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Molecules, Volume 8, Issue 1 (January 2003), Pages 1-222

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review, Other

Open AccessEditorial Special Issue: Selected Papers from the International Symposium on Frontiers in Molecular Science (ISFMS 2002)
Molecules 2003, 8(1), 1; doi:10.3390/80100001
Received: 1 January 2003 / Published: 22 January 2003
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (17 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Open AccessEditorial Editorial Note: Paper by Wroczynski et al.
Molecules 2003, 8(1), 85; doi:10.3390/80100085
Received: 1 January 2003 / Published: 31 January 2003
PDF Full-text (14 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Alcohol Synthesis over Pre-Reduced Activated Carbon-Supported Molybdenum-Based Catalysts
Molecules 2003, 8(1), 13-30; doi:10.3390/80100013
Received: 1 January 2003 / Published: 31 January 2003
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (389 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Activated carbon (AC)-supported molybdenum catalysts, either with or without a potassium promoter, were prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method. The materials were characterized using differential thermal analysis (DTA) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR), and were used for mixed alcohol synthesis from syngas
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Activated carbon (AC)-supported molybdenum catalysts, either with or without a potassium promoter, were prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method. The materials were characterized using differential thermal analysis (DTA) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR), and were used for mixed alcohol synthesis from syngas (CO+H2). DTA results showed that a new phase, related to the interaction between Mo species and the AC support, is formed during the calcination of the Mo/AC catalyst, and the introduction of a K promoter has noticeable effect on the interaction. TPR results indicated that the Mo is more difficult to reduce after being placed onto the AC support, and the addition of a K promoter greatly promotes the formation of Mo species reducible at relatively low temperatures, while it retards the generation of Mo species that are reducible only at higher temperatures. These differences in the reduction behavior of the catalysts are atributed to the interaction between the active components (Mo and K) and the support. Potassium-doping significantly promotes the formation of alcohols at the expense of CO conversion, especially to hydrocarbons. It is postulated that Mo species with intermediate valence values (averaged around +3.5) are more likely to be the active phase(s) for alcohol synthesis from CO hydrogenation, while those with lower Mo valences are probably responsible for the production of hydrocarbons. Full article
Open AccessArticle An EXAFS Study on the Local Structure Around Iron in Atmospheric Aerosols Collected in the Qingdao Area
Molecules 2003, 8(1), 31-39; doi:10.3390/80100031
Received: 1 January 2003 / Published: 31 January 2003
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (136 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The existing forms of Fe are of great interest since they have a profound effect on the biological availability of Fe. In this work, aerosol samples collected in different seasons and at different locations in the Qingdao region were examined by means of
[...] Read more.
The existing forms of Fe are of great interest since they have a profound effect on the biological availability of Fe. In this work, aerosol samples collected in different seasons and at different locations in the Qingdao region were examined by means of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) K-edge analysis of Fe, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fe content analysis. The results showed that an iron ion in aerosol particles is surrounded on average by 5.8 (coordinated) O ions. For the six samples examined, the coordination number of the first Fe-O coordination subshell is always 3 with a coordination distance (with O) in the range of 1.952~1.966±0.002 Å, while the coordination number of the second subshell varies from 2.2 to 3.0 with a coordination distance of 2.108±0.002 Å. The coordination is approximately consistent with that of a-Fe2O3, suggesting that iron in aerosol samples is mainly present in the form of a-Fe2O3. The fact that the coordination number in the second subshell is smaller than that of a-Fe2O3 might be an indication that there is a small amount of FeO mixed with a-Fe2O3 in aerosol particles. Existence of FeO is confirmed by a later XRD experiment. Full article
Open AccessArticle Sonochemical Degradation Kinetics of Methyl Violet in Aqueous Solutions
Molecules 2003, 8(1), 40-44; doi:10.3390/80100040
Received: 1 January 2003 / Published: 31 January 2003
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (93 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The sonochemical degradation in aqueous solution of methyl violet, chosen as a model of a basic dye, was studied. The ultrasonic degradation kinetics in water were found to be first-order and the degradation rate coefficient is 1.35×10-2 min-1 (R= 0.9934, n=8)
[...] Read more.
The sonochemical degradation in aqueous solution of methyl violet, chosen as a model of a basic dye, was studied. The ultrasonic degradation kinetics in water were found to be first-order and the degradation rate coefficient is 1.35×10-2 min-1 (R= 0.9934, n=8) at 20±1°C. The influence of the initial concentrations, reaction temperature and the pH of medium on the ultrasonic decomposition of methyl violet were also investigated. Full article
Open AccessArticle Preparation and Characterization of Double Metal Cyanide Complex Catalysts
Molecules 2003, 8(1), 67-73; doi:10.3390/80100067
Received: 1 January 2003 / Published: 31 January 2003
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (455 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of double metal cyanide (DMC) complex catalysts were prepared in two different methods by using ß-cyclodextrin, PEG-1000 and Tween-60 as an additional complex ligands respectively. It was showed that a mixture of crystalline and amorphous DMC was synthesized by using traditional
[...] Read more.
A series of double metal cyanide (DMC) complex catalysts were prepared in two different methods by using ß-cyclodextrin, PEG-1000 and Tween-60 as an additional complex ligands respectively. It was showed that a mixture of crystalline and amorphous DMC was synthesized by using traditional method in which the additional complex ligand was added after the precipitation of DMC. Amorphous and dispersed DMC with higher activity could be obtained when the additional complex ligand was added in the reactant solution before reaction. The effect of additional complex ligand and preparation method on the crystalline state and catalytic property of DMC were also investigated. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Method for Synthesizing Partially Substituted Cucurbit[n]uril
Molecules 2003, 8(1), 74-84; doi:10.3390/80100074
Received: 1 January 2003 / Published: 31 January 2003
Cited by 68 | PDF Full-text (178 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel approach to cucurbituril synthesis is described where partial substitution is introduced into cucurbit[n]uril. The identification of homologues (and their substitution) in reaction mixtures is achieved by a combination of ESMS and the use of the molecular probes (guests) 1,4-dioxane
[...] Read more.
A novel approach to cucurbituril synthesis is described where partial substitution is introduced into cucurbit[n]uril. The identification of homologues (and their substitution) in reaction mixtures is achieved by a combination of ESMS and the use of the molecular probes (guests) 1,4-dioxane and 1,9-octanediamine. A unique symmetrical hexamethylcucurbit[3,3]uril, the major product, was isolated and characterized. Full article
Open AccessArticle Atomic Force Microscope Imaging of the Aggregation of Mouse Immunoglobulin G Molecules
Molecules 2003, 8(1), 86-91; doi:10.3390/80100086
Received: 1 January 2003 / Published: 31 January 2003
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (204 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mouse immunoglobulin G (Ig G1 and the mixture of Ig G1 and Ig G2) deposited on mica were imaged with an atomic force microscope at room temperature and ambient pressure. At a concentration around 1.0mg/L, the molecules were well dispersed. 2~3 days after
[...] Read more.
Mouse immunoglobulin G (Ig G1 and the mixture of Ig G1 and Ig G2) deposited on mica were imaged with an atomic force microscope at room temperature and ambient pressure. At a concentration around 1.0mg/L, the molecules were well dispersed. 2~3 days after sample preparation, both Ig G1 and the mixture could self- assemble into different shapes and further form some types of local-ordered toroidal aggregations (monotoroidal, intercrossed toroidal, concentric toroidal, etc.). The number of monomers was not identical in the different toroidal aggregations but in a same circle, the shapes of polymer self-assembled by several monomolecules were found to be almost the same. There was difference between the aggregation behavior of Ig G1 and the mixture. The mechanism of Ig G molecule aggregation was ascribed to the “Y” shape and loops structure of Ig G molecule. Full article
Open AccessArticle Sub-Doppler Spectroscopy by Use of Microwave Sidebands of CO2 Laser Lines Applied to the C-O Stretching Fundamental Band of Methanol
Molecules 2003, 8(1), 92-102; doi:10.3390/80100092
Received: 1 January 2003 / Published: 31 January 2003
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (247 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microwave sidebands of CO2 laser lines were used as an infrared source in infrared microwave double resonance spectroscopy and infrared saturation spectroscopy to study the C -O stretching fundamental band of methanol. In the former application, rotational lines in the vCO
[...] Read more.
Microwave sidebands of CO2 laser lines were used as an infrared source in infrared microwave double resonance spectroscopy and infrared saturation spectroscopy to study the C -O stretching fundamental band of methanol. In the former application, rotational lines in the vCO = 1 state have been observed with good signal to noise ratios and physical processes involved in this method have been discussed. In the latter method, (vt, A/E, K) = (2, A, 4) sequence transitions in the C-O stretching fundamental band have been identified and term values for the (2, A, 4) levels in the vCO = 1 state have been determined. Full article
Open AccessArticle Microwave Spectrum of the Ethylmethyl Ether Molecule
Molecules 2003, 8(1), 103-119; doi:10.3390/80100103
Received: 1 January 2003 / Published: 31 January 2003
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (87 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have observed rotational transitions of ethylmethyl ether (CH3CH2OCH3) in the 24-110 GHz frequency range. We newly assigned the transitions of four Q-branch series for J=1-38 with Ka=0-5 and six R-branch series of b-type transitions for J=7-37
[...] Read more.
We have observed rotational transitions of ethylmethyl ether (CH3CH2OCH3) in the 24-110 GHz frequency range. We newly assigned the transitions of four Q-branch series for J=1-38 with Ka=0-5 and six R-branch series of b-type transitions for J=7-37 with Ka=0-3. All these assigned transitions were observed to be split into two or four components due to the internal rotations of the methyl groups. We analyzed the averaged frequencies of the split components on the basis of the Watson A-reduced Hamiltonian, neglecting the effect of the internal rotations. A total of 122 transitions were fitted to eight molecular parameters to a 1s standard deviation of 24 kHz. The parameters A, B, C and DJ were improved, and DJK, Dk, dJ and dK were determined for the first time. Full article
Open AccessArticle A New Potent Route of DNA Vaccine Inoculation: DNA-Liposome Complexes on Bare Skin Induce Antigen-Special Antibody Responses
Molecules 2003, 8(1), 120-126; doi:10.3390/80100120
Received: 1 January 2003 / Published: 31 January 2003
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (37 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Transcutaneous immunization is a novel strategy for genetic vaccine immunization to induce detectable antigen-special antibody in humor and mucosal. In this study, plasmid expressing hepatitis B surface antigen (pGFP-HBsAg) was encapsulated in liposome, then DNA- liposome complexes were glued on bare skin of
[...] Read more.
Transcutaneous immunization is a novel strategy for genetic vaccine immunization to induce detectable antigen-special antibody in humor and mucosal. In this study, plasmid expressing hepatitis B surface antigen (pGFP-HBsAg) was encapsulated in liposome, then DNA- liposome complexes were glued on bare skin of mice ear in different dosage (50μg, 10μg and 1μg). As control, DNA- liposome complexes of pGFP-HBsAg and pGFP vector were inoculated intraperitoneally. The anti-HBsAg antibodies of serum were detected weekly by ELISA. It was found that the detectable antibodies of transcutaneous immunized mouse were elicited after four weeks, and reached a maximum at the sixth week. Even 1μg plasmid DNA in liposomes through immune skin can elicit the highest ELISA antibody titer (> 1:512) in test group, and corresponding percentage of positive response is up to 71% at sixth week, but higher amounts of plasmid DNA (50μg DNA per mice) on immune skin cannot induce higher antibody levels. The result showed that DNA- liposome complexes glued on bare skin appear to be a novel method for the administration of DNA vaccines. Full article
Open AccessArticle Analysis of Rotational Transitions of Methyl Formate in the Ground and First Excited Torsional States
Molecules 2003, 8(1), 139-145; doi:10.3390/80100139
Received: 1 January 2003 / Published: 31 January 2003
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (65 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The microwave spectrum of methyl formate has been observed in the 7-200 GHz region, and new 437 lines have been assigned to the first excited A torsional substate. Both excited state lines and ground state lines reported previously were analyzed simultaneously on the
[...] Read more.
The microwave spectrum of methyl formate has been observed in the 7-200 GHz region, and new 437 lines have been assigned to the first excited A torsional substate. Both excited state lines and ground state lines reported previously were analyzed simultaneously on the basis of an internal axis method Hamiltonian. A total of 3514 lines were fitted to a 10th-order reduced Hamiltonian model involving 67 molecular parameters to a 1s standard deviation of 179 kHz. Full article
Open AccessArticle Hepatic Mitochondrial Redox Potential in Patients with Liver Metastatic Cancers and Circulatory Insufficiency
Molecules 2003, 8(1), 146-152; doi:10.3390/80100146
Received: 1 January 2003 / Published: 31 January 2003
PDF Full-text (37 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Arterial ketone body ratio (AKBR), which reflects hepatic intramitochodrial redox potential, was measured in 20 patients with Carcinoma hepatis metastaticum and good circulatory condition (group A), and 16 patients with Carcinoma hepatis metastaticum and chronic cardiogenic circulatory insufficiency (group B). Total ketone body
[...] Read more.
Arterial ketone body ratio (AKBR), which reflects hepatic intramitochodrial redox potential, was measured in 20 patients with Carcinoma hepatis metastaticum and good circulatory condition (group A), and 16 patients with Carcinoma hepatis metastaticum and chronic cardiogenic circulatory insufficiency (group B). Total ketone body concentration (TKB) and arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) was simultaneously determined. We have stated that AKBR values in both groups of patients were decreased below the normal level. AKBR values in group B were significantly lower than in group A. At the same time TKB values in both groups were statistically equal and significantly increased above the normal level. The levels of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) in group A were physiologically high, whereas in group B were significantly decreased. Furthermore arterial oxygen tension of patients in group B correlated with AKBR values significantly. In group A we found statistically significant negative correlation between TKB and AKBR values. Our study indicate that the main mechanism which may explain the decrease of intrahepatic mitochondrial redox potential in patients with liver metastatic cancers and good circulatory condition, is the enhanced beta-oxidation of fatty acids, when the efficiency of NAD+ to NADH reduction in beta-oxidation pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle is higher than re-oxidation of NADH to NAD+ in the oxidative phosphorylation. In patients with coexisting chronic cardiogenic circulatory insufficiency deprivation of blood oxygen supply initiate the irreversible dysfunction of oxidative phosphorylation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Unimolecular Double-stranded DNA Microarrays on Solid Surfaces for Probing DNA-Protein/Drug Interactions
Molecules 2003, 8(1), 153-168; doi:10.3390/80100153
Received: 1 January 2003 / Published: 31 January 2003
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (551 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present a novel method for fabricating unimole cular double-stranded DNA microarrays on solid surfaces, which were used to probe sequence-specific DNA/protein interactions. For manufacturing the unimolecular double-stranded DNA microarrays, two kinds of special single-stranded oligonucleotides, constant oligonucleotide and target oligonucleotide, were chemically
[...] Read more.
We present a novel method for fabricating unimole cular double-stranded DNA microarrays on solid surfaces, which were used to probe sequence-specific DNA/protein interactions. For manufacturing the unimolecular double-stranded DNA microarrays, two kinds of special single-stranded oligonucleotides, constant oligonucleotide and target oligonucleotide, were chemically synthesized. The constant oligonucleotides with internal aminated dT were used to capture and immobilize the target oligonucleotides onto the solid surface, and also to provide a primer for later enzymatic extension reactions, while target oligonucleotides took the role of harbouring DNA-binding sites of DNA-binding proteins. The variant target oligonucleotides were annealed and ligated with the constant oligonucleotides to form the new unimolecular oligonucleotides for microspotting. The prepared unimolecular oligonucleotides were microspotted on aldehyde-derivatized glass slides to make partial-dsDNA microarrays. Finally, the partial-dsDNA microarrays were converted into a unimolecular complete-dsDNA microarray by a DNA polymerase extension reaction. The efficiency and accuracy of the polymerase synthesis were demonstrated by the fluorescent-labeled dUTP incorporation in the enzymatic extension reaction and the restriction endonuclease digestion of the fabricated unimolecular complete-dsDNA microarray. The accessibility and specificity of the sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins binding to the immobilized unimolecular dsDNA probes were demonstrated by the binding of Cy3 labeled NF-?B (p50·p50) to the unimolecular dsDNA microarray. This unimolecular dsDNA microarray provides a general technique for high-throughput DNA-protein or DNA-drugs interactions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Valence Topological Charge-Transfer Indices for Dipole Moments
Molecules 2003, 8(1), 169-185; doi:10.3390/80100169
Received: 1 January 2003 / Published: 31 January 2003
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (87 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
New valence topological charge-transfer indices are applied to the calculation of dipole moments. The algebraic and vector semisum charge-transfer indices are defined. The combination of the charge-transfer indices allows the estimation of the dipole moments. The model is generalized for molecules with heteroatoms.
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New valence topological charge-transfer indices are applied to the calculation of dipole moments. The algebraic and vector semisum charge-transfer indices are defined. The combination of the charge-transfer indices allows the estimation of the dipole moments. The model is generalized for molecules with heteroatoms. The ability of the indices for the description of the molecular charge distribution is established by comparing them with the dipole moments of a homologous series of phenyl alcohols. Linear and non-linear correlation models are obtained. The new charge-transfer indices improve the multivariable non-linear regression equations for the dipole moment. When comparing with previous results, the variance decreases 92%. No superposition of the corresponding Gk–Jk and GkV – JkV pairs is observed. This diminishes the risk of co-linearity. Inclusion of the oxygen atom in the p-electron system is beneficial for the description of the dipole moment, owing to either the role of the additional p orbitals provided by the heteroatom or the role of steric factors in the p-electron conjugation. Linear and non-linear correlations between the fractal dimension and various descriptors point not only to a homogeneous molecular structure but also to the ability to predict and tailor drug properties. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Bioactivity of a-Aminophosphonates Containing Fluorine
Molecules 2003, 8(1), 186-192; doi:10.3390/80100186
Received: 1 January 2003 / Published: 31 January 2003
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Twenty-one a-aminophosphonates containing fluorine were synthesized by Mannich-type reactions. Their structures were established by elemental analysis, IR, 1H- NMR and MS. In field tests, some of these new compounds display high antiviral activity against the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The molecular geometry
[...] Read more.
Twenty-one a-aminophosphonates containing fluorine were synthesized by Mannich-type reactions. Their structures were established by elemental analysis, IR, 1H- NMR and MS. In field tests, some of these new compounds display high antiviral activity against the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The molecular geometry of compound 4f was determined by X-ray diffraction structure analysis. Full article
Open AccessArticle Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Nanochannel Flows at Low Reynolds Numbers
Molecules 2003, 8(1), 193-206; doi:10.3390/80100193
Received: 1 January 2003 / Published: 31 January 2003
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (166 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study nanochannel flows at low Reynolds numbers and present some new interesting results. We investigated a simple fluid flowing through channels of different shapes at the nano level. The Weeks-Chandler-Anderson potentials with different
[...] Read more.
In this paper we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study nanochannel flows at low Reynolds numbers and present some new interesting results. We investigated a simple fluid flowing through channels of different shapes at the nano level. The Weeks-Chandler-Anderson potentials with different interaction strength factors are adopted for the interaction forces between fluid -fluid and fluid -wall molecules. In order to keep the temperature at the required level, a Gaussian thermostat is employed in our MD simulations. Comparing velocities and other flow parameters obtained from the MD simulations with those predicted by the classical Navier-Stokes equations at same Reynolds numbers, we find that both results agree with each other qualitatively in the central area of a nanochannel. However, large deviation usually exists in areas far from the core. For certain complex nanochannel flow geometry, the MD simulations reveal the generation and development of nano-size vortices due to the large momenta of molecules in the near-wall region while the traditional Navier-Stokes equations with the non-slip boundary condition at low Reynolds numbers cannot predict the similar phenomena. It is shown that although the Navier-Stokes equations are still partially valid, they fail to give whole details for nanochannel flows. Full article
Open AccessArticle Spectroscopic and Theoretical Studies of Quantum and Electronic Confinement Effects in Nanostructured Materials
Molecules 2003, 8(1), 207-222; doi:10.3390/80100207
Received: 1 January 2003 / Published: 31 January 2003
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanostructured materials have become the central subject of materials research during the last decade in the past 20th century owing to the novel electronic, optical, and catalytic properties observed in such materials. The unusual properties of these nanostructured materials can be attributed to
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Nanostructured materials have become the central subject of materials research during the last decade in the past 20th century owing to the novel electronic, optical, and catalytic properties observed in such materials. The unusual properties of these nanostructured materials can be attributed to two main microscopic effects: quantum confinement and electronic confinement. These two effects have dominated the variations of molecular properties in a wide variety of nanostructured materials, ranging from inorganic compounds to organic molecules. The recent advances have focused on host-guest complex systems that have resulted in a deeper understanding of the changes in electronic structures when being confined. In this article we cover some of the key advances in the study of quantum and electronic confinement effects, especially in host-guest systems. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview The Chemistry of Isocyanides, their MultiComponent Reactions and their Libraries
Molecules 2003, 8(1), 53-66; doi:10.3390/80100053
Received: 1 January 2003 / Published: 31 January 2003
Cited by 198 | PDF Full-text (85 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The first century of isocyanide chemistry, which was then still a rather empty part of Organic Chemistry, began in 1859. In 1958 isocyanides became generally available by dehydration the formylamines. One year later the four component reaction of isocyanides (U-4CR) was introduced. This
[...] Read more.
The first century of isocyanide chemistry, which was then still a rather empty part of Organic Chemistry, began in 1859. In 1958 isocyanides became generally available by dehydration the formylamines. One year later the four component reaction of isocyanides (U-4CR) was introduced. This one-pot reaction is accomplished just by mixing amines, carbonyl compounds, suitable acids and isocyanides. Most chemical reactions have their own ”scope and limitation”, whereas the U-4CR can convert almost all combinations of educts into their products. Until 1995 this chemistry was moderately used, but since then a new era of the U-4CR and its unions with further reactions have become increasingly popular, particularly as libraries. In industry this chemistry became one of its most often used methods of finding new desirable products. In contrast to most other areas of chemistry, isocyanide chemistry is not yet exhausted and still much progress can be expected there. Full article

Other

Jump to: Editorial, Research, Review

Open AccessOther The Societal Obligations of Universities
Molecules 2003, 8(1), 2-12; doi:10.3390/80100002
Received: 1 January 2003 / Published: 31 January 2003
PDF Full-text (45 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The questions I will discuss in my lecture are not specific to China, but rather apply to any country on the globe. They concern the relation between the academic community and society. Naturally, much of the hope for a better future is directed
[...] Read more.
The questions I will discuss in my lecture are not specific to China, but rather apply to any country on the globe. They concern the relation between the academic community and society. Naturally, much of the hope for a better future is directed towards the sciences which provide the foundation for prosperous industries and for a higher standard of living. Without advanced and competitive science, nothing functions in any country, and adequate science support will be essential also for a healthy development of China. [...] Full article
Open AccessOther Novel Easy Preparations of Some Aromatic Iodine(I, III, and V) Reagents, Widely Applied in Modern Organic Synthesis
Molecules 2003, 8(1), 45-52; doi:10.3390/80100045
Received: 1 January 2003 / Published: 31 January 2003
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (44 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report our novel (or considerably improved) methods for the synthesis of aromatic iodides, (dichloroiodo)arenes, (diacetoxyiodo)arenes, [bis(trifluoroacetoxy)-iodo]arenes, iodylarenes and diaryliodonium salts, as well as some facile, oxidative anion metatheses in crude diaryliodonium or tetraalkylammonium halides and, for comparison, potassium halides. All our formerly
[...] Read more.
We report our novel (or considerably improved) methods for the synthesis of aromatic iodides, (dichloroiodo)arenes, (diacetoxyiodo)arenes, [bis(trifluoroacetoxy)-iodo]arenes, iodylarenes and diaryliodonium salts, as well as some facile, oxidative anion metatheses in crude diaryliodonium or tetraalkylammonium halides and, for comparison, potassium halides. All our formerly published papers were discussed and explained in our review “Organic Iodine(I, III, and V) Chemistry: 10 Years of Development at the Medical University of Warsaw, Poland” (1990-2000) [1]. Our newest results are discussed below. Full article
Open AccessOther An Exploration of Dynamics of the Moving Mechanism of the Growth Cone
Molecules 2003, 8(1), 127-138; doi:10.3390/80100127
Received: 1 January 2003 / Published: 31 January 2003
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (115 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A stochastic, nonlinear dynamic model is proposed to explain the growth cone at the tip of a cell process, such as a growing axon or dendrite of a neuron. The model explains the outward motion of the tip as an extension of the
[...] Read more.
A stochastic, nonlinear dynamic model is proposed to explain the growth cone at the tip of a cell process, such as a growing axon or dendrite of a neuron. The model explains the outward motion of the tip as an extension of the cytoskeleton, using the actin- myosin system as a molecular motor. The kinetic energy is supplied by heat from ATP hydrolysis in the form of random motion of water molecules embedding the actin- myosin. The mechanical structure is provided by the F-actin macromolecules forming a spiral filament. The myosin heads form a stochastic distribution of small spheres. They are attached by elastic springs to the spiral rods of the myosin filaments. Under thermal agitation the system sustains oscillation, which is directed by the interaction between the myosin heads and the actin filament. As the energy of oscillation is dissipated, the actin filament is moved toward the center of the growth cone. The joint probability density of movement of the actin filament is obtained by solving a non-stationary version of the FPK equation. By incorporating a probability distribution of actin filaments provided by the geometry of the tip, the directed motion of the tip is explained. Full article

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