Activity of Smenothiazole A and B, Chlorinated Thiazole-Containing Peptide/Polyketides from the Caribbean Sponge, Smenospongia aurea
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 444-459; doi:10.3390/md13010444
Received: 3 December 2014 / Accepted: 4 January 2015 / Published: 16 January 2015
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (877 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The study of the secondary metabolites contained in the organic extract of Caribbean sponge Smenospongia aurea led to the isolation of smenothiazole A (3) and B (4), hybrid peptide/polyketide compounds. Assays performed using four solid tumor cell lines showed
[...] Read more.
The study of the secondary metabolites contained in the organic extract of Caribbean sponge Smenospongia aurea led to the isolation of smenothiazole A (3) and B (4), hybrid peptide/polyketide compounds. Assays performed using four solid tumor cell lines showed that smenothiazoles exert a potent cytotoxic activity at nanomolar levels, with selectivity over ovarian cancer cells and a pro-apoptotic mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Secondary Metabolites)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Antiproliferative Activity of Thiazolyl-bis-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridines and Indolyl-thiazolyl-pyrrolo[2,3-c]pyridines, Nortopsentin Analogues
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 460-492; doi:10.3390/md13010460
Received: 14 November 2014 / Accepted: 4 January 2015 / Published: 16 January 2015
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (983 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two new series of nortopsentin analogues, in which the imidazole ring of the natural product was replaced by thiazole and indole units were both substituted by 7-azaindole moieties or one indole unit was replaced by a 6-azaindole portion, were efficiently synthesized. Compounds belonging
[...] Read more.
Two new series of nortopsentin analogues, in which the imidazole ring of the natural product was replaced by thiazole and indole units were both substituted by 7-azaindole moieties or one indole unit was replaced by a 6-azaindole portion, were efficiently synthesized. Compounds belonging to both series inhibited the growth of HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells at low micromolar concentrations, whereas they did not affect the viability of normal-like intestinal cells. A compound of the former series induced apoptosis, evident as externalization of plasma membrane phosphatidylserine (PS), and changes of mitochondrial trans-membrane potential, while blocking the cell cycle in G2/M phase. In contrast, a derivative of the latter series elicited distinct responses in accordance with the dose. Thus, low concentrations (GI30) induced morphological changes characteristic of autophagic death with massive formation of cytoplasmic acid vacuoles without apparent loss of nuclear material, and with arrest of cell cycle at the G1 phase, whereas higher concentrations (GI70) induced apoptosis with arrest of cell cycle at the G1 phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis around Marine Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Identification of a 4-Deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose Uronic Acid Reductase, FlRed, in an Alginolytic Bacterium Flavobacterium sp. Strain UMI-01
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 493-508; doi:10.3390/md13010493
Received: 12 November 2014 / Accepted: 4 January 2015 / Published: 16 January 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1484 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In alginate-assimilating bacteria, alginate is depolymerized to unsaturated monosaccharide by the actions of endolytic and exolytic alginate lyases (EC 4.2.2.3 and EC 4.2.2.11). The monosaccharide is non-enzymatically converted to 4-deoxy-l-ery thro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH), then reduced to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate (KDG) by a specific reductase,
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In alginate-assimilating bacteria, alginate is depolymerized to unsaturated monosaccharide by the actions of endolytic and exolytic alginate lyases (EC 4.2.2.3 and EC 4.2.2.11). The monosaccharide is non-enzymatically converted to 4-deoxy-l-ery thro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH), then reduced to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate (KDG) by a specific reductase, and metabolized through the Entner–Doudoroff pathway. Recently, the NADPH-dependent reductase A1-R that belongs to short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) superfamily was identified as the DEH-reductase in Sphingomonas sp. A1. We have subsequently noticed that an SDR-like enzyme gene, flred, occurred in the genome of an alginolytic bacterium Flavobacterium sp. strain UMI-01. In the present study, we report on the deduced amino-acid sequence of flred and DEH-reducing activity of recombinant FlRed. The deduced amino-acid sequence of flred comprised 254 residues and showed 34% amino-acid identities to that of A1-R from Sphingomonas sp. A1 and 80%–88% to those of SDR-like enzymes from several alginolytic bacteria. Common sequence motifs of SDR-superfamily enzymes, e.g., the catalytic tetrad Asn-Lys-Tyr-Ser and the cofactor-binding sequence Thr-Gly-x-x-x-Gly-x-Gly in Rossmann fold, were completely conserved in FlRed. On the other hand, an Arg residue that determined the NADPH-specificity of Sphingomonas A1-R was replaced by Glu in FlRed. Thus, we investigated cofactor-preference of FlRed using a recombinant enzyme. As a result, the recombinant FlRed (recFlRed) was found to show high specificity to NADH. recFlRed exhibited practically no activity toward variety of aldehyde, ketone, keto ester, keto acid and aldose substrates except for DEH. On the basis of these results, we conclude that FlRed is the NADH-dependent DEH-specific SDR of Flavobacterium sp. strain UMI-01. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Chemistry Approach to Marine Products)
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Open AccessArticle Profiling of the Molecular Weight and Structural Isomer Abundance of Macroalgae-Derived Phlorotannins
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 509-528; doi:10.3390/md13010509
Received: 30 June 2014 / Accepted: 21 November 2014 / Published: 16 January 2015
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (1012 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phlorotannins are a group of complex polymers of phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene) unique to macroalgae. These phenolic compounds are integral structural components of the cell wall in brown algae, but also play many secondary ecological roles such as protection from UV radiation and defense against
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Phlorotannins are a group of complex polymers of phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene) unique to macroalgae. These phenolic compounds are integral structural components of the cell wall in brown algae, but also play many secondary ecological roles such as protection from UV radiation and defense against grazing. This study employed Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) with tandem mass spectrometry to investigate isomeric complexity and observed differences in phlorotannins derived from macroalgae harvested off the Irish coast (Fucus serratus, Fucus vesiculosus, Himanthalia elongata and Cystoseira nodicaulis). Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content assays were used as an index for producing phlorotannin fractions, enriched using molecular weight cut-off dialysis with subsequent flash chromatography to profile phlorotannin isomers in these macroalgae. These fractions were profiled using UPLC-MS with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and the level of isomerization for specific molecular weight phlorotannins between 3 and 16 monomers were determined. The majority of the low molecular weight (LMW) phlorotannins were found to have a molecular weight range equivalent to 4–12 monomers of phloroglucinol. The level of isomerization within the individual macroalgal species differed, resulting in substantially different numbers of phlorotannin isomers for particular molecular weights. F. vesiculosus had the highest number of isomers of 61 at one specific molecular mass, corresponding to 12 phloroglucinol units (PGUs). These results highlight the complex nature of these extracts and emphasize the challenges involved in structural elucidation of these compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics - Applications in Marine Natural Products Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Development of Highly Selective Kv1.3-Blocking Peptides Based on the Sea Anemone Peptide ShK
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 529-542; doi:10.3390/md13010529
Received: 12 November 2014 / Accepted: 7 January 2015 / Published: 16 January 2015
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1285 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
ShK, from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, is a 35-residue disulfide-rich peptide that blocks the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 at ca. 10 pM and the related channel Kv1.1 at ca. 16 pM. We developed an analog of this peptide, ShK-186, which is
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ShK, from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, is a 35-residue disulfide-rich peptide that blocks the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 at ca. 10 pM and the related channel Kv1.1 at ca. 16 pM. We developed an analog of this peptide, ShK-186, which is currently in Phase 1b-2a clinical trials for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. While ShK-186 displays a >100-fold improvement in selectivity for Kv1.3 over Kv1.1 compared with ShK, there is considerable interest in developing peptides with an even greater selectivity ratio. In this report, we describe several variants of ShK that incorporate p-phophono-phenylalanine at the N-terminus coupled with internal substitutions at Gln16 and Met21. In addition, we also explored the combinatorial effects of these internal substitutions with an alanine extension at the C-terminus. Their selectivity was determined by patch-clamp electrophysiology on Kv1.3 and Kv1.1 channels stably expressed in mouse fibroblasts. The peptides with an alanine extension blocked Kv1.3 at low pM concentrations and exhibited up to 2250-fold selectivity for Kv1.3 over Kv1.1. Analogs that incorporates p-phosphono-phenylalanine at the N-terminus blocked Kv1.3 with IC50s in the low pM range and did not affect Kv1.1 at concentrations up to 100 nM, displaying a selectivity enhancement of >10,000-fold for Kv1.3 over Kv1.1. Other potentially important Kv channels such as Kv1.4 and Kv1.6 were only partially blocked at 100 nM concentrations of each of the ShK analogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis around Marine Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Activation of p53 with Ilimaquinone and Ethylsmenoquinone, Marine Sponge Metabolites, Induces Apoptosis and Autophagy in Colon Cancer Cells
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 543-557; doi:10.3390/md13010543
Received: 16 November 2014 / Accepted: 7 January 2015 / Published: 16 January 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1815 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The tumor suppressor, p53, plays an essential role in the cellular response to stress through regulating the expression of genes involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and autophagy. Here, we used a cell-based reporter system for the detection of p53 response transcription to
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The tumor suppressor, p53, plays an essential role in the cellular response to stress through regulating the expression of genes involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and autophagy. Here, we used a cell-based reporter system for the detection of p53 response transcription to identify the marine sponge metabolites, ilimaquinone and ethylsmenoquinone, as activators of the p53 pathway. We demonstrated that ilimaquinone and ethylsmenoquinone efficiently stabilize the p53 protein through promotion of p53 phosphorylation at Ser15 in both HCT116 and RKO colon cancer cells. Moreover, both compounds upregulate the expression of p21WAF1/CIP1, a p53-dependent gene, and suppress proliferation of colon cancer cells. In addition, ilimaquinone and ethylsmenoquinone induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and increased caspase-3 cleavage and the population of cells that positively stained with Annexin V-FITC, both of which are typical biochemical markers of apoptosis. Furthermore, autophagy was elicited by both compounds, as indicated by microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) puncta formations and LC3-II turnover in HCT116 cells. Our findings suggest that ilimaquinone and ethylsmenoquinone exert their anti-cancer activity by activation of the p53 pathway and may have significant potential as chemo-preventive and therapeutic agents for human colon cancer. Full article
Open AccessArticle Enzyme-Assisted Extraction of Bioactive Material from Chondrus crispus and Codium fragile and Its Effect on Herpes simplex Virus (HSV-1)
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 558-580; doi:10.3390/md13010558
Received: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 4 January 2015 / Published: 16 January 2015
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (747 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Codium fragile and Chondrus crispus are, respectively, green and red seaweeds which are abundant along the North Atlantic coasts. We investigated the chemical composition and antiviral activity of enzymatic extracts of C. fragile (CF) and C. crispus (CC). On a dry weight basis,
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Codium fragile and Chondrus crispus are, respectively, green and red seaweeds which are abundant along the North Atlantic coasts. We investigated the chemical composition and antiviral activity of enzymatic extracts of C. fragile (CF) and C. crispus (CC). On a dry weight basis, CF consisted of 11% protein, 31% neutral sugars, 0.8% sulfate, 0.6% uronic acids, and 49% ash, while CC contained 27% protein, 28% neutral sugars, 17% sulfate, 1.8% uronic acids, and 25% ash. Enzyme-assisted hydrolysis improved the extraction efficiency of bioactive materials. Commercial proteases and carbohydrases significantly improved (p ≤ 0.001) biomass yield (40%–70% dry matter) as compared to aqueous extraction (20%–25% dry matter). Moreover, enzymatic hydrolysis enhanced the recovery of protein, neutral sugars, uronic acids, and sulfates. The enzymatic hydrolysates exhibited significant activity against Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) with EC50 of 77.6–126.8 μg/mL for CC and 36.5–41.3 μg/mL for CF, at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.001 ID50/cells without cytotoxity (1–200 μg/mL). The extracts obtained from proteases (P1) and carbohydrases (C3) were also effective at higher virus MOI of 0.01 ID50/cells without cytotoxity. Taken together, these results indicate the potential application of enzymatic hydrolysates of C. fragile and C. crispus in functional food and antiviral drug discovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)
Open AccessArticle Biosynthesis of Akaeolide and Lorneic Acids and Annotation of Type I Polyketide Synthase Gene Clusters in the Genome of Streptomyces sp. NPS554
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 581-596; doi:10.3390/md13010581
Received: 3 December 2014 / Accepted: 9 January 2015 / Published: 16 January 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (968 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The incorporation pattern of biosynthetic precursors into two structurally unique polyketides, akaeolide and lorneic acid A, was elucidated by feeding experiments with 13C-labeled precursors. In addition, the draft genome sequence of the producer, Streptomyces sp. NPS554, was performed and the biosynthetic gene
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The incorporation pattern of biosynthetic precursors into two structurally unique polyketides, akaeolide and lorneic acid A, was elucidated by feeding experiments with 13C-labeled precursors. In addition, the draft genome sequence of the producer, Streptomyces sp. NPS554, was performed and the biosynthetic gene clusters for these polyketides were identified. The putative gene clusters contain all the polyketide synthase (PKS) domains necessary for assembly of the carbon skeletons. Combined with the 13C-labeling results, gene function prediction enabled us to propose biosynthetic pathways involving unusual carbon-carbon bond formation reactions. Genome analysis also indicated the presence of at least ten orphan type I PKS gene clusters that might be responsible for the production of new polyketides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Microbes)
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Open AccessArticle Structure Elucidation of New Acetylated Saponins, Lessoniosides A, B, C, D, and E, and Non-Acetylated Saponins, Lessoniosides F and G, from the Viscera of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 597-617; doi:10.3390/md13010597
Received: 8 August 2014 / Accepted: 1 January 2015 / Published: 16 January 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1473 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Sea cucumbers produce numerous compounds with a wide range of chemical structural diversity. Among these, saponins are the most diverse and include sulfated, non-sulfated, acetylated and methylated congeners with different aglycone and sugar moieties. In this study, MALDI and ESI tandem mass spectrometry,
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Sea cucumbers produce numerous compounds with a wide range of chemical structural diversity. Among these, saponins are the most diverse and include sulfated, non-sulfated, acetylated and methylated congeners with different aglycone and sugar moieties. In this study, MALDI and ESI tandem mass spectrometry, in the positive ion mode, were used to elucidate the structure of new saponins extracted from the viscera of H. lessoni. Fragmentation of the aglycone provided structural information on the presence of the acetyl group. The presence of the O-acetyl group was confirmed by observing the mass transition of 60 u corresponding to the loss of a molecule of acetic acid. Ion fingerprints from the glycosidic cleavage provided information on the mass of the aglycone (core), and the sequence and type of monosaccharides that constitute the sugar moiety. The tandem mass spectra of the saponin precursor ions [M + Na]+ provided a wealth of detailed structural information on the glycosidic bond cleavages. As a result, and in conjunction with existing literature, we characterized the structure of five new acetylated saponins, Lessoniosides A–E, along with two non-acetylated saponins Lessoniosides F and G at m/z 1477.7, which are promising candidates for future drug development. The presented strategy allows a rapid, reliable and complete analysis of native saponins. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of New Marine Alkaloid-Derived Pentacyclic Structures with Anti-Tumoral Potency
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 655-665; doi:10.3390/md13010655
Received: 4 November 2014 / Revised: 10 December 2014 / Accepted: 9 January 2015 / Published: 19 January 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (460 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work describes the synthesis and biological evaluation of a new heterocyclic hybrid derived from the ellipticine and the marine alkaloid makaluvamine A. Pyridoquinoxalinedione 12 was obtained in seven steps with 6.5% overall yield. 12 and its intermediates 111 were evaluated
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This work describes the synthesis and biological evaluation of a new heterocyclic hybrid derived from the ellipticine and the marine alkaloid makaluvamine A. Pyridoquinoxalinedione 12 was obtained in seven steps with 6.5% overall yield. 12 and its intermediates 111 were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against different cancer cell lines and tested for their inhibitory activity against the human DNA topoisomerase II. The analysis by electrophoresis shows that the pentacycle 12 inhibits the topoisomerase II like doxorubicine at 100 µM. Compound 9 was found to have an interesting profile, having a cytotoxicity of 15, 15, 15 and 10 μM against Caco-2, HCT-116, Pc-3 and NCI cell lines respectively, without any noticeable toxicity against human fibroblast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis around Marine Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Marine Structure Derived Calcium Phosphate–Polymer Biocomposites for Local Antibiotic Delivery
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 666-680; doi:10.3390/md13010666
Received: 13 November 2014 / Accepted: 12 January 2015 / Published: 20 January 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1103 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite (HAp) particles loaded with medically active substances were used to develop polylactic acid (PLA) thin film composites for slow drug delivery systems. The effects of HAp particles within PLA matrix on the gentamicin (GM) release and release kinetics were
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Hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite (HAp) particles loaded with medically active substances were used to develop polylactic acid (PLA) thin film composites for slow drug delivery systems. The effects of HAp particles within PLA matrix on the gentamicin (GM) release and release kinetics were studied. The gentamicin release kinetics seemed to follow Power law Korsmeyer Peppas model with mainly diffusional process with a number of different drug transport mechanisms. Statistical analysis shows very significant difference on the release of gentamicin between GM containing PLA (PLAGM) and GM containing HAp microspheres within PLA matrix (PLAHApGM) devices, which PLAHApGM displays lower release rates. The use of HAp particles improved drug stabilization and higher drug encapsulation efficiency of the carrier. HAp is also the source of Ca2+ for the regeneration and repair of diseased bone tissue. The release profiles, exhibited a steady state release rate with significant antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (SH1000) even at high concentration of bacteria. The devices also indicated significant ability to control the growth of bacterial even after four weeks of drug release. Clinical release profiles can be easily tuned from drug-HAp physicochemical interactions and degradation kinetics of polymer matrix. The developed systems could be applied to prevent microbial adhesion to medical implant surfaces and to treat infections mainly caused by S. aureus in surgery. Full article
Open AccessArticle Squid Pen Chitin Chitooligomers as Food Colorants Absorbers
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 681-696; doi:10.3390/md13010681
Received: 28 August 2014 / Accepted: 9 January 2015 / Published: 20 January 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (544 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One of the most promising applications of chitosanase is the conversion of chitinous biowaste into bioactive chitooligomers (COS). TKU033 chitosanase was induced from squid pen powder (SPP)-containing Bacillus cereus TKU033 medium and purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatography. The enzyme was
[...] Read more.
One of the most promising applications of chitosanase is the conversion of chitinous biowaste into bioactive chitooligomers (COS). TKU033 chitosanase was induced from squid pen powder (SPP)-containing Bacillus cereus TKU033 medium and purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatography. The enzyme was relatively more thermostable in the presence of the substrate and had an activity of 93% at 50 °C in a pH 5 buffer solution for 60 min. Furthermore, the enzyme used for the COS preparation was also studied. The enzyme products revealed various mixtures of COS that with different degrees of polymerization (DP), ranging from three to nine. In the culture medium, the fermented SPP was recovered, and it displayed a better adsorption rate (up to 96%) for the disperse dyes than the water-soluble food colorants, Allura Red AC (R40) and Tartrazne (Y4). Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopic (FT-IR) analysis proved that the adsorption of the dyes onto fermented SPP was a physical adsorption. Results also showed that fermented SPP was a favorable adsorber and could be employed as low-cost alternative for dye removal in wastewater treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Marine Chitin and Chitosan) Printed Edition available

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Open AccessReview Recent Modifications of Chitosan for Adsorption Applications: A Critical and Systematic Review
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 312-337; doi:10.3390/md13010312
Received: 9 November 2014 / Accepted: 30 December 2014 / Published: 9 January 2015
Cited by 65 | PDF Full-text (1308 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chitosan is considered to be one of the most promising and applicable materials in adsorption applications. The existence of amino and hydroxyl groups in its molecules contributes to many possible adsorption interactions between chitosan and pollutants (dyes, metals, ions, phenols, pharmaceuticals/drugs, pesticides, herbicides,
[...] Read more.
Chitosan is considered to be one of the most promising and applicable materials in adsorption applications. The existence of amino and hydroxyl groups in its molecules contributes to many possible adsorption interactions between chitosan and pollutants (dyes, metals, ions, phenols, pharmaceuticals/drugs, pesticides, herbicides, etc.). These functional groups can help in establishing positions for modification. Based on the learning from previously published works in literature, researchers have achieved a modification of chitosan with a number of different functional groups. This work summarizes the published works of the last three years (2012–2014) regarding the modification reactions of chitosans (grafting, cross-linking, etc.) and their application to adsorption of different environmental pollutants (in liquid-phase). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Marine Chitin and Chitosan) Printed Edition available
Open AccessReview Magnetotactic Bacteria as Potential Sources of Bioproducts
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 389-430; doi:10.3390/md13010389
Received: 28 August 2014 / Accepted: 17 December 2014 / Published: 16 January 2015
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (1690 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) produce intracellular organelles called magnetosomes which are magnetic nanoparticles composed of magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) enveloped by a lipid bilayer. The synthesis of a magnetosome is through a genetically controlled process
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Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) produce intracellular organelles called magnetosomes which are magnetic nanoparticles composed of magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) enveloped by a lipid bilayer. The synthesis of a magnetosome is through a genetically controlled process in which the bacterium has control over the composition, direction of crystal growth, and the size and shape of the mineral crystal. As a result of this control, magnetosomes have narrow and uniform size ranges, relatively specific magnetic and crystalline properties, and an enveloping biological membrane. These features are not observed in magnetic particles produced abiotically and thus magnetosomes are of great interest in biotechnology. Most currently described MTB have been isolated from saline or brackish environments and the availability of their genomes has contributed to a better understanding and culturing of these fastidious microorganisms. Moreover, genome sequences have allowed researchers to study genes related to magnetosome production for the synthesis of magnetic particles for use in future commercial and medical applications. Here, we review the current information on the biology of MTB and apply, for the first time, a genome mining strategy on these microorganisms to search for secondary metabolite synthesis genes. More specifically, we discovered that the genome of the cultured MTB Magnetovibrio blakemorei, among other MTB, contains several metabolic pathways for the synthesis of secondary metabolites and other compounds, thereby raising the possibility of the co-production of new bioactive molecules along with magnetosomes by this species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Biomaterials)
Open AccessReview Marine Peptides and Their Anti-Infective Activities
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 618-654; doi:10.3390/md13010618
Received: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 1 January 2015 / Published: 16 January 2015
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (1268 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marine bioresources are a valuable source of bioactive compounds with industrial and nutraceutical potential. Numerous clinical trials evaluating novel chemotherapeutic agents derived from marine sources have revealed novel mechanisms of action. Recently, marine-derived bioactive peptides have attracted attention owing to their numerous beneficial
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Marine bioresources are a valuable source of bioactive compounds with industrial and nutraceutical potential. Numerous clinical trials evaluating novel chemotherapeutic agents derived from marine sources have revealed novel mechanisms of action. Recently, marine-derived bioactive peptides have attracted attention owing to their numerous beneficial effects. Moreover, several studies have reported that marine peptides exhibit various anti-infective activities, such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, anti-tuberculosis, and antiviral activities. In the last several decades, studies of marine plants, animals, and microbes have revealed tremendous number of structurally diverse and bioactive secondary metabolites. However, the treatments available for many infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses are limited. Thus, the identification of novel antimicrobial peptides should be continued, and all possible strategies should be explored. In this review, we will present the structures and anti-infective activity of peptides isolated from marine sources (sponges, algae, bacteria, fungi and fish) from 2006 to the present. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-infective Agents)

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