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Sustainability 2016, 8(10), 989; doi:10.3390/su8100989

Energy Efficiency and Sustainability Evaluation of Space and Water Heating in Urban Residential Buildings of the Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone in China

1
Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Wind Generator and Its Control, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Xiangtan 411104, China
2
School of Architectural Engineering, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Xiangtan 411104, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Umberto Berardi
Received: 5 July 2016 / Revised: 22 September 2016 / Accepted: 27 September 2016 / Published: 30 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability Assessments of Buildings)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3206 KB, uploaded 30 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

With the urbanization process of the hot summer and cold winter (HSCW) zone in China, the energy consumption of space and water heating in urban residential buildings of the HSCW zone has increased rapidly. This study presents the energy efficiency and sustainability evaluation of various ways of space and water heating taking 10 typical cities in the HSCW zone as research cases. Two indicators, primary energy efficiency (PEE) and sustainability index based on exergy efficiency, are adopted to perform the evaluation. Models for the energy and total exergy efficiencies of various space and water heating equipment/systems are developed. The evaluation results indicate that common uses of electricity for space and water heating are the most unsustainable ways of space and water heating. In terms of PEE and sustainability index, air-source heat pumps for space and water heating are suitable for the HSCW zone. The PEE and sustainability index of solar water heaters with auxiliary electric heaters are greatly influenced by local solar resources. Air-source heat pump assisted solar hot water systems are the most sustainable among all water heating equipment/systems investigated in this study. Our works suggest the key potential for improving the energy efficiency and the sustainability of space and water heating in urban residential buildings of the HSCW zone. View Full-Text
Keywords: primary energy efficiency; sustainability index; exergy analysis; urban residential buildings; hot summer and cold winter zone primary energy efficiency; sustainability index; exergy analysis; urban residential buildings; hot summer and cold winter zone
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Chen, X.; Wen, Y.; Li, N. Energy Efficiency and Sustainability Evaluation of Space and Water Heating in Urban Residential Buildings of the Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone in China. Sustainability 2016, 8, 989.

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