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Toxins 2015, 7(3), 791-811; doi:10.3390/toxins7030791

Effects of Increasing Concentrations of Sodium Sulfite on Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol Sulfonate Concentrations of Maize Kernels and Maize Meal Preserved at Various Moisture Content

1
Institute of Animal Nutrition, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI), Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany
2
Biomin Holding GmbH, Biomin Research Center, Technopark 1, 3430 Tulln, Austria
3
Christian Doppler Laboratory for Mycotoxin Metabolism and Center for Analytical Chemistry, Department for Agrobiotechnology (IFA-Tulln), University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad Lorenz Str. 20, 3430 Tulln, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Annie Pfohl-Leszkowicz
Received: 10 January 2015 / Revised: 5 February 2015 / Accepted: 28 February 2015 / Published: 9 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detoxification of Mycotoxins)
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Abstract

Under moderate climatic conditions, deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination occurs frequently on cereals. Detoxification measures are required to avoid adverse effects on farm animals. In the present study, a wet preservation method with sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) and propionic acid was tested to titrate the optimum Na2SO3-dose for maximum DON reduction of contaminated maize kernels and meal and to examine the interaction between dose and moisture content in dependence on the preservation duration. The DON concentration decreased with increasing amounts of supplemented Na2SO3 and with increasing duration of the preservation period in a bi-exponential fashion. Additionally, the feed structure and moisture content had a significant influence on the decontaminating effect. Variants with 30% moisture content favored higher DON reduction rates compared to 14% moisture, but especially at low moisture contents, DON reduction was more pronounced in maize kernels than in maize meal. In addition to the decrease of DON, a concomitant formation of three different DON sulfonates was observed which differed in their formation pattern over the time course of preservation. The overall results and statistical analysis clarified that Na2SO3 addition of 10 g/kg maize at 30% moisture for eight days was necessary to obtain a complete DON reduction. View Full-Text
Keywords: decontamination; deoxynivalenol; deoxynivalenol sulfonates; sodium sulfite; wet preservation; maize decontamination; deoxynivalenol; deoxynivalenol sulfonates; sodium sulfite; wet preservation; maize
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Paulick, M.; Rempe, I.; Kersten, S.; Schatzmayr, D.; Schwartz-Zimmermann, H.E.; Dänicke, S. Effects of Increasing Concentrations of Sodium Sulfite on Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol Sulfonate Concentrations of Maize Kernels and Maize Meal Preserved at Various Moisture Content. Toxins 2015, 7, 791-811.

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