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Special Issue "Impact of the Insect Microbiome on Arbovirus Transmission"

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A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Insect Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 March 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Professor Robert B. Tesh (Website)

Department of Pathology, Center for Tropical Diseases, and Institute for Human Infection and Immunity, 301 University Blvd, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
Interests: epidemiology, pathogenesis and natural history of arthropod-borne and zoonotic viral diseases; isolation and characterization of novel vertebrate and arthropod viruses
Guest Editor
Dr. Bethany Bolling

Texas Department of State Health Services, Austin, TX, USA
Interests: virus–mosquito and virus–host interactions
Guest Editor
Professor Scott C. Weaver (Website)

Department of Pathology, Center for Tropical Diseases, and Institute for Human Infection and Immunity, 301 University Blvd, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
Interests: basic research on evolution and pathogenesis of arthropod-borne viruses; virus–mosquito and virus–host interactions and vaccine development
Guest Editor
Dr. Nikolaos Vasilakis (Website)

Department of Pathology, Center for Tropical Diseases, and Institute for Human Infection and Immunity, 301 University Blvd, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
Interests: evolution and pathogenesis of arthropod-borne viruses; virus–mosquito and virus–host interactions

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent studies have shown that the microbiome of insects can have important impacts on the infection of mosquitoes and other insects with pathogenic viruses. Microbes from different classes, including bacteria, fungi and viruses can impact the outcome of exposure of insects to arboviruses. In addition, over the past few years, development of new technologies has led to the discovery, identification and characterization of a large number of novel viruses in insects. Many of these viruses are insect-specific viruses that have a widespread geographic distribution and are isolated from a wide range of insect vectors capable of transmitting arthropod-borne viral diseases. Currently little is known about their mode of transmission and maintenance among their insect hosts in nature, their potential effect(s) on the susceptibility and vector competence of their host for viral pathogens of vertebrates (arboviruses) or their impact on their hosts’ behavior, fertility, fecundity and survival. The collection of reviews and original research papers in this special issue is intended to summarize and showcase current research on the impact of the microbiome on the outcome of arbovirus infection.

Please send a title and abstract by 1 May 2014 to the Assistant Editor, Ms. Sarah Shao (sarah.shao@mdpi.com).

Professor Robert B. Tesh
Dr. Bethany Bolling
Professor Scott C. Weaver
Dr. Nikolaos Vasilakis
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • vector microbiome
  • arbovirus
  • vector competence

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Potential for Co-Infection of a Mosquito-Specific Flavivirus, Nhumirim Virus, to Block West Nile Virus Transmission in Mosquitoes
Viruses 2015, 7(11), 5801-5812; doi:10.3390/v7112911
Received: 11 September 2015 / Revised: 28 October 2015 / Accepted: 3 November 2015 / Published: 11 November 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1999 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nhumirim virus (NHUV) is an insect-specific virus that phylogenetically affiliates with dual-host mosquito-borne flaviviruses. Previous in vitro co-infection experiments demonstrated prior or concurrent infection of Aedes albopictus C6/36 mosquito cells with NHUV resulted in a 10,000-fold reduction in viral production of West [...] Read more.
Nhumirim virus (NHUV) is an insect-specific virus that phylogenetically affiliates with dual-host mosquito-borne flaviviruses. Previous in vitro co-infection experiments demonstrated prior or concurrent infection of Aedes albopictus C6/36 mosquito cells with NHUV resulted in a 10,000-fold reduction in viral production of West Nile virus (WNV). This interference between WNV and NHUV was observed herein in an additional Ae. albopictus mosquito cell line, C7-10. A WNV 2K peptide (V9M) mutant capable of superinfection with a pre-established WNV infection demonstrated a comparable level of interference from NHUV as the parental WNV strain in C6/36 and C7-10 cells. Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens mosquitoes intrathoracically inoculated with NHUVandWNV, or solely withWNVas a control, were allowed to extrinsically incubate the viruses up to nine and 14 days, respectively, and transmissibility and replication of WNV was determined. The proportion of Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes capable of transmitting WNV was significantly lower for the WNV/NHUV group than the WNV control at seven and nine days post inoculation (dpi), while no differences were observed in the Cx. pipiens inoculation group. By dpi nine, a 40% reduction in transmissibility in mosquitoes from the dual inoculation group was observed compared to the WNV-only control. These data indicate the potential that infection of some Culex spp. vectors with NHUV could serve as a barrier for efficient transmissibility of flaviviruses associated with human disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of the Insect Microbiome on Arbovirus Transmission)
Open AccessArticle Exposure to West Nile Virus Increases Bacterial Diversity and Immune Gene Expression in Culex pipiens
Viruses 2015, 7(10), 5619-5631; doi:10.3390/v7102886
Received: 24 June 2015 / Revised: 23 September 2015 / Accepted: 15 October 2015 / Published: 27 October 2015
PDF Full-text (2057 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Complex interactions between microbial residents of mosquitoes and arboviruses are likely to influence many aspects of vectorial capacity and could potentially have profound effects on patterns of arbovirus transmission. Such interactions have not been well studied for West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, [...] Read more.
Complex interactions between microbial residents of mosquitoes and arboviruses are likely to influence many aspects of vectorial capacity and could potentially have profound effects on patterns of arbovirus transmission. Such interactions have not been well studied for West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) and Culex spp. mosquitoes. We utilized next-generation sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA bacterial genes derived from Culex pipiens Linnaeus following WNV exposure and/or infection and compared bacterial populations and broad immune responses to unexposed mosquitoes. Our results demonstrate that WNV infection increases the diversity of bacterial populations and is associated with up-regulation of classical invertebrate immune pathways including RNA interference (RNAi), Toll, and Jak-STAT (Janus kinase-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription). In addition, WNV exposure alone, without the establishment of infection, results in similar alterations to microbial and immune signatures, although to a lesser extent. Multiple bacterial genera were found in greater abundance inWNV-exposed and/or infected mosquitoes, yet the most consistent and notable was the genus Serratia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of the Insect Microbiome on Arbovirus Transmission)
Open AccessArticle Wolbachia Do Not Induce Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Immune Pathway Activation in Aedes albopictus
Viruses 2015, 7(8), 4624-4639; doi:10.3390/v7082836
Received: 7 May 2015 / Revised: 3 August 2015 / Accepted: 10 August 2015 / Published: 13 August 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (855 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aedes albopictus is a major vector of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses, causing millions of infections annually. It naturally carries, at high frequency, the intracellular inherited bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia strains wAlbA and wAlbB; transinfection with the higher-density Wolbachia strain wMel from [...] Read more.
Aedes albopictus is a major vector of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses, causing millions of infections annually. It naturally carries, at high frequency, the intracellular inherited bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia strains wAlbA and wAlbB; transinfection with the higher-density Wolbachia strain wMel from Drosophila melanogaster led to transmission blocking of both arboviruses. The hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced immune activation plays a role in arbovirus inhibition in this species was examined. In contrast to previous observations in Ae. aegypti, elevation of ROS levels was not observed in either cell lines or mosquito lines carrying the wild-type Wolbachia or higher-density Drosophila Wolbachia strains. There was also no upregulation of genes controlling innate immune pathways or with antioxidant/ROS-producing functions. These data suggest that ROS-mediated immune activation is not an important component of the viral transmission-blocking phenotype in this species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of the Insect Microbiome on Arbovirus Transmission)
Open AccessArticle Facilitation of Rice Stripe Virus Accumulation in the Insect Vector by Himetobi P Virus VP1
Viruses 2015, 7(3), 1492-1504; doi:10.3390/v7031492
Received: 14 December 2014 / Revised: 3 March 2015 / Accepted: 17 March 2015 / Published: 23 March 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (596 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The small brown planthopper (SBPH) is the main vector for rice stripe virus (RSV), which causes serious rice stripe disease in East Asia. To characterize the virus-vector interactions, the SBPH cDNA library was screened with RSV ribonucleoprotein (RNP) as bait using a [...] Read more.
The small brown planthopper (SBPH) is the main vector for rice stripe virus (RSV), which causes serious rice stripe disease in East Asia. To characterize the virus-vector interactions, the SBPH cDNA library was screened with RSV ribonucleoprotein (RNP) as bait using a GAL4-based yeast two-hybrid system. The interaction between RSV-RNP and the Himetobi P virus (HiPV, an insect picorna-like virus) VP1 protein was identified. The relationships between HiPV and RSV in SBPH were further investigated, and the results showed that the titer of RSV was commonly higher in single insect that exhibited more VP1 expression. After the VP1 gene was repressed by RNA silencing, the accumulation of RSV decreased significantly in the insect, whereas the virus acquisition ability of SBPH was unaffected, which suggests that HiPV VP1 potentially facilitates the accumulation of RSV in SBPH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of the Insect Microbiome on Arbovirus Transmission)

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview Insect-Specific Virus Discovery: Significance for the Arbovirus Community
Viruses 2015, 7(9), 4911-4928; doi:10.3390/v7092851
Received: 9 May 2015 / Revised: 31 July 2015 / Accepted: 31 July 2015 / Published: 10 September 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), especially those transmitted by mosquitoes, are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in humans and animals worldwide. Recent discoveries indicate that mosquitoes are naturally infected with a wide range of other viruses, many within taxa occupied by arboviruses [...] Read more.
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), especially those transmitted by mosquitoes, are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in humans and animals worldwide. Recent discoveries indicate that mosquitoes are naturally infected with a wide range of other viruses, many within taxa occupied by arboviruses that are considered insect-specific. Over the past ten years there has been a dramatic increase in the literature describing novel insect-specific virus detection in mosquitoes, which has provided new insights about viral diversity and evolution, including that of arboviruses. It has also raised questions about what effects the mosquito virome has on arbovirus transmission. Additionally, the discovery of these new viruses has generated interest in their potential use as biological control agents as well as novel vaccine platforms. The arbovirus community will benefit from the growing database of knowledge concerning these newly described viral endosymbionts, as their impacts will likely be far reaching. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of the Insect Microbiome on Arbovirus Transmission)
Open AccessReview The Insect Microbiome Modulates Vector Competence for Arboviruses
Viruses 2014, 6(11), 4294-4313; doi:10.3390/v6114294
Received: 28 August 2014 / Revised: 31 October 2014 / Accepted: 3 November 2014 / Published: 11 November 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (544 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diseases caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), such as Dengue, West Nile, and Chikungunya, constitute a major global health burden and are increasing in incidence and geographic range. The natural microbiota of insect vectors influences various aspects of host biology, such as nutrition, [...] Read more.
Diseases caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), such as Dengue, West Nile, and Chikungunya, constitute a major global health burden and are increasing in incidence and geographic range. The natural microbiota of insect vectors influences various aspects of host biology, such as nutrition, reproduction, metabolism, and immunity, and recent studies have highlighted the ability of insect-associated bacteria to reduce vector competence for arboviruses and other pathogens. This reduction can occur through mechanisms, such as immune response activation, resource competition, or the production of anti-viral molecules. Studying the interactions between insect vectors and their microbiota is an important step toward developing alternative strategies for arbovirus transmission control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of the Insect Microbiome on Arbovirus Transmission)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessShort Communication Genetic Characterization of Goutanap Virus, a Novel Virus Related to Negeviruses, Cileviruses and Higreviruses
Viruses 2014, 6(11), 4346-4357; doi:10.3390/v6114346
Received: 1 August 2014 / Revised: 28 October 2014 / Accepted: 3 November 2014 / Published: 12 November 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (701 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Pools of mosquitoes collected in Côte d’Ivoire and Mexico were tested for cytopathic effects on the mosquito cell line C6/36. Seven pools induced strong cytopathic effects after one to five days post infection and were further investigated by deep sequencing. The genomes [...] Read more.
Pools of mosquitoes collected in Côte d’Ivoire and Mexico were tested for cytopathic effects on the mosquito cell line C6/36. Seven pools induced strong cytopathic effects after one to five days post infection and were further investigated by deep sequencing. The genomes of six virus isolates from Côte d’Ivoire showed pairwise nucleotide identities of ~99% among each other and of 56%–60% to Dezidougou virus and Wallerfield virus, two insect-specific viruses belonging to the proposed new taxon Negevirus. The novel virus was tentatively named Goutanap virus. The isolate derived from the Mexican mosquitoes showed 95% pairwise identity to Piura virus and was suggested to be a strain of Piura virus, named C6.7-MX-2008. Phylogenetic inferences based on a concatenated alignment of the methyltransferase, helicase, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains showed that the new taxon Negevirus formed two monophyletic clades, named Nelorpivirus and Sandewavirus after the viruses grouping in these clades. Branch lengths separating these clades were equivalent to those of the related genera Cilevirus, Higrevirus and Blunervirus, as well as to those within the family Virgaviridae. Genetic distances and phylogenetic analyses suggest that Nelorpivirus and Sandewavirus might form taxonomic groups on genus level that may define alone or together with Cilevirus, Higrevirus and Blunervirus a viral family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of the Insect Microbiome on Arbovirus Transmission)

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